Skip to main content

Full text of "Footprints of the red men. Indian geographical names in the valley of Hudson's river, the valley of the Mohawk, and on the Delaware: their location and the probable meaning of some of them"

See other formats


^*»'«i»?'-  --•--  -.^'-i-  .^J*-'  'I"* 


^T-J  ft 


•        -  .-V^«-    (It  «■•.«        ,       k       ■< 


y  3««r>'  '.I         X     B  « 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE 


New  York  State  Historical 
Association 

THE  SEVENTH  ANNUAL  MEETING, 

WITH  CONSTITUTION,  BY-LAWS 

AND  LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


PUBLISHED    BY  THE 

NEW  YORK  STATE    HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION 

1906 


r 


fMEWBURGH     JOURNAL.     PRINT. 


Gift 
The  Society 


NEW  YORK  STATE   HISTORICAL 
ASSOCIATION. 


President, 

Hon.  JAMES  A.  ROBERTS,  New  York. 

First  Vice-President, 

Hon.  GRENVILLE  M.  INGALSBE,  Sandy  Hill. 

Second  Vice-President, 

Dr.  SHERMAN  WILLIAMS,  Glens  Falls. 

Third  Vice-President, 
JOHN  BOULTON  SIMPSON,  Bolton. 

Treasurer, 

JAMES  A.  HOLDEN,  Glens  Falls. 

Secretary, 

ROBERT  O.  BASCOM,  Fort  Edward. 

Assistant    Secretary, 
FREDERICK  B.  RICHARDS,  Ticonderoga. 


TRUSTEES. 


Mr.  Asahel  R.  Wing,  Fort  Edward Terni  Expires  1906 

Mr.  Elmer  J.  West,  Glens  Falls "  1906 

Rev.  John  H.   Brandovv,  Schoharie "  1906 

Hon.  GrenviUe  M.  Ingalsbe,  Sandy  Hill "  1906 

Col  William  L.  Stone,  Mt.  Vernon "  1906 

Mr.  Morris  Patterson  Ferris,  New  York "  1906 

Hon.  George  G.  Benedict,  Burlington,  Vt "  1906 

Hon.  James  A.  Roberts,  New  York "  1907 

Col.  John  L.  Cunningliam,  Glens  Falls "  1907 

Mr.  James  A.  Hol'den,  Glens  Falls "  1907 

Mr.  John  Boiilton  Simpson,  BdHton "  1907 

Rev.  Dr.  C.  Ellis  Stevens,  New  York "  1907 

Dr.  Everett  R.  Sawyer,  Sandy  Hill "  1907 

Mr.  Elwyn  Sedye,  Lake  George. "  1907 

Mr.  Frederick  B.  Richards,  Ticonderoga "  1907 

Mr.  Ho^vland  Pell,  New  York "  1907 

Gen.  Henry  E.  Tremain,  New  York "  1908 

Mr.  William  Wait,  Kinderhook "  1908 

Dr.  Sherman  Williams,  Glens  Falls "  1908 

Mr.  Robert  O.  Bascom,  Fort  Edward "  1908 

Mr.  Francis  W.  Halsey,  New  York "  1908 

Mr.  Harry  W.  Watrous,  Hague "  1908 

Com.  John  W.  Moore,  Bolton  Landing "  1908 

Rev.  Dr.  Joseph  E,  King,  Fort  Edward "  1908 

Hon.  Hugh  Hastings,  Albany "  1908 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF  THE 

Seventh  Annual  Meeting  of  the  New  York  State  Historical 

Association,    held    August    22d,    1905,    at    the 

Court  House,  Lake  George,  N.  Y. 


At  the  Seventh  Annual  Meeting  of  the  New  York  State  His- 
torical Association,  held  at  Lake  George  on  the  226.  day  of  August, 
1905,  a  quorum  being  present,  the  President,  James  A.  Roberts, 
called  the  meeting  to  order,  whereupon  it  was  duly  moved,  second- 
ed and  carried,  that  the  reading  of  the  minutes  be  dispensed  with. 

The  report  of  the  Treasurer,  James  A.  Holden,  was  read  and 
adopted  after  having  been  approved  by  the  auditors.  Dr.  Joseph  E, 
King  and  the  Hon.  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe, 

It  was  further  moved,  seconded  and  carried,  that  the  annual 
publication  of  the  society  be  not  sent  to  those  members  who  are 
two  or  more  years  in  arrears  in  their  dues. 

Dr.  Sherman  Williams,  chairman  of  the  committee  on  historic 
spots,  reported  orally  that  arrangements  had  been  made  for  the 
erection  of  a  boulder  with  a  bronze  tablet  at  Half-Way  Brook,  and 
that  arrangements  were  in  progress  for  marking  other  spots  in  \!he 
vicinity  of  Lake  George.  The  report  was  accepted  and  the  com- 
mittee continued,  and  the  comtmittee  were  requested  to  make  a 
written  report  with  a  historic  sketch  relating  to  the  spots  marked 
and  proposed  to  be  marked,  which  report  together  with  a  cut  of 
the  tablets  erected  and  to  be  erected  shall  be  published  in  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  Association. 

Mr,  Harry  W.  Watrous,  chairman  of  the  committee  on  Fort 
Ticonderoga,  by  Mr.  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe  reported  progress. 


6  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Upon  the  suggestion  of  the  chairman  the  following  committee 
on  Fort  Ticonderoga  was  appointed  for  the  ensuing  year: 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  Watrous,  Mr.  John  Boulton  Simpson,  Mr.  Geo. 
O.  Knapp. 

The  committee  on   program   made   an  oral  report,   which   was 
adopted. 

A  vote  of  thanks  was  extended  to  Gen.  Tremain  for  his  very 
liberal  gift  to  the  Association  reported  by  the  treasurer, 

A  vote  of  thanks  was  extended  to  the  committee  on  program. 

The  following  new  members  were  elected: 

Alice  Brooks  Wyckoff,  Elmira,  N,  Y. 

Hon.  F.  W.  Hatch,  N.  Y.  City. 

Hon.  Albert  Haight,  Albany,  N.  Y. 

Hon.  John  Woodward,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  E.  B.  Hill,  49  Wall  Street,  N.  Y.  City. 

Rev.  Dr.  Thos.  B.  Slicer,  N.  Y.  City. 

Mr.  G.  C.  Lewis,  Albany,  N.  Y. 

Dr.  George  S.  Eveleth,  Little  Falls,  N.  Y. 

George  C.  Rowel'l,  8i  Chapel  Street,  Albany,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  James  F.  Smith,  So.  Hartford,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  George  Foster  Peabody,  Lake  George,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Grenville  H.  Ingalsbe,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  A.  N.  Richards,  Sandy  Hill,"  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Irwin  W.  Near,  Hornellsville,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Archibald  Stewart,  Derby,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Alvaro  D.  Arnold,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Richard  C.  Tefft,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  F.  D.  Howland,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  A.  W.  Abrams. 

Mr.  D.  M.  Alexander,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Philip  M.  Hull,  Clinton,  N.  Y. 

Addie  E.  Hatfield,  17  Linwood  Place,  Utica,  N.  Y. 

George  K.  Hawkins,  Piatt sburgti,  N.  Y. 

Dr.  Claude  A.  Horton,  Glens  Falls,  N.  Y. 


ANNUAL    MEETING.  7 

Dr.  E.  T.  Horton,  Whitehall,  N.  Y. 

Gen.  T.  S.  Peck,  Burlington,  Vt. 

M3Ton  F.  Westover,  Schenectady,  N.  Y. 

Dr.  Wm    C.  Sebring,  Kingston,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Neil  M.  Ladd,  646  Fulton  Street,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  J.  Hervey  Cook,  Fishkill-on-the-Hudson,  N.  Y. 

Air.  H.  L.  Broughton,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 

Daniel  L.  Van  Hee,  Rochester,  N.  Y. 

Edmund  Wetmore,  34  Pine  Street,  N.  Y.  City. 

Mrs.  Lydia  F.  Upson,  Glens  Falls,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Daniel  F.  Imrie,  Lake  George,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  James  Green,  Lake  George,  N.  Y. 

Mr.  Edwin  J.  Worden,  Lake  George,  N.  Y. 

Dr.  Sherman  Williams  moved  that  the  chair  appoint  a  commit- 
tee of  two  to  take  into  consideration  an  amendment  to  the  consti- 
tution relating  to  the  payment  of  dues. 

Carried. 

Whereupon  the  chair  appointed  as  such  committee  Robert  O. 
Bascom  and  James  A.  Holden. 

Hon.  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe  offered  the  following  resolution. 

Resolved,  That  the  President  be  authorized  to  appoint  a  com- 
mittee of  three  to  investigate  and  report  to  the  next  annual  meeting 
as  to  fhe  feasibility  of  co-operation  and  of  the  establishment  of  a 
communil:y  of  action  between  this  association  and  the  various  other 
historical  societies  in  the  State,  which  resolution  was  unanimously 
adopted. 

After  some  discussion,  participated  in  by  various  members  of 
the  Association,  it  was  regularly  moved,  seconded  and  carried,  that 
a  committee  of  three  be  appointed  by  the  president  upon  member- 
ship, whereupon  the  president  appointed  the  following  committee: 

Dr.  Ellis  C.  Stevens,  with  power  to  name  his  associates. 

The  following  trustees  were  unanimously  elected  by  ballot  for 
the  term  of  three  years : 


8  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Gen.  Henry  E.  Tremain,  N.  Y.  City ;  William  Wait,  Kinderhook, 
N.  Y. ;  Dr.  Sherman  Williams,  Glens  Falls,  N.  Y. ;  Robert  O.  Bas- 
com.  Fort  Edward,  N.  Y. ;  Francis  W.  Halsey,  New  York ;  Harry 
W.  Watrous,  Hague,  N.  Y. ;  Rev.  Dr.  Joseph  E.  King,  Fort  Ed- 
ward, N.  Y. ;  Hon.  Hugh  Hastings,  Albany,  N.  Y. ;  Com.  John  W. 
Moore,  Bolton  Landing,  N.  Y. 

Rev.  Mr.  Hatch  and  Rev.  Mr.  Black  presented  for  the  consid- 
eration of  the  Association  the  subject  of  the  erection  of  a  museum 
building.  After  some  discussion  it  was  moved,  seconded  and  car- 
ried, that  the  thanks  of  the  Association  be  tendered  to  the  gentlemen 
for  bringing  the  matter  to  the  attention  of  the  Association,  after 
which  the  meeting  was  adjourned  until  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 

August  220,  1905. — Afternoon  Session. 

Symposium — The  Sullivan  Expedition. 

At  the  adjourneid  session  held  in  the  afternoon  August  22d, 
1905,  Dr.  W.  C.  Sebring,  of  Kingston,  read  a  paper  entitled,  "  The 
Character  of  Gen.  Sullivan." 

A  paper  entitled  "  The  Primary  Cause  of  the  Border  Wars," 
by  Francis  W.  Halsey,  of  New  York,  was  read  by  the  Hon.  Gren- 
ville  M.  Inga'lsbe  in  the  absence  of  Mr.  Halsey. 

Dr.  Sherman  Williams,  of  Glens  Falls,  read  a  monograph  en- 
titled, "  The  Organization  of  Sullivan's  Expedition." 

Hon.  Grenville  M.  Ingalsibe  read  by  title  only  a  paper  entitled, 
"  A  Bibliography  of  Sullivan's  Expedition." 

A  paper  entitled,  "  An  Indian  Civilization  and  its  Destruction," 
by  Col.  S.  W.  Moulthrop,  was  read  by  the  Rev.  W.  H.  P.  Hatch  in 
the  absence  of  Col.  Moulthrop. 

A  paper  entitled,  "  The  Campaign,"  was  read  by  William  Wait, 
of  Kinderhook,  when  the  meeting  adjourned  until  August  23d,  at 
10  o'clock  A.  M.,  at  the  same  place. 

ROBERT  O.  BASCOM, 

Secretarv. 


ANNUAL    MEETING.  9 

TRUSTEES*  MEETING. 

August  23d,  1905. 

At  a  meeting-  of  the  Trustees  of  the  New  York  State  Historical 
Association  held  at  Lake  George  on  the  22d  day  of  August,  1905, 
a  quorum  being  present,  the  following  officers  were  elected : 

President,  Hon.  Jas.  A.  Roberts,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

First  Vice-President,  Hon.  G.  M.  Ingalsbe,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 

Second  Vice-President,  Dr.  Sherman  Williams,  Glens  Falls,  N.Y. 

Third  Vice-President,  John  Boulton  Simpson,  Bolton,  N.  Y. 

Treasurer,  James  A.  Holden,  Glens  Falls,  N.  Y. 

Secretary,  Robert  O.  Bascom,  Fott  Edward,  N.  Y. 

Asst.  Secretary,  Frederick  B.  Richards,  Ticonderoga,  N.  Y. 

The  printing  bill  of  E.  H.  Lrsk  was  presented  to  the  Trustees 
and  after  disicussion  the  same  was  referred  to  the  Treasurer  and 
Secretary  with  power  to  settle  the  same. 

The  following  committees  were  appointed : 
Standing  Committee  on  Legislation: 

Hon.  James  A.  Roberts, 
Gen.  Henry  E.  Tremain, 
Dr.  Sherman  Williams, 
Morris  Patterson  Ferris, 
Hon.  Hugh  Hastings. 

On  Marking  Historic  Spots: 

Dr.  Sherman  Williams. 
Frederick  B.  Richards, 
James  A.  Holden, 
Asahel  R.  Wing, 
Hon.  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe. 

On  Fort  Ticonderoga: 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  Watrous. 
John  Boulton  Simpson, 
George   O.   Knapp. 


lO  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

On  Program : 

Hon.  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe, 
Dr.  Sherman  Williams, 
Dr.  C.  Ellis  Stevens. 

On  Membership: 

Dr.  C.  Ellis  Stevens. 

Bill  of  the  Secretary  for  postage,  express  and  sundries  was 
thereupon  audited  and  ordered  paid,  whereupon  the  meeting  ad- 
journed. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Trustees  it  was  moved,  seconded  and  car- 
ried, that  E.  M.  Ruttenber,  of  Ne'wburgh,  N.  Y.,  be  made  an  hon- 
orary member  of  the  Association. 

ROBERT  O.  BASCOM, 

Secretary. 


ASSOCIATION  MEETING. 

August  23d,  1905. 

At  the  adjourned  session  held  August  22d,  a  paper  entitled, 
"  Concerning  the  Mohawks,"  was  read  by  W.  Max  Reid,  of  Am- 
sterdam, N.  Y.,  after  w'hich  the  Hon.  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe  read 
certain  hitherto  unpublished  letters  from  Gen.  George  Washington 
relating  to  the  "  Sullivan  Expedition,"  after  which  a  resolution  was 
adopted  requesting  that  Mr.  Ingalsbe  furnish  ithe  same  for  publi- 
cation in  the  ensuing  volume  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Association. 

An  address  entitled,  "  Robert  R.  Livingston,  the  Author  of  the 
Louisiana  Purchase,"  by  Hon.  D.  S.  Alexander,  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y., 
concluded  the  session,  and  after  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  various 
speakers,  the  meeting  adjourned  until  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon 
of  the  same  day,  at  which  session  a  paper  entitled,  "  The  Birth  at 
Moreau  of  the  Teimperance  Reformation,"  by  Dr.  Charles  A.  In- 
graham,  of  Cambridge,  was  read. 


ANNUAL    MEETING.  II 

The  annual  address,  "  The  Democratic  Ideal  in  History,"  by 
Hon.  Milton  Reed,  of  Fall  River,  Massachusetts,  concluded  the 
literary  exercises  of  this  meeting,  and  after  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the 
speakers  of  the  afternoon  the  meeting  adjourned  sine  die. 

ROBERT  O.  BASCOM, 

Secretary. 


TRUSTEES'  MEETING. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Trustees  of  the  New  York  State  Historical 
Association,  held  at  the  Hotel  Ten  Eyck  on  the  19th  day  of  January, 
1906,  in  the  City  of  Albany, 

Present,  Hon.  James  A.  Roberts,  President ;  Hon.  Grenville  M. 
Ingalsbe,  First  Vice-President ;  Dr.  Sherman  WilHams,  Second  Vice- 
Pro  sident;  Hon.  Hugh  Hastings,  Trustee;  Hon.  Robert  O.  Bas- 
com,  Secretary. 

The  meeting  being  duly  called  to  order  by  the  President,  the 
semi-annual  report  of  Jumes  A.  Holden,  Treasurer,  was  read  and 
adopted. 

The  report  is  as  follows : 

SEMI-ANNUAL  REPORT 

OF 

J,  A.  Holden,  Treasurer  New  York  State  Historical  Association, 
From  July  i,  1905,  to  Jan.  iS,  1906. 

RECEIPTS. 

July  I,  1905— Cash  on  hand $  194  73 

Received  from  dues,  etc 390  10 

$  584  83 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Aug.     5,  E.  H.  Lisk,  printing $  200  00 

5,  R.  O.  Bascom,  postage  and  sundries 27  50 

Sep.      8,  E.  H.  Lisk;  printing 6225 

Sep.      7,  R.  O.  Bascom.  postage 23  28 

7,  Milton  Reid,  expenses 15  31 

Nov.     8,  E.  H.  Lisk,  printing 31  75 


12  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION". 

Dec.     4,  R.  O.  Bascom,  stamps lo  oo 

"     II,  R.  O.  Ba.scom,     "        lo  oo 

Jan.      9,  Postage 5  oo 

385  09 

Cash  on  hand $  199  74 

ASSETS. 

Cash  on  hand $199  74 

Life  Membership  Fund 271  40 

Respectfully  submitted, 

JAMES  A.  HOLDEN, 

Treasurer. 

The  report  of  the  comniiittee  on  amendments  to  the  Constitution 
was  read  and  laid  upon  the  table. 

The  report  of  Committee  on  Marking  Historic  Spots  was  read 
and  adopted.     The  report  is  as  follows : 

Glens  Falls,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  18,  1906. 

To  the  Trustees  of  the  Nezv  York  State  Historical  Association, 

Gentlemen: — I  beg  to  report  progress  in  regard  to  t?he  work 
of  the  committee  on  marking  Historic  Spots.  A  good  number  of 
persons  have  made  corutributions  ranging  from  five  to  fifty  dol'lars 
each.  A  marker  has  been  erected  at  Half-Way  Brook  and  another 
planned  for  at  Bloody  Pond.  The  tablet  at  Half-Way  Brook  was 
made  under  the  direction  of  W.  J.  Scales,  who  is  also  to  prepare 
the  design  for  the  one  at  Bloody  Pond.  The  marker  at  Half- Way 
Brook  is  a  large  boulder  resting  upon  another  large  boulder  nearly 
buried  in  the  ground.  The  boulders  are  large  and  very  hard,  and 
the  cost  of  cutting  them  to  fit  was  unexpectedly  great.  Both  boul- 
ders were  drawn  from  a  long  distance.  The  cost  of  drawing  and 
erecting  them,  and  getting  them  ready  for  the  tablet  was  about  one 
hundred  and  ten  dollars.  This  work  was  supervised  by  Mr.  Henry 
Crandall,  who  had  subscribed  fifty  dollars  toward  the  work.  When 
it  was  finished  he  said  that  if  I  would  cancel  his  subscription  he 
would  meet  all  the  expense  of  getting  the  stones  in  place.  As  this 
was  more  than  twice  the  amount  of  his  subscription  his  offer  was 
gladly  accepted.     The  other  expenses  to  date  have  been  as  follows : 


ANNUAL    MEETING.  1 3 

For  cutting  a  smooth   face  on  the  boulder  and 

fitting  tablet  to  it $  25  25 

For  photographing  the  monument i  00 

Paid  Mr,  Scales  on  account 45  00 

Total $  71  25 

In  the  Spring  it  will  be  necessary  to  meet  a  small  expense  to 
grade  the  ground  and  seed  it.  We  hope  to  have  'Jhe  marker  at 
Bloody  Pond  in  place  before  our  next  annual  meeting. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

SHERMAN  WILLIAMS, 
Chainiian  of  Committee  for  Marking  Historic  Spots. 

The  following  new  members  were  duly  elected : 

Applegate,  Rev.  Dr.  Octavius,  Newburgh,  N.  Y. 

Atkins,  Hon.  T.  Astley,  73  Nassau  Street,  N.  Y. 

Benjamin,  Rev.  Dr.  William  H.,  Irvington-on-Hudson,  N.  Y. 

Bunten,  Roland,  Garden  City,  N.  Y. 

Brooks,  James  B.,  1013  East  Adams  Street,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Bockus,  Dr.  Truman  J.,  Packer  Institute,  Brooklyn,  N,  Y. 

Banker,  Dr.  Silas  J.,  Fort  Edward,  N.  Y. 

Cooke,  Rev.  Jere  K.,  Hempstead,  N.  Y, 

Coon,  Hon.  Stephen  Mortimer,  Oswego,  N.  Y. 

Clark,  Rev.  Joseph  B.,  Fourth  Ave.  and  22d  St.,  N.  Y.  City. 

Clark,  Walter  A.,  755  Main  Street,  Geneva,  N.  Y. 

Donnell,  Rev.  Dr.  William  Nichold,  292  Henrv  St..  N.  Y. 

Davis,  William  Gilbert,  t^2  Nassau  Street,  N.  Y. 

Davis,  Dr.  Booth  C,  Alfred,  N.  Y. 

de   Peyster,   Mrs.   Beekman,   2345   Broadway,   N.  Y.    (winter), 

Johnstown,  N.  Y.   (summer). 
Draper,  Hon.  A.  S.,  Albany,  N.  Y. 
Gunnison,  Hon.  Royal  A.,  Janeau,  Alaska. 
Hopson,  Rev.  Dr.  George  B.,  Annandale,  N.  Y. 
Horton,  Mrs.  John  Miller,  736  Main  St.,  Bufifalo,  N.  V, 
Tngalsbe,  Franc  Groesbeck,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 
Jessup,  Rev.  Chas.  A.,  Greenport,  N.  Y. 


14  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Jessup,  Morris  K.,  195  Madison  Avenue,  N.  Y, 

Joline,  Dr.  Adrien  H.,  54  Wall  Street,  N.  Y. 

Jackson,  Rev.  Dr.  T.  G.,  6851  Paul's  Place,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Kirby,  Dr.  R.  M.,  Potsdam,  N.  Y. 

Krotel,  Rev.  Dr.,  65  Convent  Avenue,  N.  Y. 

Leavey,  Russell  H.,  147  W.  21st  Street,  N.  Y. 

Lefferts,  Marshall  C,  30  Washing:ton  Place.  N.  Y. 

Lewis,  George  C,  Albany,  N.  Y. 

Mace,  Dr.  William  H.,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Martin,  John,  Pittsburgh,  N.  Y. 

Morton,  Hon.  Levi  Parsons,  681  Fifth  Avenue,  N.  Y. 

Mills,  D.  O.,  634  Fifth  Avenue,  N.  Y. 

Munger,  Rev.  Dr.  R.  D.,  105  Delaware  Street,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Morgan,  Rev.  Dr.  D.  Parker,  3  East  45th  Street,  N.  Y. 

Nottingham,  William,  701  Walnut  Avenue,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Nelson,  Ven.  George  F.,  29  Lafayette  Place,  N.  Y. 

Olmsted,  Rt.  Rev.  Chas.  Tyler,  159  Park  Avenue,  Utica,  N.  Y. 

O'Brien,  M.  J.,  195  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

Paige,  Edward  Winslow,  44  Cedar  Street,  New  York. 

Pierce,  Rev.  Dr.  Walter  Franklin,  16  S.  Elliott  Place,  Brooklyn. 

Rogers,  Howard  J.,  Albany,  N.  Y, 

Rhoades,  W.  C.  P.,  400  Putnam  Avenue,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Sill,  Dr.  Frederick  S.,  169  Mohawk  Street,  Cohoes,  N.  Y. 

Schell,  F.  Robert,  280  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

Smith,  William  Alex.,  412  Madison  Avenue,  N.  Y. 

Samson,  William  H.,  420  Oxford  Street,  Rochester,  N.  Y. 

Sillo,  Dr.  Chas.  Morton,  Geneva,  N.  Y. 

Seabury,  Rev.  Dr.  WilHam  Jones,  8  Chelsea  Square,  N.  Y. 

Stackpole,  George  F.,  Riverhead,  N.  Y. 

Sims,  Charles  N.,  Liberty,  Indiana. 

Steele,  Mrs.  Esther  B.,  532  W.  Clinton  Street,  Elmira,  N.  Y. 

Stilwell,  Giles  H.,  1906  West  Genesee  St.,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Sheddon,  Hon.  Lucian  L.,  Plattsburgh,  N.  Y. 

Silver,  Dr.  John  Archer,  Geneva,  N.  Y. 

Spencer,  Dr.  Charles  W.,  Princeton,  N.  J. 

Vanderveer,  Dr.  A.,  28  Eagle  Street,  Albany,  N.  Y. 

Waller,  Rev.  Henry  D.,  Flushing,  N.  Y.    ' 

Watson,  Col.  Jas.  T.,  Clinton,  M.  Y. 


ANNUAL    MEETING.  1 5 

Welch,  Miss  J.  M.,  yd  Johnston  Park,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
Willey,  Rev.  John  H.,  466  East  i8th  Street,  N.  Y. 
Willis,  James  D.,  40  East  39th  Street,  N.  Y. 

The  thanks  of  the  Trustees  were  extended  to  Dr.  Stevens  for 
his  services  as  chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Membership.  The 
Secretary  and  Mr.  William  Wait,  of  Kinderhook,  were  by  motion 
duly  carried  appointed  a  committee  on  the  publication  of  the  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Association.  The  edition  was  fixed  at  750  copies 
and  the  Secretary  instructed  not  to  send  proceedings  to  persons 
who  were  more  than  four  years  in  arrears,  after  which  the  meeting 
adjourned. 

ROBERT  O.  BASCOM, 

Secretary. 


CHARACTER  OF  GEN.  SULLIVAN. 


By  Dr.  W.  C.  Seeking. 


How  the  mists  do  gather.  With  the  exception  of  Greene  and 
Benedict  Arnold,  George  Washington  trusted  SulUvan  beyond  any 
other  general  of  the  Continental  army.  Sullivan  acquitted  himself 
well  on  diverse  battlefields  and,  though  defeated,  the  real  worth  of 
the  man  shows  in  this,  that  defeat  added  as  much  prestige  to  his 
reputation  as  his  victories.  His  greatness  like  that  of  Washington 
throve  on  defeat,  for  it  can  be  fairly  said  that  Washington  never 
won  a  battle.  And  yet  if  you  ask  even  those  who  have  given  time 
to  our  history  as  to  General  Sullivan,  they  will  convey  to  you  but 
the  most  vague  impression  of  some  minor  general  who  sometime 
in  the  revolution  made  a  foray  on  some  Indians  somewhere  in  this 
State. 

The  last  scene  of  a  drama  is  best  remembered.  The  picture  as 
the  curtain  falls  is  stamped  most  clearly  on  the  memory.  Sullivan 
was  not  to  be  an  actor  in  the  war's  closing  scenes,  and  the  valor 
that  gleams  the  name  of  Marion,  the  splendor  of  Greene's  military 
intelligence,  and  the  glory  that  is  linked  with  the  name  of  Wash- 
ington at  Yorktown  were  not  his.  Neither  had  he  the  methodical 
madness  of  Wayne,  the  pusillanimity  of  the  self-seeking  Gates,  the 
recklessness  of  Pu^tnam,  nor  the  aestheistic  fatalism  of  Ethan  Allan ; 
none  of  these  things  had  Sullivan  to  carve  his  picture  on  men's 
memory. 

It  may  not  be  out  of  place  here  to  give  a  short  chronology  of 
this    man's    life. 

He  was  born  in  Summerworth,  N.  H.,  in  1740.  His  parents 
were  well-to-do  emigrants  from  Ireland.  He  studied  law  and  was 
a  member  of  the  first  Congress,  1774.  Was  made  Brigadier  Gen- 
eral 1775.  In  1776  he  superseded  Arnold  in  Canada.  Then  he 
succeeded   General  Greene  and  was  taken  prisoner.     He   was  ex- 


CtlARACTER   OF   GEN.    SULLIVAN.  1 7 

changed  in  November.  In  1777  he  took  part  in  the  battle  of 
Brandywine,  Germantown,  and  1778  he  commanded  in  Rhode 
Island,  In  1779  he  led  the  expedition  against  the  Indians.  He 
then  resigned  from  the  army  and  took  np  again  the  practice  of 
law.  He  was  a  member  of  the  State  constitutional  convention,  then 
he  was  elected  a  member  of  Congress,  and  in  '86,  '87,  '89  was  pres- 
ident of  his  State.  Later,  in  1789,  he  was  appointed  District  Judge, 
and  died  in  1795  at  the  age  of  54  years. 

His  personal  characteristics  are  said  to  be  that  he  was  a  dig- 
nified, genial  and  amiable  man.  He  displayed  a  fine  courtesy  to 
those  about  him,  both  to  his  soldiers  and  compatriot  generals. 

I  quote  the  following  paragraph  from  A.  Tififany  Norton,  who 
I  believe  to  be  the  one  who  has  written  the  best  account  of  the 
Indian  campaign,  and  it  is  a  wonder  to  me  that  one  who  sho^vs  so 
broad  a  grasp  of  history  and  its  essential  principles  and  the  elements 
that  make  for  historical  research,  has  never  written  more  than  he 
has. 

Norton,  in  his  general  description  of  Sullivan,  says :  "  His 
eyes  were  keen  and  dark,  his  hair  curly  black,  his  form  erect,  his 
movements  full  of  energy  and  grace."  His  height  was  five  feet 
nine  inches,  and  a  slight  corpulency  when  in  his  prime  gave  but  an 
added  grace.  General  Sullivan  was  a  man  of  undoubted  courage, 
warmth  of  temperament  and  independent  spirit  equalled  only  by 
his  patriotic  devotion  to  his  country's  cause  and  his  zeal  in  all  pub- 
lic affairs."  Doubtless  he  was  too  impatient  and  outspoken  and 
may  have  been  deserving  of  some  measure  of  blame,  stil'l  his  faults 
should  not  have  detracted  from  that  meed  of  praise  to  which  he 
was  justly  entitled.  Neither  should  the  jealousies  of  his  brothers  in 
arms,  which  prompted  them  to  ridicule  his  achievements,  question 
his  reports  and  detract  from  his  hard-earned  laurels,  have  weight 
with  the  historian.  Yet  sucli  has  been,  in  great  degree,  the  case, 
and  the  name  of  Sullivan  occupies  a  lesser  space  in  the  history  of  the 
Revolutionary  struggle,  than  those  of  many  others  whose  achieve- 
ments fell  far  s'hort  of  his  in  magnitude  and  importance.  Sullivan 
has  been  made  the  victim  of  the  intrigues  and  petty  jealousies  of 
his  times,  and  while  for  this  his  own  indiscretions  may  justly  be 
blamed,  the  duty  is  none  the  less  incumbent  on  the  present  genera- 
tion to  render  due  homage  to  one  who  is  a  brave  soldier  and  a  de- 


l8  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

voted,  disinterested,  self-sacrificing  patriot.  As  Amory  has  justly 
said :  "  A  friend  of  Washington,  Greene,  Lafayette,  and  all  the 
noclest  statesmen  and  generals  of  the  war,  whose  esteem  for  him 
was  universally  known,  to  whom  his  own  attachment  never  waiv- 
ered,  he  will  be  valued  for  his  high  integrity  and  steadfast  faith, 
his  loyal  and  generous  character,  his  enterprise  and  vigor  in  com- 
mand, his  readiness  to  assume  responsibility,  his  courage  and  cool- 
ness in  emergencies,  his  foresight  for  providing  for  all  possible  con- 
tingencies of  campaign  or  battle-field,  and  his  calmness  when  the 
results  became  adverse." 

Could  the  character  of  Sullivan  be  fairly  said  to  be  that  of  a 
great  man?  Does  he  measure  up  to  "bigness?"  Remember  a 
little  man  seldom  does  big  things.  Briefly,  what  did  he  do  in  this 
Indian  campaign?  At  the  beginning  of  the  Revolution  there  was 
a  democracy  of  six  confederate  states  within  the  present  boundaries 
of  our  own  municipality.  So  strong  had  this  democracy  grown 
that  it  dominated  the  inhabitants  of  a  territory  of  more  than  a  mil- 
lion square  miles.  Their  battle-cry  was  heard  from  the  Kennebec 
to  Lake  Superior,  and  under  the  very  fortifications  of  Quebec  they 
annihilated  the  Huron. 

Their  orators  were  fit  to  rank  with  any  that  we  have  to-day. 
Their  legends  are  the  legends  of  a  people  whose  souls  were  filled 
with  poetry.  Their  military  tactics  were  those  of  a  people  trained 
for  war — successful  war.  Man  to  man,  they  were  what  no  other 
barbarians  have  been,  a  match  for  the  white  man.  They  held  the 
gateway  to  the  West  and  their  position  made  them  umpires  be- 
tween the  mighty  nations  of  the  Old  World  who  were  struggling 
for  the  possession  of  the  New.  Civilized  in  a  sense  they  were,  but 
they  were  barbarians  too,  and  savages  to  their  very  heart  of  hearts. 
Rapacious,  treacherous,  cruel  beyond  belief,  -they  were  dreaded 
alike  by  friend  and  foe.  Their  home  was  a  terra  incognita.  No 
colonist  had  trodden  it.  From  no  peak  had  trapper  looked  across 
the  profile  of  their  land.  Their  numbers  were  unknown  and  could 
only  be  guessed  at  by  their  achievements — and  these  were  terrible. 

How  silly  of  Gordon  to  criticise  Sullivan  for  over-manning  his 
expedition.  Darkest  Africa  is  better  known  to-day  than  was  then 
the  land  of  the  Iroquois.  They  were  re-enforced  by  British  regu- 
lars, by  fanatical  tories ;  they  were  led  by  white  men,  and  one  of 


CHARACTER   OF    GEN.    SULLIVAN.  1 9 

their  leaders  was  a  thorough  Indian  and  thoroughly  educated  in  the 
white  man's  lore. 

Among  this  people  and  into  this  terra  incognita  came  Sullivan 
and  smote  them  hip  and  thigh.  He  conquered  them  to  the  utter- 
most. He  broke  down  the  gateway  to  the  mighty  West.  With  a 
miserable  commissariat,  he  invaded  an  unknown  country  and  for- 
ever destroyed  a  democracy  that  had  ruled  for  five  hundred  years. 
The  Indians  conquered  by  Wayne  were  but  a  frazzle  of  the  Six 
Nations  united  with  Indians  farther  West. 

Little  men  do  little  things,  big  men  do  big  things,  and  great 
men   do  great  things.     Before   Sullivan   vanished 
"  that  savage  senate  at  the  Lake, 
"  By  the  salt  marshes,  yonder  in  the  north, 
"  Dull-visaged  butchers,  coarsely  blanketed 
"  Squatted  in  a  ring  by  their  dark  Council  House 
"  And  with  strange  mumery  of  pipes  and  belts 
"  Decreeing,   coldly,   death — forever  death." 
The  strongest  are  the  gentlest.     It  is  related  that  having  found 
an  Indian  woman  too  old  and  feeble  to  retreat  with  her  people,  that 
Sullivan  left  her  with  a  plentiful  supply  of  provisions,  though,  as 
one  of  the  party  writes,  "  we  only  had  half  a  ration  every  other  day 
ourselves." 

It  is  not  my  province  to  put  forth  a  brief  for  General  Sullivan, 
yet  that  one  incident  cast  a  side-light  on  his  character  that  impress- 
ed me  more  as  to  the  true  lovely  heartiness  of  the  man  than  any- 
thing I  have  found.  Constancy  to  a  friend  is  an  attribute  to  those 
who  approach  greatness.  After  the  Indian  war  Sullivan  was  re- 
viled unmercifully  for  the  devastation  wrought  by  him  in  the  Indian 
country.  Out  of  his  love  for  General  Washington  he  suffered  in 
silence,  while  he  had  in  his  possession  General  Washington's  writ- 
ten instructions  to  do  exactly  as  he  had  done. 

Perchance  for  a  good  man  some  would  even  dare  to  die.  But 
what  of  a  man  whose  friendship  holds  so  strong  that  he  may  see 
that  which  is  dearer  to  him  than  life — 'his  character — filched  from 
him,  and  lest  he  should  harm  a  friend,  allow  his  enemies  to  do  with 
that  character  as  they  wished. 

Probably  no  historian  ever  lived  who  could  write  more  wrong 
history  than  Benjamin  Lossing,  who  accuses  Sullivan  of  careless- 


20  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

ness  and  want  of  vigilance  as  a  commanding  officer  and  mentions 
Bedford  and  Brand3^wine.  Nothing  could  be  farther  from  the 
truth.  At  Bedford  he  withdrew  his  forces  because  the  French 
Navy  would  not  support  him,  and  it  was  out  of  the  question  to  re- 
main in  the  position  he  had  taken  up.  We  have  John  Fiske's  word 
for  it  that  Brandywine  was  a  drawn  battle. 

Of  energy  he  had  a  plenty.  It  is  on  record  that  after  he  and 
General  Clinton  united  (and  Clinton  was  no  sluggard)  his  Division 
time  and  again  outmarched  that  of  Clinton.  At  one  time  he  broke 
road  across  nine  miles  of  swamp  while  Clinton  following  him  had 
to  camp  in  the  middle  of  the  morass.  So  difficult  was  the  morass 
that  the  Indian  spies  who  had  been  watching  his  advance  never 
dreamed  that  he  would  attempt  the  passage  of  the  swamp,  and 
withdrew  to  their  camps.  So  confident  were  the  Tories  and  In- 
dians, that  when  he  emerged  from  the  swamp  their  campfires  were 
still  burning. 

Right  here  is  a  place  to  say  a  word  about  General  Sullivan's 
veracity.  After  his  return  from  conquering  the  Six  Nations  he 
reported  that  he  had  destroyed  forty  villages,  and  his  detractors 
could  not  find  but  eighteen.  It  at  last  developed  that  when  his 
subordinates  had  reported  destroying  a  group  of  buildings  he  most 
naturally  supposed  that  it  was  an  Indian  village,  and  so  put  it  down 
in  his  report. 

It  has  been  said  of  him  that  he  resigned  from  the  army  out  of 
spite.  Well,  if  he  did,  he  was  perhaps  blamable.  But  we  should 
remember  that  he  was  dealing  with  a  Continental  Congress  of  the 
latter  years  of  the  war,  and  if  you  search  history  for  a  thousand 
years  you  will  not  be  able  to  find  an  aggregation  of  political  castros 
equal  to  this  same  Continental  Congress.  The  men  who  had  made 
the  primal  congresses  great  had  set  themselves  to  serve  the  nation 
in  other  ways,  and  Congress  had  fallen  to  those  who  had  some 
money  without  brains  or  brains  without  principle,  or  lacking  both, 
were  like  our  modern  ones  in  that  they  loved  "  graft  "  and  knew  how 
to  get  it. 

Sullivan  was  not  a  liar,  and  he  himself  says  that  his  health  was 
failing.  If  we  care  to  plow  t^hrough  the  many  diaries  kept  by  of- 
ficers under  him  we  can  well  believe  that  he  told  the  truth,  for  with 
the  spoiling  of  the  provisions  sent  to  the  expedition  most  of  the 


CHARACTER   OF    GEN.    SULLIVAN.  21 

soldiers  did  suffer  from  chronic  intestinal  troubles,  and  it  would 
be  strange  if  the  commander  who  takes  the  same  fare  as  his  sub- 
ordinates should  not  suffer  in  the  same  manner. 

And  to  back  up  this  we  must  remember  that  even  after  he  re- 
tired he  never  lost  the  confidence  or  the  love  of  the  greatest  of  them 
all,  General  Washington.  Much  has  been  written  of  General  Sul- 
livan's fallibilities,  and  fallibilities  the  greatest  have. 

We  should  remember  that  Sullivan  was  a  Kelt,  And  through 
the  centuries  the  Kelts  have  given  us  the  lordliest  orators  and  gold- 
en artists,  but  for  tenacity  of  purpose  no  one  has  celebrated  them. 

General  Sullivan  when  he  was  taken  prisoner  and  fell  under 
the  influence  of  the  British  military  power,  and  contrasting  them 
with  the  meagerness  that  he  had  been  accustomed  to,  for  once  his 
heart  failed  him  and  his  soul  sank  within  him,  and  it  is  no  sorrow 
to  his  name  to  say  that  for  the  moment  he  thought  the  liberty  of 
mankind  in  the  Western  continent  was  doomed. 

He  came  from  the  British  to  us  seeking  peace,  but  after  he 
was  exchanged  and  in  his  old  environment  his  true  native  Keltic 
courage  returned  and  hii  after  life  was  the  life  of  an  ardent  pa- 
triot. 

I  do  not  think  we  give  enough  credit  to  the  perceptions  of  the 
ignorant. 

Suppose  to  ten  thousand  ignorant  people  this  entirely  hN-po- 
thetical  question  should  be  stated:  Around  the  globe  is  a  people 
who  for  three  hundred  years  had  been  fighting  a  tyranical  power 
and  well  nigh  achieved  success.  Would  it  be  right  for  a  republic 
to  step  in  and  take  them  away  from  the  power  they  were  in  rebel- 
lion against,  and  then  this  republic  by  force  of  arms  prevent  them 
from  becoming  an  independent  republic?  State  to  ten  thousand 
ignorant  people  this  question,  and  they  will  shout  with  one  voice 
"  that  it  is  not  right."  State  this  question  to  ten  thousand  college 
professors,  and  they  will  back  and  fill,  debate  and  re-debate,  and 
finally  be  fogged  by  their  very  knowledge  and  at  last  come  to  no 
conclusion  at  all. 

It  has  never  been  sufiiciently  made  clear  that  the  classes  fought 
the  Revolutionary  war.  The  educated,  the  elegant,  the  conserv- 
ative, the  well-to-do,  in  short  the  "  better  elements,"  were  practically 
all  with  the  British.     While  the  broken,  the  ignorant,  the  d'iscour- 


22  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

aged,  "  the  rabble,"  were  the  ones  that  won  our  Hberty.  Every 
single  Tory  that  was  expatriated  could  read  and  write,  while  I  be- 
lieve if  the  muster  rolls  of  my  own  county,  inhabited  at  that  time 
by  the  educated  Dutch,  not  one-third  of  those  who  enlisted  could 
sign  their  names.  So  coldly  did  the  wealthy  Dutchman  look  upon 
the  war  that  it  was  a  common  trick  for  him  to  send  a  slave  to  serve 
in  the  ranks  instead  of  himself. 

Sullivan  by  birth  and  position  belonged  among  the  former  class, 
and  yet  in  spite  of  position,  broke  with  his  own  class  and  gladly 
took  up  the  sword  with  the  ignorant  because  he  saw  clearly  that 
all  social  progress  must  from  very  necessity  spring  from  the  dis- 
content of  the  Hoi  Polloi.  He  was  a  true  patriot  for  he  lost  his 
all  by  giving  his  attention  to  public  rather  than  private  affairs,  and 
though  respected  by  all  and  honored  by  his  State,  his  last  years 
were  the  years  of  gloom  and  the  gathering  clouds,  for  his  life  was 
beset  by  heartless  creditors.  The  last  scene  is  the  saddest  of  all, 
for  at  his  funeral  his  creditors  tried  to  seize  his  body  and  would 
have  done  so,  except  that  an  old  army  general  drew  his  pistols  and 
drove  off  the  bailiffs  of  the  law.  So  was  buried  one  of  America's 
greatest  patriots,  a  constant  friend,  a  brave  and  good  soldier,  and 
a  man  who,  take  him  ail  in  all,  it  is  not  an  exaggeration  to  call 
"  Great." 


THE  PRIMARY  CAUSES  OF  THE 
BORDER   WARS 


By  Francis  W.  Halsey. 


General  Sullivan's  expedition  of  1779  was  an  immediate  out- 
come of  the  massacres  of  Wyoming  and  Cherry  Valley  in  the  sum- 
mer and  autumn  of  1778 — not  to  mention  those  minor  incidents  of 
the  Border  Wars,  which,  beginning  in  the  summer  of  1777,  had 
converted  the  valley  of  the  upper  Susquehanna  into  a  land  of  deso- 
lation. It  was  a  most  drastic  punishment  that  Sullivan  inflicted, 
and  such  it  was  intended  by  Congress  that  his  work  should  be. 
"  The  immediate  objects,"  said  Washington,  in  his  letter  of  instruc- 
tion to  Sullivan,  "  are  the  total  destruction  and  devastation  of  the 
Indian  settlements,"  He  added  that  the  Indian  country  was  "  not 
to  be  merely  overrun,  but  destroyed."  If  we  have  regard  for  pro- 
portions, greater  losses  were  inflicted  upon  the  Indians  by  Sullivan 
than  were  ever  inflicted  upon  the  settlements  of  New  York  by  the 
Indians. 

The  expedition,  however,  failed  completely  in  achieving  its 
main  purpose,  which  was  to  suppress  the  Indian  raids.  Sullivan 
and  his  army  had  scarcely  left  the  Western  country,  when  the  In- 
dian attacks  were  renewed  and  for  three  years  were  continued  with 
a  savage  energy  before  unknown.  The  Indians'  thirst  for  revenge 
having  been  thoroughly  aroused,  nothing  could  afterwards  restrain 
their  hands.  Aside  from  the  burning  of  German  Flats  and  the 
battle  of  Oriskany  (the  latter  not  properly  an  incident  of  the  Border 
Wars,  since  it  was  an  integral  part  of  the  Burgoyne  campaign),  the 
injury  done  by  the  Indians  to  the  Mohawk  Valley  was  done  subse- 
quent to  the  Sullivan  expedition. 

In  their  entirety,  the  Border  Wars  constitute  a  phase  of  the  Rev- 
olution of  which  far  too  little  has  been  remembered.     We  may  seek 


24  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

in  vain  for  a  territory  elsewhere  in  the  United  States  where  so 
much  destruction  was  done  to  non-com'batants.  In  Tryon  county 
alone,  12,000  farms  went  out  of  cultivation;  fully  two-thirds  of  the 
population  either  died  or  fled,  While  of  the  one-third  who  remained 
300  were  widows  and  2,000  orphans.  And  yet,  as  I  have  said,  the 
losses  of  the  Iroquois  were  greater  still. 

But  it  is  with  the  causes  which  led  to  this  savage  work  that  I  am 
here  to  deal.  For  quite  100  years,  Joseph  Brant  and  the  Tories  of 
the  Mohawk  Valley,  with  Col.  Guy  and  Sir  John  Johnson,  and  John 
and  Walter  Butler,  at  their  head,  were  generally  accepted  as  the 
original  and  inspiring  forces  in  all  the  barbarities  committed.  The 
greater  offenders,  however,  were  men  of  much  higher  station  and 
more  ample  powers — men  who  had  never  seen  the  val'leys  of  the 
Susquehanna  and  the  Mohawk,  but  who  lived  in  London,  and  as 
members  of  the  King's  Cabinet  were  in  direct  charge  of  the  war  in 
America.  One  of  them  was  the  Earl  of  Dartmouth,  the  other  Lord 
George  Germaine ;  but  it  is  to  Germaine  that  we  must  ascribe  the 
chief  odium. 

The  administration  of  the  Province  of  New  York,  when  the 
Revolution  began,  was  completely  in  the  hands  of  Loyalists.  New 
York  was  still  a  Crown  colony,  officials  holding  their  appointments 
directly  from  London.  Outside  the  official  class,  however,  there 
were  patriots  in  plenty ;  none  of  the  colonies  possessed  more ;  but 
as  New  York  City  was  completely  dominated  by  Tory  influences,  so 
was  the  M'ohawk  Valley  dominated  by  the  Johnsons  and  their  army 
of  followers,  in  whom  loyalty  to  England  was  a  deep-seated  senti- 
ment and  a  fixed  principle  of  conduct.  Sir  William  Johnson  had 
died  just  as  the  Revolution  was  about  to  begin.  His  successors 
became  not  only  as  great  Loyalists  as  ever  he  had  been,  but,  being 
men  of  smaller  minds  and  fewer  talents.  They  added  to  the  senti- 
ment of  loyalty  an  expression  of  it  wliich  took  the  form  of  satanic 
bitterness  and  brute  savagery.  It  was  these  men  who,  with  their 
followers,  became  the  hated  Tories  of  the  frontier  of  New  York — 
men  of  whom  in  some  instances,  Joseph  Brant  said,  they  had  been 
more  savage  than  the  savages  themselves. 

The  attitude  of  the  Indians  can  be  best  understood  if  we  re- 
member that  they  had  been  practically  in  alliance  with  the  English 
of  New  York  for  a  hundred  years.     When  war  began  between  the 


THE   PRIMARY    CAUSES    OF    THE   BORDER    WARS.  25 

mother  country  and  the  colonies,  or  between  what  the  Indians  called 
"  two  brother  nations,"  they  were  lost  in  amazement  and  tried  in 
vain  to  understand  it.  Their  own  history  for  three  hundred  years 
had  been  one  of  peace  between  brother  nations.  "  No  taxation 
without  representation  "  was  a  principle  beyond  their  comprehen- 
sion. The  men  who  defied  Britis'h  soldiers  in  the  streets  of  New 
York  and  Boston  seemed  to  them  exactly  like  the  French  of  Canada 
who  in  the  older  wars  had  stormed  English  forts  on  the  Northern 
Frontier,  since  they  were  engaged  in  war  with  the  King  of  Eng- 
land, and  the  King  was  the  Indians'  powerful  fr'iend. 

When  the  Border  Wars  reached  their  height,  the  frontier  of 
New  York  should  have  been  in  a  state  of  tranquility.  With  Bur- 
goyne's  surrender,  the  center  of  conflict  was  to  pass  away  from 
New  York  and  New  England,  and  was  soon  to  be  transferred  to 
Virginia,  Georgia,  and  South  Carolina.  Why  then,  these  Border 
Wars  in  New  York?  In  one  short  sentence,  the  w^ole  truth  may 
he  disclosed.  The  ministry  of  George  III,  after  long  and  laborious 
eflforts,  now  at  last  had  won  the  Indians  of  New  York  into  active 
sympathy  with  their  cause.  For  three  years  they  had  tr'ied  in  vain 
to  gain  their  support,  and  again  and  again  had  held  counsels  with 
them,  but  the  net  results  had  been  an  essentially  neutrad  stand  by 
the  Indians. 

But  let  us  recapitulate.  Soon  after  the  battle  of  Lexington,  Col. 
Guy  Johnson,  the  official  successor  of  Sir  William,  convened  at  his 
home  near  Amsterdam,  a  conference  with  the  Indians,  mostly  Mo- 
hawks, and  later,  after  the  result  at  Bunker  Hill  had  alarmed  him 
anew,  fled  to  Oswego  and  thence  to  Canada.  Nearly  all  the  Mo- 
hawk Indians  went  with  him,  as  well  as  a  domestic  force  of  about 
500  white  men,  mainly  Scotdh  Highlanders,  over  whom  he  had 
placed  in  command.  Col.  John  Butler.  In  July  Col.  Johnson  reached 
Montreal,  Where  he  had  an  interview  with  Sir  Frederick  Halde- 
mand,  who  said  to  the  Indians : 

"  Now  is  the  time  for  you  to  help  the  King.  The  war  has  be- 
gun. Assist  him  now,  and  you  will  find  it  to  your  advantage. 
Whatever  you  lose  during  the  war,  the  King  will  make  up  to  you 
when  peace  returns." 

Later  in  the  same  month,  the  Earl  of  Dartmouth,  then  a  mem- 
ber of  the  British  Cabinet,  wrote  from  London  to  Col.  Johnson,  that 


26  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

it  was  the  King's  pleasure  "  That  you  lose  no  time  in  taking  such 
steps  as  may  induce  the  Indians  to  take  up  the  hatchet  against  his 
Majesty's  rebellious  subjects  in  America."  This  letter  was  accom- 
panied by  a  large  assortment  of  presents  for  the  Indians,  and  Col. 
Johnson  was  urged  not  to  fail  to  use  "  the  utmost  diligence  and 
activity  "  in  accomplishing  the  purpose.  Col.  Johnson  was  joined 
in  Canada  in  the  spring  of  the  following  year  by  his  brother-in-law, 
Sir  John  Johnson,  the  son  and  heir  of  Sir  William.  Sir  John  had 
organized  a  force  known  as  the  Royal  Greens,  composed  of  loyalists 
from  the  New  York  frontier,  and  mainly  former  tenants  and  de- 
pendents of  his  father's  estate. 

The  Mdhawks,  who  alone  of  all  the  Six  Nations  had  gone  to 
Canada,  were  slow  to  yield  to  the  importunities  of  the  English,  in 
so  far  as  taking  an  active  part  in  the  war  was  concerned.  A  topic 
of  far  deeper  interest  to  them  was  their  title  to  certain  lands  in  the 
Mohawk  and  upper  Susquehanna  Valleys,  concerning  which  they 
had  failed  to  secure  adjustments  for  many  years.  In  November, 
1775,  Joseph  Brant  with  other  Indian  chiefs,  sailed  for  England 
with  a  view  to  accomplishing  a  settlement  of  this  dispute.  An  in- 
terview took  place  with  the  Colonial  Secretary,  who  subsequently 
was  in  direct  charge  of  the  war  in  America,  Lord  George  Ger- 
maine.  Brant  made  two  speeches  before  Germaine,  outlining  the 
grievances  of  his  people,  and  it  is  clear  from  one  of  them  that  Ger- 
maine then  secured  the  adhesion  of  Brant  to  the  English  cause  by 
promising  to  redress  the  Indian  grievances  after  the  war,  and  to 
keep  for  the  Indians  the  favor  and  protection  of  the  King.  Thence- 
forth the  responsibility  for  Indian  activity  in  the  Revolution  rests 
mainly  on  Germaine.  It  was  to  him  that  Lord  Chatham  referred 
in  a  memorable  speech  on  the  American  War : 

"  But,  my  lord,  who  is  the  man,  that,  in  addition  to  the  disgrace 
and  mischiefs  of  the  war,  has  dared  to  authorize  and  associate  to 
our  arms  the  tomahawk  and  scalping  knife  of  the  savage  ?  To  call 
into  civilized  alliance  the  wild  and  inhuman  inhabitants  of  the 
woods  ?  To  delegate  to  the  merciless  Indian  the  defense  of  disputed 
right,  and  to  wage  the  horrors  of  his  barbarous  war  against  our 
brethren?  My  lords,  t^ese  enormities  cry  aloud  for  redress  and 
punishment." 


THE    PRIMARY    CAUSES    OF    THE   BORDER    WARS.  2^ 

When  the  Burgoyne  campaign  began,  Brant  had  arrived  home. 
New  efforts  were  now  actively  put  forth  to  enHst  the  Indians  in 
British  service.  A  considerable  company  of  them  started  south 
with  Burgoyne,  but  they  subsequently  deserted  him  before  a  battle 
had  been  fought,  or  even  the  American  army  was  discovered.  With 
St.  Leger  a  much  larger  force  started  for  a  descent  upon  the  Mo- 
hawk Valley.  These  were  in  direct  charge  of  Joseph  Brant,  and 
comprised  the  greater  part  of  the  efficient  Mohawk  force.  At  Os- 
wego a  counsel  had  been  held  a  few  weeks  before,  in  order  to  enlist 
in  British  service  the  other  "  nations  "  of  the  Iroquois,  who  were 
assured  that  the  King  was  a  man  of  great  power  and  that  they 
should  never  want  for  food  and  clothing  if  they  adhered  to  him. 
Rum,  it  was  said,  would  be  "  as  plentiful  as  water  in  Lake  On- 
tario." Presents  were  made,  and  a  bounty  offered  on  every  white 
man's  scalp  that  they  might  take.  The  Senecas  notably,  and  to 
some  extent  the  Onondagas  and  Cayugas,  thus  became  fired  with 
ambition  to  see  something  of  the  war. 

By  the  time  St.  Leger  arrived  at  Oswego,  about  700  warriors 
had  been  secured.  Some  of  them  still  remained  lukewarm  as  to 
fighting,  but  they  were  at  last  drawn  into  the  campaign  under  an 
assurance  that  they  need  not  fight  themselves,  but  might  sit  by 
during  the  battle  smoking  their  pipes,  while  they  saw  the  redcoats 
"  whip  the  rebels."  The  result  was,  that  when  a  battle  was  im- 
minent at  Oriskany,  the  Indian's  love  of  war  was  uppermost,  and 
they  became  the  most  active  participants  in  the  conflict.  They  also 
became  proportionately  the  heaviest  losers  and  returned  to  their 
homes,  not  only  with  doleful  shrieks  and  yells  over  their  losses,  but 
with  a  determined  purpose  to  revenge  themselves  on  the  defense- 
less frontier.  At  what  frightful  cost  to  the  Mohawk  Valley  they 
secured  that  revenge,  the  story  of  the  ensuing  four  years  bears 
ample  witness. 

But,  as  I  have  said,  the  Indians  lost  more.  When  the  war  was 
over,  they  'had  practically  lost  everything.  Their  homes  were  de- 
stroyed and  their  altars  obliterated.  England  virtually  abandoned 
them  to  the  men  whom  they  had  fought  as  rebels,  but  who  were 
now  victorious  patriots,  the  masters  of  imperial  possessions.  Noth- 
ing whatever  was  exacted  for  them  in  the  treaty  of  peace.  Not 
even  their  names  were  mentioned.     Such,  at  the  close  of  the  war, 


28  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

was  their  pitiful  state.  Everything  in  the  world  that  they  had,  had 
been  given  to  a  cause,  not  their  own — the  cause  of  an  ally  across 
the  great  waters,  with  whom  they  were  keeping  an  ancient  cove- 
nant chain.  When  at  last  their  wide  domain,  among  whose  streams 
and  forests  for  ages  their  race  had  found  a  home,  passed  forever 
from  their  control,  they  might  have  said,  with  a  pride  more  just 
than  that  of  Francis  I.,  after  the  battle  of  Pavia,  "  All  is  lost  save 
honor." 


THE  ORGANIZATION  OF  SULLIVAN'S 
EXPEDITION. 


By  Dr.   Sherman  Williams. 


History  has  not  done  justice  to  the  subject  in  telling  flie  story 
of  Sullivan's  expedition.  There  are  few  if  any  equally  important 
events  in  our  history  of  which  the  great  majority  of  our  people 
know  so  little.  It  was  the  most  important  military  event  of  1779, 
fully  one-third  of  the  Continental  army  being  engaged  in  it.  The 
campaign  was  carried  on  under  great  difficulties,  was  brilliantly 
successful,  and  executed  with  but  small  loss  of  life.  It  is  possible 
that  the  movement  would  have  received  more  attention  from  the 
historians  had  the  loss  of  life  been  much  greater,  even  if  the  results 
had  been  of  less  importance. 

The  chief  result  was  the  practical  destruction  of  the  Iroquois 
Confederacy.  While  the  Six  Nations  were  very  active  on  the 
frontier  the  following  year,  the  Confederacy  as  an  organization  had 
received  its  death  blow. 

The  massacres  at  Wyoming,  along  the  New  York  frontier, 
especially  in  the  Mohawk,  Scihoharie  and  Susquehanna  valleys,  had 
so  aroused  the  people  that  the  Continental  Congress  felt  called  up- 
on to  take  action  and  on  the  27th  of  February,  1779,  passed  a  reso- 
dution  directing  Washington  to  take  effective  measures  to  protect 
the  frontier. 

It  was  decided  to  send  a  strong  expsdition  against  tlie  Iroquois 
settlements,  and  utterly  destroy  their  towns  and  crops,  more  espe- 
cially in  the  territory  of  the  Senecas  and  Cayugas.  It  was  no  small 
task  to  equip  a  large  force  and  traverse  an  almost  unknown,  and 
altogether  unmapped,  wilderness  whidh  was  wholly  without  roads, 
in  the  face  of  an  active  and  vigilant  as  well  as  relentless  foe. 

The  command  of  the  expedition  was  tendered  to  Genei'al  Gates 
because  of  his  rank.     In  reply  to  the  tender  of  the  command  Gen- 


so  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

era]  Gates  wrote  to  Washington  as  follows :  "  Last  night  I  had 
the  honor  of  your  Excellency's  letter.  The  man  who  undertakes 
the  Indian  service  should  enjoy  health  and  strength,  requisites  1 
do  not  possess.  It  therefore  grieves  me  that  your  Excellency 
should  offer  me  the  only  command  to  which  I  am  entirely  unequal. 
In  obedience  to  your  command  I  have  forwarded  your  letter  to 
General  Sullivan." 

Washington  had  evidently  anticipated  that  Gates  would  not  ac- 
cept the  command  as  he  had  enclosed  in  his  letter  to  him  a  com- 
munication that  was  to  be  forwarded  to  Sullivan  in  case  Gates 
declined  the  service.  It  was  this  letter  to  which  Gates  referred  in 
his  reply  to  Was'hington.  No  doubt  it  was  fortunate  for  the  coun- 
try that  the  command  of  the  expedition  devolved  upon  some  other 
person  than  Gates 

Washington  felt  somewhat  hurt  at  the  tone  of  the  letter  he  re- 
ceived from  Gates,  and  in  a  communication  to  the  President  of 
Congress  he  said,  "  My  letter  to  him  on  the  occasion  I  believe  you 
will  think  was  conceived  in  very  candid  and  polite  terms,  and  merit- 
ed a  different  answer  from  the  one  given  to  it." 

In  his  instructions  to  Sullivan  Washington  wrote  as  follows : 

"  Sir : — The  expedition  you  are  appointed  to  command  is  to  be 
directed  against  the  hostile  tribes  of  the  Six  Nations  of  Indians, 
with  their  associates  and  adherents.  The  immediate  object  is  their 
total  destruction  and  devastation,  and  the  capture  of  as  many  per- 
sons of  every  age  and  sex  as  possible.  It  will  be  essential  to  ruin 
their  crops  now  in  the  ground  and  prevent  their  planting  more." 

At  this  time  it  was  supposed  that  the  expedition  would  reach  the 
Indian  country  in  the  early  summer,  but  it  was  not  until  August 
that  the  work  of  destruction  began.  Writing  again  of  the  expe- 
dition Washington  said  the  purpose  was  "  to  cut  off  their  settle- 
ments, destroy  their  crops,  and  inflict  upon  them  every  Other  mis- 
chief which  time  and  circumstances  would  permit." 

The  purpose  of  the  expedition  was  primarily  to  destroy  the 
crops  and  villages  of  the  Indians,  after  which  Sullivan  was  to  move 
forward  and  capture  Niagara,  if  such  action  should  prove  to  be 
practicable. 

The  expedition  was  to  be  made  up  of  three  divisions.  The  first 
was  directly  under   the  command   of   Sullivan ;  and   the  forces   of 


THE   ORGANIZATION   OF   SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  3 1 

which  it  was  composed  assembled  at  Easton,  Pa.,  from  whidh  point 
they  marched  to  Wyoming  on  the  Susquehanna,  and  from  there 
to  Tioga  Point.  Here  they  waited  for  the  second  division  under 
the  command  of  General  Clinton,  who  had  sent  an  expedition  into 
the  Onondaga  country,  after  which  he  was  to  assemble  his  forces 
at  Canajoharie  and  march  across  the  country  to  the  head  of  Otsego 
Lake  and  then  come  down  the  Susquehanna  River  to  join  Sullivan 
at  Tioga.  The  third  division  was  under  the  command  of  Colonel 
Daniel  Brodhead,  who  started  from  Pittsburgh,  Pa.  He  never 
directly  co-operated  with  Sullivan,  but  no  doubt  aided  him  by  his 
movement.  He  left  Pittsburgh  on  the  nth  of  August  with  a  force 
of  six  hundred  and  fifty  men.  He  followed  the  Allegany  river  and 
passed  up  into  the  seneca  country,  where  he  destroyed  more  than 
one  hundred  and  fifty  houses  and  about  five  hundred  acres  of  corn. 
His  presence  in  the  southern  portion  of  the  Seneca  country  kept 
some  of  the  Senecas  from  joining  in  the  movement  to  oppose  Sul- 
livan and  so  lessened  the  Indian  force  at  the  battle  of  Newtown 
and  possibly  somewhat  affected  the  expedition.  The  original  in- 
tention was  to  have  Brodhead  join  Sulhvan  at  Genesee  and  aid  in 
the  movement  against  Niagara,  but  as  for  some  reason  no  move- 
ment was  made  against  Niagara  there  was  no  occasion  for  him 
to  do  more  than  he  did,  and  no  further  attention  need  be  given  his 
movement  as  a  part  of  the  Sullivan  expedition.  Brodhead  marched 
three  hundred  and  eighty  miles,  destroyed  houses,  cornfields,  and 
gardens,  and  did  his  part  in  destroying  the  Indian  civilization. 

Aside  from  the  force  of  Brodhead,  Sullivan's  expedition  was 
made  up  of  four  brigades.  The  first  consisted  of  the  First  New 
Jersey  regiment  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Matthias  Ogden ; 
the  Second  New  Jersey  commanded  by  Colonel  Israel  Shreve ;  the 
Third  New  Jersey  under  Colonel  Elias  Dayton,  and  Spencer's  New 
Jersey  regiment  commanded  by  Colonel  Oliver  Spencer.  The  bri- 
gade was  under  the  command  of  Brigadier-General  William  Max- 
w^ell. 

Brigadier-General  Enoch  Poor  commanded  the  second  brigade, 
which  was  made  up  of  the  First  New  Hampshire  regiment  under 
Colonel  Joseph  Cilley ;  the  Second  New  Hampshire  commanded 
by  Lieutenant-Colonel  George  Reid ;  the  Third  New  Hampshire 
commanded    by    Lieutenant-Colonel    Henry    Dearborn ;    the    Sixth 


32  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Massachusetts  under  the  command  of  Major  Daniel  Whiting.  The 
Sixth  Massachusetts  was  at  the  outset  a  part  of  the  fourth  brigade, 
and  the  Second  New  York  was  a  part  of  the  second  brigade,  but 
the  two  regiments  exchanged  brigades  in  August,  and  from  that 
time  till  the  close  of  the  expeditions  were  in  the  brigades  as  given 
in  this  sketch. 

The  third  brigade  was  commanded  by  Brigadier-General  Ed- 
ward Hand  and  was  composed  of  the  Fourtjh  Pennsylvania  regi- 
ment under  the  command  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  William  Butler; 
the  Eleventh  Pennsylvania  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Hubley;  the 
German  Battalion  under  Major  Daniel  Burchardt;  an  artillery  regi- 
ment under  Colonel  Thomas  Proctor ;  Morgan's  riflemen  under 
Major  James  Parr;  an  independent  rifle  company  under  Captain 
Anthony  Selin ;  the  Wyoming  militia  under  Captain  ]dhn  Franklin ; 
and  an  independent  Wyoming  company  under  Captain  Simon  Spald- 
ing. 

The  fourth  brigade,  commander  by  Brigadier-General  James 
Clinton,  was  made  up  of  the  Second  New  York  regiment  under  Col- 
onel Philip  Van  Cortlandt ;  the  Third  New  York  under  Colonel  Peter 
Gansevoort ;  the  Fourth  New  York  under  Colonel  Frederic  Weis- 
senfels ;  the  Fifth  New  York  under  Colonel  Lewis  Dubois ;  and  the 
New  York  artillery  detachment  under  Captain  Isaac  Wool. 

It  would  be  exceedingly  interesting  to  trace  the  movement  of 
each  of  the  regiments  engaged  in  the  expedition  from  their  place 
of  starting  to  the  various  rallying  places,  but  in  many  instances  the 
writer  has  been  unable  to  ascertain  the  facts  after  consulting  all  the 
works  relating  to  Sullivan's  expedition  to  be  found  in  the  State 
library,  and  other  libraries,  and  after  writing  to  the  secretary  of 
some  of  the  state  historical  societies.  Therefore  the  assembling  of 
the  forces  constituting  Sullivan's  expedition  will  have  to  be  treated 
in  rather  a  general  way. 

The  New  Hampshire  regiments  apparently  wintered  at  Soldier's 
Fortune,  about  six  miles  above  Peekskill,  as  diaries  of  various  New 
Hampsiiire  officers  engtaged  in  the  expedition  mention  marching 
from  that  point  and  I  find  no  reference  to  any  place  occupied  earlier. 
From  Soldier's  Fortune  the  New  Hampshire  troops,  certainly  the 
Second  and  Third  regiments,  and  presumably  the  whole  force, 
marched  to  Fishkill,  a  distance  of  seventeen  miles.     At  this  point 


THE   ORGANIZATION    OF   SULLIVAN's    EXPEDITION.  33 

they  crossed  the  Hudson  river  to  Newburgh.  From  that  place 
they  marched  to  the  New  Jersey  line  passing  through  Orange 
county.  They  took  a  route  leading  through  New  Wind'sor,  Bethle- 
hem, Bloomgrove  Church,  Chester,  Warwick,  and  Hardiston.  The 
distance  was  thirty-eight  miles.  From  Hardiston  the  force  marched 
to  Easton  on  the  Pennsylvania  side  of  the  Delaware  river.  It 
passed  through  Sussex  State  House,  Moravian  Mills,  Cara's  Tav- 
ern, all  these  places  being  in  the  state  of  New  Jersey.  The  dis- 
tance from  Hardiston  to  Easton  was  fifty-eight  miles. 

On  the  first  of  May,  1779,  the  Second  and  Fourth  New  York 
regiments  left  their  camp  near  the  Hudson  and  marched  to  War- 
warsing  in  the  southwestern  part  of  Uls'ter  county,  thence  to  EUen- 
ville,  a  few  miles  south  of  Warwarsing,  then  to  Mamacotting  (now 
Wurtsboro)  in  Su'llivan  county.  The  next  day  was  spent  in  rest 
at  Bashesland  (now  West  Brookville)  near  the  Sullivan  and  Orange 
county  line;  from  this  point  they  marched  to  Port  JerVis.  On  the 
9th  of  M'ay  they  crossed  the  Delaware  at  Decker's  Ferry,  and  from 
there  marched  to  Easton. 

The  New  Jersey  brigade  had  spent  the  previous  winter  at  Eliza- 
bethtown,  New  Jersey,  from  which  point  they  marched  to  Easton, 
passing  through  Bound  Brook. 

The  forces  which  gathered  at  Easton  marched  from  there  to 
Wyoming  on  the  Susquehanna,  a  distance  of  six'ty-five  miles.  Near- 
ly fortv  days  were  required  to  cover  that  distance.  The  way  lay 
through  thick  woods  and  almost  impassable  swamps.  The  route 
took  them  through  Hillier's  Tavern,  Brinker's  Mills,  Wind  Gap, 
Learn's  Tavern,  Dogon  Point,  and  the  Great  Swamp.  They  reach- 
ed Wyoming  on  the  24th  of  June. 

General  Sullivan  was  much  blamed  but  most  unjustly  so  for 
his  tardy  movement.  Pennsylvania  had  been  relied  upon  to  fur- 
nish not  only  a  considerable  body  of  troops  but  mosit  of  the  sup- 
plies, but  that  commonwealth  did  not  give  the  expedition  a  hearty 
support.  The  Quakers  were  most  decidedly  opposed  to  inflicting 
any  punishment  whatever  upon  the  Indians,  Other  Pennsylvanians 
were  offended  because  a  New  Englander  had  been  chosen  for  the 
command  instead  of  a  Pennsylvanian.  Troops  were  s^low  in  coming 
forward.  Supplies  were  furnished  tardily  and  reluctantly.  They 
were  insufficient  in  quantity  and  poor   in  quality.     The  commis- 


34  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

saries  were  careless  and  inefficient.  The  contractors  were  unscru- 
pulous and  dishonest.  The  authorities  complained  saying  that  Sul- 
livan's demand's  were  excessive  and  unreasonable  and  they  threat- 
ened to  prefer  charges  against  him.  However,  all  the  testimony 
goes  to  show  that  the  commissary  department  was  in  charge  of 
men  who  were  either  utterly  incompetent  or  grossly  negligent  of 
their  duty.  On  the  23rd  of  June  Sullivan  wrote  Washington  say- 
ing, "  more  than  one-third  of  my  soldiers  have  not  a  s'hirt  to  fheir 
backs."  On  the  30th  of  July  Colonel  Hubbard  wrote  to  President 
Reed  saying,  "  My  regiment  I  fear  will  be  almost  totally  naked 
before  we  can  possibly  return.  I  have  scarcely  a  coat  or  a  blanket 
for  every  seventh  man." 

On  the  31st  of  July  Sullivan's  army  left  Wyoming  for  Tioga 
Point,  A  fleet  of  more  than  two  hundred  boats  and  a  train  of 
nearly  fiftoen  hundred  pack  horses  were  required  to  transfer  the 
army  and  its  equipment.  Tioga  Poinlt  at  the  junction  of  the  Tioga 
and  the  Susquehanna  rivers  was  reached  on  the  nth  of  August. 
The  army  had  been  eleven  days  in  making  sixty-five  miles.  The 
route  from  Wyoming  led  through  Lackawanna  (now  Coxton)  in 
Luzerne  county ;  Quialutimuck,  near  Ransom  Station,  Luzerne 
county;  Hunkhannock ;  Vanderlip's  Farm  (now  Black  Walnut) 
Wyoming  county ;  Wyalusing,  Standing  Stone,  Bradford  county ; 
Shesh'hequin,  Bradford  county. 

While  waiting  for  Clinton  Sullivan  built  a  fort  which  was 
named  in  'his  honor,  between  the  Tioga  and .  Susquehanna  rivers 
about  a  mile  and  a  quarter  above  their  junction  at  a  point  where 
the  two  streams  were  within  a  few  hundred  yards  of  each  other. 
The  center  of  the  present  village  of  Athens,  Pa.,  is  almost  exactly 
at  this  point. 

Early  in  the  spring  Clinton  with  the  First  and  Third  New  York 
regiments  passed  up  the  Mohawk  to  Canajoharie.  From  this  point 
an  expedition  was  sent  out  against  the  Onondagas.  About  fifty 
houses  were  burned  and  nearly  thirty  Indians  were  killed  and  a 
somewhat  larger  number  taken  prisoners. 

After  this  expedition  Clinton  passed  from  Canajoharie  to  the 
head  of  Otsego  Lake.  This  was  a  laborious  enterprise  as,  for  a 
portion  of  the  distance,  roads  had  to  be  cut  through  an  unbroken 
forest  and  there  was  not  a  good  road  any  part  of  the  distance. 


THE   ORGANIZATION   OF   SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  35 

More  than  two  hundred  heavy  batteaux  had  to  be  drawn  across 
fiom  Canajoharie,  a  distance  of  twenty  miles,  by  oxen. 

Otseg"o  Lake,  the  source  of  the  Susquehanna,  is  about  twelve 
hundred  feet  above  tide  water,  nine  miles  long  with  an  average 
width  of  a  mile.  The  outlet  is  narrow  with  high  banks.  Here 
Clinton  built  a  dam  and  raised  the  water  of  the  lake  several  feet, 
sufficient  to  furnish  water  to  float  his  boats  when  the  time  came 
for  a  forward  movement. 

On  the  9th  of  August  ^Clinton's  forces  embarked  and  the  dam 
was  cut.  The  opening  of  the  dam  made  very  high  water,  flooding 
the  flats  down  the  river  and  frightening  the  Indians,  who  thoug'ht 
the  Great  Spirit  was  angry  with  them  to  cause  the  riv^er  to  be 
flooded  in  August  without  a  rain. 

During  his  passage  down  the  Susquehanna,  Clinton  destroyed 
Albout,  a  Scotch  Tory  settlement  on  the  east  side  of  the  Susque- 
hanna, about  five  miles  above  the  present  village  of  Unadilla ;  Coni- 
hunto,  an  Indian  town  about  fourteen  miles  below  Unadilla,  on  the 
west  side  of  the  river ;  Unadilla,  at  the  junction  of  the  Unadilla 
with  the  Susquehanna  ;  Onoquaga,  an  Indian  town  situated  on  both 
sides  of  the  river  about  twenty  miles  below  Unadilla ;  Shaw'hiangto, 
a  Tuscarora  village  near  the  present  village  of  Windsor,  in  Broome 
county ;  Ingaren,  a  Tuscarora  hamlet  where  is  now  the  village  of 
Great  Bend  ;  Otsiningo,  sometimes  called  Zeringe,  near  the  site  of 
the  present  village  of  Chenango,  on  the  Chenango  river,  four  miles 
north  of  Binghamton  ;  Choconut,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Susque- 
hanna at  the  site  of  the  present  village  of  Vestal,  in  the  town  of 
Vestal,  Broome  County;  Owegy  or  Owagea,  on  the  Oweg-o  Creek 
about  a  mile  above  its  mouth ;  and  Mauckatawaugum,  near  Barton. 

On  the  28th  of  August  Clinton  met  a  force  sent  out  by  Sullivan 
at  a  place  that  has  since  been  called  Union  because  of  this  meeting. 
It  is  about  ten  miles  from  Binghamton. 

The  two  forces  having  joined,  all  was  in  readiness  for  a  forward 
movement.  The  expedition  which  at  this  time  had  its  real  begin- 
ning, all  the  previous  movements  having  been  in  the  nature  of  or- 
ganization and  preparation,  was  a  remarkable  one  in  that  it  was 
to  pass  over  hundreds  of  miles  of  territory  of  which  no  reliable 
map  had  ever  been  made,  through  forests  where  no  roads  had  ever 
been  cut,  across  swamps  that  were  almost  impassable  to  a  single  in- 


36  KEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

dividual,  with  no  opportunity  to  communicate  with  the  rest  of  the 
world  from  the  time  they  set  out  on  their  forward  movement  till 
their  return,  no  chance  to  secure  additional  supplies,  no  hope  of  re- 
inforcements in  case  of  disaster,  no  suitable  provision  for  the  care 
of  the  sick  and  wounded,  no  chance  of  great  glory  in  case  of  suc- 
cess, no  hope  of  being  excused  in  case  of  failure.  It  was  a  brave, 
daring,  almost  reckless  movement.  It  was  successful  beyond  all 
expectation,  yet  its  story  is  almost  unknown. 


Note. — The  New  Hampshire  troops  marched  from  Soldier's 
Fortune,  six  miles  above  Peekskill,  to  Fishkill,  crossed  the  Hudson 
to  Newburgh,  then  across  Orange  County,  N.  Y.,  and  northern 
New  Jersey,  to  Easton  on  the  Delaware.  Some  New  York  troops 
who  wintered  at  Warvvarsing  in  Ulster  County,  N.  Y.,  passed  to 
Easton  also,  going  through  Chester,  in  Orange  County,  and  down 
the  Delaware  River  The  New  Jersey  troops  who  had  wintered  at 
Elizabethtown,  marched  to  Easton  From  this  point  the  united 
forces  marched  to  Wyoming,  on  the  Susquehanna  River.  Here 
they  were  joined  by  some  of  the  Pennsylvania  troops  and  the  whole 
force  passed  up  the  river  to  Tioga  Point,  where  they  awaited  the 
arrival  of  Clinton,  who  had  gone  up  the  Mohawk  and  after  de- 
stroying some  of  the  Onondaga  towns  crossed  from  Canajoharie  to 
the  head  of  Otsego  Lake  and  down  the  Susquehanna  to  join  Sul- 
livan. The  united  forces  then  marched  into  the  Indian  country, 
going  to  the  foot  of  Seneca  Lake,  down  its  east  shore,  thence  to  the 
foot  of  Canandaigua  Lake,  then  to  the  foot  of  Honeoye  Lake  and 
across  the  country  to  head  of  Conesus  Lake,  and  from  there  to  Lit- 
tle Beard's  Town  on  the  Genesee.  From  this  point  the  army  re- 
traced its  steps.  From  the  foot  of  Seneca  Lake  a  detachment  was 
sent  up  the  west  shore  a  few  miles  to  the  Indian  town  of  Kershong. 
Another  detachment  under  Colonel  Dearborn  went  up  the  west  side 
of  Cayuga  Lake  and  joined  the  main  body  at  Catherine's  Town, 
at  the  head  of  Seneca  Lake.  A  third  detachment  under  Colonel 
William  Butler  went  up  the  east  side  of  Cayuga  Lake  and  joined 
the  main  army  at  Kanawaholla,  not  far  from  the  present  city  of 
Corning.  All  these  movements  are  indicated  on  the  accompanying 
map. 


ROUTE   OF  SULLIVAN'S  FORCES. 


A  BIBLIOGRAPHY  OF  SULLIVAN'S 
INDIAN  EXPEDITION. 


By  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe,  A.  M.,  LL.  B. 


{Introductory  Note :  It  is  with  many  misgivings  that  this  paper 
is  submitted  to  the  Association.  When  its  preparation  was  assign- 
ed, I  assumed  that  previous  compilations  had  been  made,  and  that 
my  labors  would  be  confined  simply  to  their  continuation.  Upon 
investigation,  how^ever,  I  found  that  while  Justin  Winsor  in  his 
Hand  Book  of  the  Revolution,  and  in  his  invaluable  Narrative  and 
Critical  History,  and  oChers  in  various  works,  had  enumerated  many 
titles  which,  though  largely  incomplete,  would  aid  in  the  work,  no 
definitive  Bibliography  of  Sullivan's  Expedition  had  ever  been  pub- 
lished. 

Unfortunately,  when  these  pages  shall  have  been  printed,  this 
condition  will  still  exist.  I  have  not  been  able  to  command  from 
the  duties  of  an  exacting  profession,  the  time  required  for  the 
preparation  of  a  Bibliography  at  all  satisfactory,  even  to  myself. 
Moreover,  the  attention  I  have  been  able  to  bestow  upon  it  has 
been  that  of  an  amateur,  which  in  these  days  of  highly  developed 
scholastic  specialization,  is  very  inadequate  in  results.  It  is  pre- 
sented, however,  witli  some  confidence  that  it  contains  material 
which  will  aid  some  historica'l  specialist  of  the  future  in  the  prep- 
aration of  a  complete  Bibliography  of  Sullivan's  Expedition. 

I  have  made  no  attempt  to  include  manuscripts,  leaving  that 
for  a  supplementary  monograp^h,  or  to  some  more  competent  stu- 
dent. The  location,  however,  of  all  known  manuscripts  relating 
to  the  Expedition  is  given  in  the  various  volumes  to  which  refer- 
ence is  made.  Neither  have  I  included  references  to  the  general 
or  school  histories  of  the  United  States.  Sullivan's  Expedition  is 
mentioned  in  them  as  an  incident  of  more  or  less  significance  in 


38  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

the  struggle  for  independence.  In  none  of  them  is  it  given  the 
attention  to  which  its  importance  entitles  it.  Indeed,  it  is  a  ne- 
glected chapter  of  our  revolutionary  history.  The  Public  Library 
of  Boston  possesses  only  fourteen  titles  referring  directly  to  this 
great  march  into  the  Indian  country,  and  that  is  a  larger  number 
than  is  reported  either  in  the  New  York  Public  Library  or  in  the 
State  Library  at  Albany, 

I  desire  to  tender  my  thanks  to  Horace  G.  Wadlin,  Librarian 
of  the  Boston  Library,  to  Victor  H.  Paltsits,  Assistant  Librarian 
of  the  New  York  Public  Library,  and  to  Mary  Childs  Nerney  and 
others  of  the  History  Division  of  the  State  Library,  for  many  cour- 
tesies which  they  have  extended  to  me.) 

Adams,  Warren  D. : 

Sullivan's  Expedition  and  the  Cayugas. 
Cayuga   County  Historical   Society   Collections.       No.   7. 
23pp.     8  vo.     Auburn.     1889. 

Adler,  Simon  L. : 

Sullivan's  Campaign  in  Western  New  York,  1779. 
Read   before    the   Rochester   Historical    Society,   January 
14th,  1898.     8  pp.     8  vo.     New  York.     1898. 

Allen,  Paul: 

A  History  of  the  American  Revolution. 

2  vols.     Vol.  2.     pp.  276  et  seq.     8  vo.     Baltimore,    1822. 

Amory,  Thomas  Coffin : 

Life  of  James  Sullivan  with  selections  from  his  writings. 
2  vols.     pp.  426  and  419.     Portrait.     Phillips,   Sampson 
&  Co.,  Boston.     1859. 

The  Military  Services  and  Public  Life  of  Major  General 
John  Sullivan  of  the  American  Revolutionary  Army. 
324  pp.  Poptr.  8  vo.  Wiggin  &  Lunt,  Boston.  J. 
Munsell,  Albany,     1868. 


A    BIBLIOGRAPHY    OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  39 

The  Military  Services  of  John  SulHvan  in  the  American 
Revokition,  vindicated  from  recent  historical  criticism. 

Read  at  a  meeting  of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society, 
December,   1866.     With  additions  and  documents. 
64  pp.     8  vo.     John  Wilson  &  Son,  Cambridge.  1868. 

Centennial  Memoir  of  Major  General  John  Sullivan,  1740- 

1795- 
Presented   at    Independence   Hall,    Philadelphia,   July    2d, 
1876.     17  pp.     8  vo.     Philadelphia.     1879. 

Same. 

The  Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography. 

Vol.   2.     pp.    196-210. 

General  John  Sullivan.  A  vindication  of  his  Character 
as  a  Soldier  and  a  Patriot.  56  pp.  8  vo.  Morri- 
sania,  N.  Y.     1867. 

Memory  of  General  John  Sullivan  vindicated. 
Proceedings,  Massachusetts  Historical  Society.     Series  I. 
Vol.  9.     pp.  379-436. 

Sullivan's  Expedition  against  the  Six  Nations,   1779. 
Magazine  American  History.     Vol.  4.     pp.  420-427. 

A  Vindication  of  the  Character  of  General  Sullivan  as  a 

Soldier  and  a  Patriot. 
Historical  Magazine.     Vol.  10.     Supplement  VI.     pp.  161 

Same. 

Morrisania,  N.  Y.     1866. 

General  Sullivan's  Expedition  in   1779. 
Proceedings,   Massachusetts  Historical   Society.     Vol.   20. 
pp.    88-94. 


40  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION.  i 

Anonymous : 

An  Historical  Journal  of  the  American  War. 
Collections,  Massachusetts  Historical  Society. 
First  Series.     Vol.  2,     pp.   175-178. 

Master  Sullivan  of  Berwick,  his  Ancestors  and  Descen- 
dants. 
New  England  Historical  and  Genealogical  Register.     Vol. 
!  19.     pp.  289-306. 

The  Old  Sullivan  Road. 

Pennsylvania  Magazine.     Vol.  11.     p.  123. 

The  Old  Caneadea  Council  House  and  its  Last  Council 

Fire. 
Publications,  Buffalo  Historical  Society.     Vol.  6.     pp.  97- 

123.     8  vo.     Buffalo,  New  York. 

Extracts  from  letters  to  a  gentleman  in  Boston,  dated  at 

General   Sullivan's   Headquarters. 
The    Remembrancer   or    Impartial    Repository    of    Public 

Events   for   the  year    1780.     Vol.   9.     pp.   23-24.     J. 

Almon,  London.     1780. 

The  Story  of  Fantine  Kill. 

Olde  Ulster,     '^ol.  2.     pp.  106-107. 

Baker,  William  S. : 

Itinery  of  General  Washington,  with  notes. 
Pennsylvania  Magazine.     Vol.   15.     pp.  49-50. 

Bard,  Thomas  R. : 

Note  to  Lieutenant  Parker's  Journal. 
Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography.     Vol. 
27.     p.  404. 

Barton,  William    (Lieutenant  in   General   Maxwell's    New  Jersey 
Brigade)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  3-14. 


A   BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  4X 

Same. 

New  Jersey  Historical  Society  Proceedings.     Vol.  2.     pp. 
22-43. 

Beatty,  Erkuries  (Lieutenant  Fourth  Pennsylvania  Regiment). 

Journal  of  an  Expedition  to  the  Indian  Towns,  June  II, 

1779. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,    pp.  18-37. 

Same. 

Cayuga   County   Historical   Society  Collections. 

No.  I.     p.  61-68. 

Sr.me. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     Second  Series.     Vol.  15.     Portr. 
pp.  219-253. 

Blake,  Thomas   (Lieutenant  First  New  Hampshire  Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  38-41. 

Same. 

History  of  the  First  New  Hampshire  Regiment   in  the 

War  of  the  Revolution  by  Frederick  Kidder. 
Joel  Munsell.     Albany.     186S. 

Bleeker,  Captain  Leonard : 

The  Order  Book  of  Captain  Leonard  Bleeker  in  the  Early 
Part  of  the  Expedition  against  the  Indian  Settlements 
of  Western  New  York  in  the  Campaign  of  1779. 
p.  138.     4  to.     Joseph  Sabin.     New  York.     1865. 

Board  of  War: 

Letter  to  President  Reed. 

September  9th. 

(Report  as  to  progress.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  709. 


42  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Brodhead,  Daniel  (Colonel  Commanding  Western  Expedition)  : 
Letter  to  Major  General  Sullivan,  Aug-ust  6th,  1779. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  307. 

Report  of  the  Expedition. 

Pennsylvania  Packet   or  the   General  Advertiser.     Phila- 
delphia, October  19,  1779. 

Same. 

Magazine  of  American  History,  Vol.  3.     pp.  671-673. 

Same. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  307-309. 

Brooks,  Erastus : 
Address. 

American  History  and  American  Indian  Wars. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  410-423. 

Bruce,  Dwight  H. : 

Onondaga  Centennial. 

2  Vols.     Vol.  I.     p.  142.     4  to.     Boston,  1896. 

Bryant,  William  Clement: 

Captain  Brant  and  the  Old  King.    The  Tragedy  of  Wyom- 
ing- 
Publications,  Buffalo  Historical  Society. 
Vol.  4.     pp.  15-34.     8  vo.     Buffalo,  New  York. 

Burrowes,  John  (Major  Fifth  New  Jersey  Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  43-51. 

Campbell,  Douglass : 
Address. 
The    Iroquois  or   Six   Nations   and   New   York's   Indian 

Policy. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  457-470. 


A   BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  43 

Campbell,  William  W. : 

Annals  of  Tryon  County  or  the  Border  Warfare  of  New 
York  during  the  Revolution,  pp.  269.  p.  121  et  seq. 
12  mo.     J.  &  J.  Harper,  New  York.     1831. 

The  Border  Warfare  of  New  York  during  the  Revolution, 

or  The  Annals  of  Tryon  County. 
Republication  of  above,     pp.  396.     p.  149  et  seq.     Baker 

&  Scribner,  New  York.     1849. 

Lecture   on   the   Life   and    Military   Services    of   General 

James  Clinton. 
Read  before  the  New  York  Historical  Society,  February, 

1839. 

Campfield,  Jabez  (Surgeon  Fifth  New  Jersey  Regiment)  : 

Diary  of  Dr.  Jabez  Campfield,  Surgeon  in  Spencer's  Regi- 
ment while  attached  to  Sullivan's  Expedition  against 
the  Indians. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  52-61. 

Same. 

New  Jersey  Historical  Society  Proceedings. 

Second  Series.     Vol.  HL     pp.  115-136, 

Same. 

Wyoming  County  (Penn.)  Democrat,  December  31st, 
1873  to  January  28th,  1874.     (Five  issues.) 

Chapman,  Isaac  A. : 

Wyoming  Valley.     A  Sketch  of  its  Early  Annals. 
Pittston  Gazette  Centennial  Handbook.     1878.     p.  25. 

Chase,  Franklin  H. : 

Onondaga's  Soldiers  of  the  Revolution. 
8  vo.     p.  48.     Syracuse.     1895. 

Childs,  A.  L. : 

Poem,  John  Sullivan's  March. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  549-552. 


44  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

Clark,  John  S. : 

Sketdh  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  Henry  Dearborn,  Command- 
ing Third  New  Hampshire  Regiment,  and  Notes  up- 
on his  Journal, 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  62-78. 

Notes  and  Maps  accompanying  the  Journal  of  Lieutenant 

John  L.  Hardenburgh. 
New  York  Centennial  Volum-e.     pp.    1 16-136. 

Notes  upon  the  Journal  of  Thomas  Grant. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  142-144. 

Same. 

Publications,  Cayuga  County  Historical  Society. 
No.  I.     Auburn.     1879.     pp.  71-72, 

Note  upon  the  Journal  of  Lieutenant  Charles  Nukerck. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  213-214. 

Notes  upon  the  Journal  of  Sergeant  Major  George  Grant. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.   113. 

Clinton,  George: 

Papers.  Sparks.  MSS.  No.  XH.  Harvard  College 
Collections. 

Congress,  Journals  of  American,  from  1774- 1788.     4  vols.     8  vo. 
Vol.  HL    pp.  212,  241,  242,  346,  347,  351,  375,  389,  390, 

406. 
Washington,  Way  &  Gideon.     1823. 

Cook,  Frederick   (Secretary  of  State)  : 
New  York  Centennial  Volume. 

Conover,  George  S.   (Compiler)  : 

Journals  of  the  Military  Expedition  of  Major  General 
John  Sullivan  against  the  Six  Nations  of  Indians  in 
1779,  with   records  of  Centennial   Celebrations,  pre- 


A    BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION,  45 

pared  pursuant  to  Chapter  361,  Laws  of  the  State  of 
New  York,  1885.     pp.  581.     8  vo.     Maps.    Portraits. 
Auburn,  New  York.     1887. 
(Herein  designated  as  New  York  Centennial  Volume.) 

Early  History  of  Geneva, 

60  pp.     p.  17  et  seq.     12  mo.     Geneva,  New  York.     1879. 

Craft,  David : 

List  of  Journals,  Narratives,  &c.,  of  the  Western  Expe- 
dition, 1779. 
Magazine  of  American  History.     Vol.  U.     pp.  673-675. 

Sullivan's    Centennial    Historical    Addresses    at    Elmira, 

Waterloo  and  Geneseo. 
Centennial  Proceedings,  Waterloo  Library  and  Historical 

Society,  Waterloo,  1879. 

Journals  of  the  Sullivan  Expedition,  1779. 
Pennsylvania  Magazine,     p.  348. 

Biographical  Sketch  of  Major  General  John  Sullivan. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  333-334. 

Address. 

A  full  and  complete  History  of  the  Expedition  against 
the  Iroquois  or  Six  Nations  of  New  York  in  1779, 
commanded  by  Major  General  John  Sullivan,  with 
Appendix,  giving  Loss  of  Men,  Towns  Destroyed, 
Washington's  Instructions,  and  Biographical  Sketches. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  336-386. 

Same. 

The  Sullivan  Campaign  of  1779. 

Seneca  County  Sullivan's   Centennial,     p.  90. 

Biographical   Sketch,   Major   Nicholas   Fish. 
':  New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p,  383. 


46  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Biographical  Sketch,  Colonel  Lewis  Dubois. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  384. 

Biographical  Sketch,  Lieutenant  Colonel  Frederick  Weis- 

senfels. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  384. 

Biographical  Sketch,  Rev.   Samuel   Kirkland. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  385. 

Biographical  Sketch,  Rev.  John  Gano. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  385. 

Biographical  Sketch,  Colonel  John  Harper. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  386. 

Biographical   Sketch,   Brigadier  General  James   Clinton. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  387. 

Biographical  Sketch,  Colonel  Peter  Gansevoort. 
New   York   Centennial   Volume,     pp.   479-480. 

Biographical   Sketch,   Colonel  Philip  Van  Cortlandt. 
New   York   Centennial   Volume,     pp.    537-538. 

Craig,  Neville   B. : 

The  Olden  Time. 

Vol.  2.     pp.  308-317.     Pittsburgh.     1848. 

Same. 

Vol.  I.     p.  308  et  seq.     8  vo.     Robert  Clark  &  Co.,  Cin- 
cinnati.    1876. 

Dana,  E.  L. : 

Address. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  445-449. 

Davis,  Andrew  McFarland: 

Sullivan's  Expedition  against  the  Indians  of  New  York, 
1779.     A  letter  to  Justin  Winsor.     With  the  Journal 
of  William  McKendry, 
45  pp.     8  vo.     John  Wilson  &  Son,  Cambridge,  1886. 


A   BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  47 

Same. 

Proceedings,   Massachusetts  Historical   Society. 

Second   Series.     Vol.   2.     pp.  436-478.     Boston.     1886. 

List  of  Diaries  relating  to  General  Sullivan's  Campaign. 
Proceedings,   Massachusetts  Historical  Society. 
Second  Series.     Vol.  2.     p.  436-438. 

Davis,  Nathan   (Private  First  New  Hampshire  Regiment)  : 

History  of  the  Expedition  against  the  Five  Nations  com- 
manded by  General  Sullivan  in  1779. 
Historical   Magazine.     Second   Series.     Vol.   3.     pp.   198- 
205. 

Dawson,  Henry  B. ; 

Battles  of  the  United  States. 

2  Vols,     Vol.  I.    p.  533.    4  to.     New  York.     1858. 

Dearborn,   Henry    (Lieutenant   Colonel   Commanding  Third   New 
Hampshire  Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  63-79. 

Same. 

Cayuga  County  Historical  Collections.     No.   i.     1879. 

Same. 

Publications,  Buffalo  Historical  Society. 

Vol.  7.     p.  96.     8  vo.     Buffalo,  New  York. 

Depeyster,  J.  Watts : 

Sullivan  Centennial. 

New  York  Mail,  August  26th,  1879. 

Celebrating  the  Anniversary  of  the  Battle  of  Newtown. 
New  York  Mail,  August  29th,  1879. 

The  Sullivan  Campaign. 

New  York  Mail,  September  15th,   1879. 


48  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Doty,  Lockwood  L. : 

History  of  Livingston  County. 

Illustrated,  p.  685.  pp.  113  and  151  et  seq.  Edward 
E.  Doty,  Geneseo. 

Dwig-ht,  Timothy,  S.  T.  D.,  LL.  D. : 

Travels  in  New  England  and  New  York. 

4  vols.     Vol.  4.    p.  211.     New  Haven.     1822. 

Edson,  Otied: 

Brodhead's  Expedition  against  the  Indians  of  the  Upper 
Allegheny.  (Contains  reference  to  Sullivan's  Expe- 
dition.) 

Magazine  American  History.     Vol.  HI.     pp.  647-670. 

Elmer,  Dr.  Ebenezer  (Surgeon  Second  New  Jersey  Regiment)  : 

Memoirs  of  an  Expedition  undertaken  against  the   Sav- 
ages to  the  westward  commenced  by  the  Hon.  Major 
General  John  Sullivan,  began  at  Easton  on  the  Dela- 
ware   (by  Lieutenant  Ebenezer  Elmer). 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  80-85. 

Same. 

New  Jersey  Historical  Society  Proceedings.  Vol.  2.  pp. 
43-50. 

Elwood,  Mary  Cheney: 

An  Episode  of  the  Sullivan  Campaign  and  its  Sequel. 
(The  Post-Express  Printing  Co.)     39  pp.     8  vo.     Plates. 
Maps.     Rochester,  New  York.     1904. 

Farmer  &  Moore's  Collections,  Historical  and  Miscellaneous  and 
Monthly  Literary  Journal.     Vol.  2.     p.  308. 

Fellows,  Moses  (Orderly  Sergeant  Captain  Gray's  Company  Third 
New   Hampshire   Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,    pp.  86-91. 


A   BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  49 

Fogg,  Jeremiah  (Pa>-master  and  Captain  (on  roster)   Second  New 
Hampshire  Regiment)  : 
Journal  of  Major  Jeremiah  Fogg  of  Col.  Poor's  Regiment, 
New   Hampshire,  during  the   Expedition   of   General 
Sullivan  in  1779  against  the  Western  Indians. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  92-101. 

Same. 

News  Letter  Press,   1879.     P-  26-     Exeter,  New  Hamp- 
shire. 

Gano,  John   (Brigade  Chaplain  General  Clinton's  Brigade)  : 
A  Chaplain  of  the  Revolution. 
Historical  Magazine.     First  Series.     Vol.  5.     pp.  330-335 

Gansevoort,  Peter  (Colonel  Third  New  York  Regiment)  : 
Letter  to  General  Sullivan. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  2>7~'Z7Z- 

Gookin,  Daniel    (Ensign  Second  New  Hampshire  Regiment)  : 

Journal  of  March  from  North  Hampton,  N.  Hampshire, 

in  the  year  1779. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.   102-106. 

Same. 

New  England  Historical  and  Genealogical  Register. 
Vol.  XVL     pp.  27-34. 
Gould,  Jay: 

Delaware  County  and  the  Border  Wars  of  New  York. 
pp.  426.     p.  90  et  seq.     12  mo.     Roxbury.     1856. 

Gordon,  William,  D.  D. : 

The  History  of  the  Rise,  Progress  and  Establishment  of 

the  Independence  of  the  United  States. 
4  Vols.     Vol.  3.     pp.  307-313.     8  vo.     London,  1788. 

Goodwin,  H.  C. : 

Pioneer  History  of  Cortland  County,     p.  456.     p.   56  et 
seq.     12  mo.     A.  B.  Burdick,  New  York.     1859. 


53  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Grant,  George  (Sergeant  Major  Third  New  Jersey  Regiment)  : 

A  journey  of  the  Marches,  &c.,  completed  by  the  Third 
Jersey  Regiment  and  the  rest  of  the  Troops  under 
the  command  of  Major  Sullivan  in  the  Western  Ex- 
pedition. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.   107-114. 

Same. 

Hazard's  Register  of  Pennsylvania.     Vol.  14.     pp.  72-76. 

Same. 

Cayuga  County  Historical  Collections.     No.   i.     1879. 

Same. 

Wyoming   Republican.     July    16,    1834.      Wilkes-Barre. 
1868. 

Giant,  Thomas  (Surveyor)  : 
Journal. 

General  Sullivan's  Expedition  to  the  Genesee  Country — 
A  Journal  of  Janaral  Sullivan's  Army  after  they  left 
Wyoming. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  137-144. 

Same. 

Historical  Magazine.     First  Series.     Vol    6.     pp.  233-273 

Same. 

Cavuga  County  Historical  Collections.  No.  i.  Auburn. 
1879. 

Statement  of  Distances. 

Historical   Magazine.     Vol.   6.     pp.   233-273. 

Gray,  Captain  William: 

Letter  of  Captain  William  Gray  of  the  Fourth  Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment,  with  a  map  of  the  Sullivan  Expedi- 
tion (against  The  Six  Nations). 

Pennsylvania  Ardhives.  Second  Series.  Vol.  15.  pp. 
286-290. 


A    BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  5r 

Greene,  General  Nathaniel: 

Letter  to  Colonel  Jeremiah  Wadsworth. 
Pennsylvania  Magazine.     Vol.  22.     p.  211. 

Greenough,  Charles  P. : 

Roster  of  Officers  in  Sullivan's  Expedition,   1779. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  315-329. 

Gridley,  A.  D. : 

History  of  the  Town  of  Kirkland,  New  York. 
New  York.     1874. 

Griffis.  William  Elliot,  L.  H.  D. : 
Address. 

The  History  and  Mythology  of  Sullivan's  Expedition. 
Proceedings  Wyoming  Commemorative  Association,     pp. 
9-38.     Wilkes-Barre.     1903. 

New  Hampshire's  Part  in  Sullivan's  Expedition  of  1779. 
New  England  Magazine,     Vol.  23.     pp.  355-373. 

The  Pathfinders  of  the  Revolution.  A  Story  of  the  Great 
March  into  the  Wilderness  and  Lake  Region  of  New 
York  in  1779.  Illustrated,  pp.  316.  12  mo.  W.  A. 
Wilde  Co.,  Boston. 

Sullivan's  Great  March  into  the  Indian  Country. 
The  Magazine  of  History.      Vol.  II.      pp.  295-311,  365- 
378.     Vol.  III.     pp.  i-io. 

Griffith,  J.  H.: 

William   Maxwell  of  New  Jersey,   Brigadier  General  in 

the  Revolution. 
New  Jersey  Historical  Society  Proceedings.     Vol.  23.     pp. 
111-126. 

Halsey,  Francis  W. : 

Pennsylvania  and  New  York  in  the  Border  Wars  of  the 
Revolution. 


52  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION, 

Proceedings,   Wyoming   Commemorative   Association   for 
the  year  1898.     Wilkes-Barre.     1898. 

The  Old  New  York  Frontier. 

Illustrated,     pp.  432,     p.  220  et  seq.     8  vo.     Chas.  Scrib- 
ner's  Sons,  New  York,  1901. 

Hamilton,  John  C. : 

History  of  the  Republic  of  the  United  States  of  America. 
2  Vols.     Vol.  I.     pp.  543-544.     8  vo.     D.  Appleton  &  Co., 
New  York,  1857. 

Hammond,  Isaac  W. : 

Rolls  of  the  Soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary  War  from  New 

Hampshire. 
New  Hampshire  State  Papers.       Vol.   15.       (War  Rolls, 
Vol.  2.)     Concord,  N.  H.,  i^ 


Hand,  General  Edward : 
Letter  to  Reed. 
September  25th,  1779. 
(Reports  return  of  Sullivan's  command.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  715. 

Hardenburgh,  John  L.  (Lieutenant  Second  New  York  Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  116-136. 

Same,  with  introductory  notes  and  maps  by  John  S.  Clark 
and  Biographical  Sketch  by  Charles  Hawley. 

Cayuga  County  Historical  Society  Collections.  No.  i.  8 
vo.     Auburn,  New  York,  1879. 

Harding,  Garrick  M. : 

The  Sullivan  Road. 

Historical   Record.     Vol.   9.     p.    loi. 

Hawley,  Charles: 

Address,    Sullivan's   Campaign. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  571-578. 


A    BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  53 

Biographical  Sketch  of  Lieutenant  John  L.  Hardenburgh. 
Cayuga  County  Historical  Society  Collections.     No.  i.     8 
vo.     Auburn,  New  York,  1879. 

Hazard,  Eben : 

Letter  to  Jeremy  Belknap. 

Proceedings,  Massachusetts  Historical  Society. 

Fifth  Series.     Vol.  2.     pp.  23-36. 
Holmes,  Abiel  D.  D. : 

Annals  of  America. 

2  Vols,     Vol.  2,     p.  301  et  seq.     Cambridge,  Mass.     1829. 

Hoops,  Adam  (Major.     Third  Aide-de-Camp  to  General  Sullivan)  : 
Letter  to  John  Greig. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  3 10-3 11. 

Hubbard,  John   N. : 

Sketches  of  Border  Adventures  in  the  Life  and  Times  of 
Major  Moses  Van  Campen.     Bath,  New  York,  1842. 

Hubley,  Colonel  Adam  (Lieutenant  Colonel  commanding  Eleven tli 
Pennsylvania  Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.   145-167. 

Same. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     Second  Series.     VjI.  XL     (Vol. 
2  of  the  Revolution.)     pp.  11-44. 

.3ame. 

Miner's  History  of  Wyoming.     Appendix,     pp.  82-104. 

Riiladelphia,     1845. 

Letter  to  President  Reed. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     Second  Series.     Vol.  VH.  p.  553 

Same. 

Pennsvlvania  Archives.     Second  Series.     Vol.  3.     p.  319. 


54  KEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Same. 

Miner's   History   of  Wyoming.     Appendix,     p.   97. 

Same. 

Wyoming,  July.  14th,  1779. 

As  to  Expedition. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  553. 

Same. 

October  ist,  1779. 

(Report  of  Expedition  for  August  30th.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  721. 

Same. 

Easton,  October  i8th,  1779. 

(Announcing  arrival  and  complaining  as  to  want  of  teams) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  755. 

Hubley,  John : 

Letter  to  Reed. 

August  24th,  1779. 

(Report  as  to  Expedition.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  667. 

Hunter,  Colonel  Samuel : 
Letter  to  Reed. 
August  4th,  1779. 

(Reports  Sullivan  started  for  Wyoming.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  620. 

Hurd,  D.  Hamilton: 

History    of    Tioga,    Chemung,    Tompkins    and    Schuyler 

Counties. 
pp.  687.     p.  13  et  seq.     4  to.     Philadelphia.     1879. 

Jenkins,  John  (Lieutenant.     Guide)  : 

Journal  of  Lieutenant  John  Jenkins  connected  with  the 
Compaign  of  General  Sullivan  against  the  Six  Na- 
tions, 1779. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.   169-177. 


A    BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  55 

Jenkins,  Steuben : 
Address. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  451-457. 

Jones,  Thomas : 

History  of  New  York  during  the  Revolutionary  War. 
2  Vols.     Vol.  2.     pp.  332  and  613.     8  vo.     New  York. 
1879. 

Johnson,  Crisfield : 

Centennial  History  of  Erie  County,  New  York, 
pp.  512.     p.  62  et  seq.     8  vo.     Buffalo,     1876. 

Keiffer,  Rev.  Henry  M. : 

The  Old  Sullivan  Road. 

Proceedings,   Wyoming  Commemorative   Association    for 
the  year  1897.     Wilkes-Barre.     1898. 

Kidder,  Frederick: 

History  of  the  First   New  Hampshire   Regiment  in   the 

War  of  the  Revolution. 
Joel  Munsell,  Albany.     1868. 

Kirkland,  Rev.  Samuel   (Chaplain  Sullivan's  Expedition)  : 
Life  of  Rev.  Samuel  Kirkland,  by  S.  K.  Lothrop. 
Sparks   Library  of  American   Biography.     Vol.   XV.     p. 
246  et  seq. 

Livermore,  Daniel  (Captain  Third  New  Hampshire  Regiment)  : 

A  Journal  of  the  March  of  General  Poor's  Brigade  from 

Soldier's  Fortune  on  the  Western  Expedition,   May 

T7th,  1779. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  178-191. 

Same. 

Collections,  New  Hampshire  Historical  Society.     Vol.  6. 
pp.  308-335. 


56  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Lossing,  B.  J. : 

Field  Book  of  the  American  Revolution. 

Vol.  I.     p.  271.     8  vo.     Harper  &  Bros.,  New  York. 

Lothrop,  S.  K. : 

Life  of  Rev.  Samuel  Kirkland. 

Sparks  Library  of  American  Biography.     Vol.  15.     p.  246 
et  seq. 

Mackin,  Thomas  (Captain  Second  Regiment  New  York  Artillery)  : 
Journal  of  March  from  Fort  Schuyler — Expedition  against 

the  Onondagas,  1779. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.   192-194. 

Distance  of  places  from  Eastown  to  Chenesee  Castle,  taken 

in  1779. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  194. 

Maclay,  William: 

Letter  to  Reed. 

July  26th,  1779. 

(Prospects  of  Northern  Expedition.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  586. 

Letter  to  Council. 

July  30th,  1779. 

(As  to  fall  of  Ft.  Freeland.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  597. 

Marshall,  John: 

Life  of  Washington. 

Vol.  4.     p.  105  et  seq.     8  vo.     Philadelphia.     1805. 

Mars'hall,  Orasamus  H. : 

The  Niagara  Frontier. 

Publications,  Buffalo  Historical  Society. 

Vol.  2.     pp.  395-425.     8  vo.     Buffalo,  New  York. 


A   BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN  S    EXPEDITION.  57 

Historical  Writings  relating  to  the  Early  History  of  the 
West.  500  p.  pp.  455-457.  8  vo.  Joel  Munsell's 
Sons,  Albany,  1887. 

Maxwell,  Thompson: 

The  Narrative  of  Major  Thompson  Maxwell. 
Historical  Collections  of  Essex  Institute.     Vol.  7.     No.  3. 

Miner,  Charles: 

History  of  Wyoming. 

Illustrated,  pp.  450.  Appendix  p.  104.  Appendix  p. 
82  et  seq.     p.  97  et  seq.     J.  Crissy,  Philadelphia. 

Moore,  Frank: 

Correspondence  of  Henry  Laurens. 

2  Vols.  4  to.  Vol.  I.  pp.  132-141.  Vol.  2.  p.  216. 
New  York.     1861. 

Diary  of  the  American  Revolution. 

2  Vols.  8  vo.  Vol.  2.  p.  216  et  seq.  Charles  Scribners, 
New  York.     i860. 

Moore,  Jacob  B. : 

A  List  of  Manuscript  Surveys  by  Robert  Erskine,  Geog- 
rapher to  the  American  Army,  and  Simeon  DeWitt, 
in  the  Library  of  the  New  York  Historical  Society. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  291-292. 

Morgan,  Lewis  H. : 

League  of  the  Ho-de-no-sau-nee  or  Iroquois. 
8  vo.     Rochester.     185 1. 

Mcintosh,  W.  H. : 

History  of  Ontario  County. 

276  pp.     p.  9  et  seq.     Folio.     Philadelphia. 

McKendry,  William  (Lieutenant  and  Quartermaster  Sixth  Massa- 
chusetts Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  198-212. 


58  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Same. 

Edited  by  Andrew  McFarland  Davis.  45  pp.  8  vo.  J. 
Wilson  &  Son,  Cambridge.     1886. 

Same. 

Proceedings,  Massachusetts  Historical  Society.  Series  2. 
Vol.  2.     pp.  442-478.     Boston.     1886. 

Same. 

Historical  Record.     Vol.   i.    pp.  37-56. 

McMaster,  Guy  H. : 

Poem.     The   Commanders :  Sullivan  Thay-en-da-ne-gea. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  402-409. 

McNeill,  Samuel: 

Journal  of  Samuel  McNeill,  B.  Q.  M.  "His  Orderly 
Book,"  1779. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.  Second  Series.  Vol.  15.  pp. 
753-759-     Harrisburg.     1893. 

Nead,  Benjamin  M. : 

A  Sketch  of  General  Thomas  Proctor. 
Pennsylvania  Magazine.     Vol.  4.     p.  454. 

Nesmith,  George  W. : 

Services  of  General  Sullivan. 

Granite  Monthly.     Vol.  i.     pp.  325-330. 

New  Hampshire,  State  of 

Rolls  of  the  Soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary  War  from  New 

Hampshire.     Compiled  by  Isaac  W.  Hammond. 
New  Hampshire  State  Papers.     Vol.  15.     (War  Rolls  Vol. 

2.)     Concord,  N.  H.     1886. 

New  Jersey,  State  of 

Official  Register  of  the  Officers  and  Men  of  New  Jersey 
in  the  Revolutionary  War.  pp.  49-57.  8  vo.  Tren- 
ton.    1872. 


A   BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN's    EXPEDITION.  59 

New  York,  State  of 

New  York  Centennial  Volume. 

New  York  in  the  Revolution  as  Colony  and  State.  Rec- 
ords discovered,  arranged  and  classified  in  1895,  1896, 
1897  and  1898,  by  James  A.  Roberts,  Comptroller, 
Second  Edition.  4  to.  pp.  534.  pp.  29-59.  PP-  63- 
65.     Portraits,     Albany.     1898. 

Norris,  James  (Captain  Third  New  Hampshire  Regiment)  : 

A  Journal    of   the   West   Expedition   commanded   by   the 
Hon.ble    Major   General   Sullivan,   begun   at    Easton, 
June  18,  1879. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  22y2'i^(^. 

Same. 

Publications,  Buffalo  Historical  Society.  Vol.  i.  pp.  217- 
252.     8  vo.     Buffalo,  New  York.     1879. 

Same. 

Jones'  History  of  New  York.     Vol.  2.     p.  613. 

Sams. 

Hill's  New  Hampshire  Patriot.  September  i6th,  1843, 
Portsmouth,   New  Hampshire. 

Norton,  A.  Tiffany : 

History  of  Sullivan's  Campaign  against  the   Iroquois, 
Being  a  full  account  of  that  epoch  of  the  Revolution. 
200  pp.     Portraits.     Map,     8  vo.     A,  T.  Norton,     Lima, 
New  York.     1879. 

Nourse,  Joseph : 

Letter  to  General  Lee, 

Collections,  New  York  Historical  Society,  Vol,  6,  pp. 
383-385. 

Nukerck,  Charles  (Captain  Second  New  York  Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  214-222. 


6o  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION, 

O'Reilly,  Henry: 

Notices  of  Sullivan's  Campaign,  or  the  Revolutionary 
Warfare  in  Western  New  York ;  embodied  in  the  Ad- 
dresses and  Documents  connected  with  the  funeral 
honors  rendered  to  those  who  fell  with  the  gallant 
Boyd  in  the  Genesee  Valley,  including  the  remarks  of 
Gov.  Seward  at  Mt,  Hope.     Rochester.     1842, 

Sullivan's  Expedition  against  the  Six  Nations  as  far  as 

the  Genesee  in  1779. 
Sketches  of  Rochester,     p.  393  et  seq,     8  vo,     Rochester, 

New  York, 

Parker,  General  Ely  S.   (Do-ne-ho-geh-weh)  : 
Autobiography, 

Publications,  Buffalo  Historical  Society,  Vol,  8.  p,  527. 
8  vo,     Buft'alo,  New  York. 

Parker,  Jennie  Marsh : 

A  Story  Historical,  pp.  412.  p.  20,  p.  235,  8  vo. 
Rochester,     1884. 

Parker,  Robert  (Lieutenant)  : 
Journal. 

Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography.  Vol. 
27.     pp.  404-420.     Vol.  28.     pp.  12-25, 

Peabody,  Oliver  W.  B. : 
John   Sullivan. 
Sparks  Library  of  American  Biography.     Series  2.     Vol.  3 

Peck,  George,  LL.  D. : 

Wyoming,  its  History,  Stirring  Incidents  and  Romantic 
Adventures.  Illustrated,  p.  432.  12  mo.  Harper 
Brothers,  New  York.     1858. 

Peck,  William  F. : 

Semi-Centennial  History  of  the  City  of  Rochester. 

pp.  736.     p.  70  et  seq.  and  p.  134.     4  to.     Syracuse.     1884. 


A    BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN 's    EXPEDITION.  6 1 

Landmarks  of  Monroe  County,    pp.  339.     p.  29  et  seq. 
4  to.     Boston,  Mass.     1895. 

Pettitt,  Charles  O.  M.  G. : 
Letter  to  Reed. 
May  2ist,  1779. 
(As  to  impressing,  &c.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol,  7.     p.  433. 

Pickering,  Timothy  (for  Board  of  War)  : 
Letter  to  Joseph  Reed. 
May  19th,  1779. 
(As  to  stores.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p,  418. 

Porter,  William  A. : 

A  Sketch  of  the  Life  of  General  Andrew  Porter, 
Pennsylvania  Magazine,     Vol.  4.     p.  264. 

Reed,  Joseph  (President  State  of  Pennsylvania)  : 
Letter  to   Sullivan. 
May  2ist,  1779. 
(Ans.  Sullivan  of  nth.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series,     Vol.  7.     pp,  427- 
430. 

Same. 

June  3d,  1779. 

(As  to  Pennsylvania  Troops  guarding  stores  to  Wyoming. 

Ans.     May  26th  and  31st,  1779,) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7,     pp.  457-8. 

Letter  to  Colonel  Sam,  Hunter, 

(As  to  guarding  stores  by  Ranging  Cos,) 

Pennsylvania  Archives,     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  455. 

Letter  to  Board  of  War, 
May  20th,  1779, 


62  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

(As  to  Sullivan's  misapprehension  as   to  what  Pennsyl- 
vania would  do.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  424. 

Same. 

August  1 2th,  1779. 

(Progress   of  Expedition.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7,     p.  640, 

Letter  to  Washington. 

July  nth,  1779. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  555. 

Same. 

September  7th,  1779. 

(As  to  furnishing  Sullivan  with  supplies.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  684. 

Letter  to  Council. 
November  13th,  1779. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     Fourth  Series.     Vol.  3.     pp.  739- 
740. 

Rider,  Sidney  S. : 

Notes  to  the  Journal  of  Rev.  William  Rogers,  D.  D.,  Rhode 
Island  Tracts.     No.  7. 

Same. 

Manufacturers  and  Farmers  Journal  of  Providence,  R.  L 
1823. 

Same. 

American  Universal  Magazine.    Vol.  i.  pp.  390-399.  Vol. 
2.     pp.  86-91. 

Roberts,  Ellis  H. : 

Address.     Sullivan's  Expedition  and  its  Fruits. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  425-438. 


A   BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN's    EXPEDITION.  63 

Roberts,  Jatnes  A.  (Comptroller  State  of  New  York)  : 

New  York  in  the  Revolution  as  Colony  and  State.     Rec- 
ords discovered,  arranged  and  classified  in  1895,  1896, 
1897  and  1898. 
Second  Edition.      4  to.      p.  534.     PP-  29-59.     pp.  63-65. 
Portraits.     Albany.     1898. 

Roberts,  Thomas  (Sergeant  Capt.  John  Burrowes'  Company  Fifth 

New  Jersey  Regiment.) 
A  Journal  of  the  March  from  Eleazabeth  Town  to  the 

Back  Woods. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  240-245. 

Rochester : 

A  Story  His-torical,  Jennie  Marsh  Parker,     pp.  412.     p. 
20.     p.   235.     8   vo.     Rochester.     1884. 

Rogers,    Rev.    William,    D.    D.    (Brigade    Chaplain    Pennsylvania 
Line)  : 
Journal. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  246-265. 

Same. 

Rhode  Island  Tracts.     No.  7.     With  an  introduction  and 
Notes  by  Sidney  S.  Rider. 

Same. 

Manufacturers  and  Farmers  Journal  of  Providence,  1823. 

Same. 

American  Universal  Magazine.     Vol.  i.    pp.  390-399.  Vol. 
2.     pp.  86-91,  200-206. 

Same. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     Second  Series.     Vol.  15.     Portr. 
pp.  255-288.     Harrisburg.     1893. 

Rogers,  William  (Sergeant  Second  New  York  Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     p.  266. 


64  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Ryerson,  Egerton,  D.  D.,  LL.  D. : 
Loyalists  of  America. 

2  Vols.     Vol,  2.     p.  io8.     8  vo.     Toronto  and  Montreal, 
i88o. 

Salmon,  John : 

Journal. 

A  Narrative  of  the  Life  of  Mary  Jemison,  otherwise  called 

the  White  Woman,  by  James  E.  Seaver. 
Third  Edition.     Batavia,  New  York.     1844. 

Sanborn,  Frank  B. : 

General  John  Sullivan  and  the  Rebellion  in  New  Hamp- 
shire 
New  England  Magazine,     Vol.  23,     p.   323, 
(Contains  an  interesting  study  of  General  Sullivan's  Char- 
acter,) 

Schreve,  John  (Lieutenant  Second  New  Jersey  Regiment)  : 
Journal, 
Magazine  of  American  History.     Vol.  3.     pp.  571-572. 

Seaver,  James  E. : 

Deh-he-wa-mis  or  A  Narrative  of  the  Life  of  Mary  Jemi- 
son, otherwise  called  the  White  Woman. 
Third  Edition,     16  mo,     Batavia,  New  York,     1844. 

Journal  of  John  Salmon, 
In  above. 

General  Sullivan's  Expedition  to  Western  New  York. 
In  above.     Appendix  p.  182  et  seq. 

Removal  of  the  remains  of  Boyd. 
In  above.     Appendix  p.  192  et  seq. 

Sherman,  William  T. : 
Addresses. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  439-442. 


A    BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN's    EXPEDITION.  65 

Shute,  Samuel  M.  (Lieutenant  Second  New  Jersey  Reg-iment)  : 
Journal  and   Notes  made  contemporaneously. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  267-274. 

Simms,  Jeptha  R. : 

History  of  Schoharie  County  and  Border  Wars  of  New 
York.  pp.  672.  8  vo.  Illustrated,  p.  291  et  seq. 
Munsell  &  Tanner,  Albany.     1845. 

Frontiersmen  of  New  York   (Revision  of  the  History  of 

Schoharie  County  and  Border  Wars  of  New  York). 
2  Vols.     Vol.  2.     pp.  239-276.     8  vo.     Albany.     1882. 

Stone,  William  L. : 

Life  of  Joseph  Brant  (Tha-gen-dan-e-gea),  including  the 
Border  Wars  of  the  American  Revolution. 

Illustrated.  2  Vols.  8  vo.  Albany.  1838.  1864.  (Dif- 
ferent editions.) 

The  Poetry  and  History  of  Wyoming. 
Illustrated,     pp.  324.     8  vo.     Wiley  &  Putnam,  New  York 
and  London.     1841. 

Same. 

pp.  406.     p.  2^"]  et  seq.     12  mo.     J.  Munsell,  Albany,  1864. 

Border  Wars  of  the  American  Revolution. 
2  Vols.     V^l.  I.     p.  I  et  seq.     16  mo.     Harper  Brothers, 
New  York.     1846. 

Stryker,  William  S. : 

Official  Register  of  the  Officers  and  Men  of  New  Jersey  m 
die  Revolutionary  War.  C  vo.  pp.  49-57-  Trenton. 
1872. 

Sullivan,  John  (Major  General)  : 

Report  of  the  Battle  of  Newtown. 

The  Military  Services  and  Public  Life  of  Major  General 
John  Sullivan,  by  Thomas  C.  Amory.     p.  121. 


66  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Same. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  473-476. 

The  Chronicle  of  his  Expedition  against  the  Iroquois  in 
1779 — The  devastation  of  the  Genesee  Country. 

Maryland  Journal  and  Baltimore  Advertiser,  October  19th, 
1779.     Baltimore,  Maryland. 

Same. 

The  Military  Services  and  Public  Life  of  Major  General 
John  Sullivan,  by  Thomas  C.  Amory.     p.  130. 

Same. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  296-305. 

Same. 

The  Rememlbrancer  or  Impartial  Repository  of  Public 
Events  for  the  year  1780.     Vol.  9.     p.  158. 

Letter  to  John  Langdon  and  some  comments  by  George 

W.  Nesmith. 
Granite  Monthly.     Vol.  3.     pp.  153-161. 

Letter  to  Reed. 

Easton,  May  nth,  1779. 

(Requesting  order  empowering  Quartennasters  to  Impress 

Waggons,  Horses,  &c.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  388. 

Same. 

Easton,  Pa.,  May  26th,  1779. 

(Ans.  rec'd  of  21st  inst.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  439. 

Same. 

Easton,  Pa.,  May  31st,   1779. 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  450. 

Same. 

Easton,  June  7th,  1779. 

(Lamenting  obstructions  in  Quartermaster's  Department.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.,    p.  473. 


A    BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN's    EXPEDITION.  67 

Same. 

Wyoming,  July  21st,  1779. 

(Complaining  that    Pennsylvania   Rangers    and    Riflemen 

had  not  joined.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     F'irst  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  568. 

Letter  to  Colonel  John  Cook. 

Headquarters,  July  30th,    1779. 

(Answering  requisition.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  593. 

Letter  to  Colonel  Sam.  Hunter. 

Wyoming,  July  30th,   1779. 

(Acknowledging  news  of  loss  of  Ft.  Freeland.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  594. 

Letter  to  Reed. 

Easton,  October  i8th,  1779. 

(Requisition  for  100  Waggons.) 

Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  756. 

Same. 

Easton,  October  23d,  1779. 

(Acknowledging  action  of  Executive  Council  and  declining 

as  too  late.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  768. 

Letter  to  the  Warriors  of  the  Oneida  Nation,  &c. 

The  Remembrancer  or   Impartial   Repository    of    Public 

Events  for  the  year  1780.     Vol.  9.     pp.  25-28.     J.  Al- 

mon,  London.     1780. 

Address  to  Troops. 
Same.     pp.  24-25. 

Latter  to  the  Congress  containing  his  acct.  of  his  Expe- 
dition against  the  Indians. 
Same.     pp.   158-166. 

Address  to  the  Inhabitants  of  Northhampton  County. 
Same.     p.  166. 


68  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Address  to  the  Officers  of  the  Artillery. 
Same,     pp.   166-167. 

Address  to  the  Corps  of  Light  Infantry. 
Same.     p.  167. 

Thacher,  Dr. : 

Military  Journal.  Biographical  Sketch  of  Major  General 
Sullivan. 

Farmer  and  Moore's  Collection  Historical  and  Miscellan- 
eous and  Monthly  Literary  Journal.     Vol.  2.     p.  201. 

Treat,  Samuel : 

Oration  at  interment  of  Lieutenant  Boyd  of  General  Sul- 
livan's Army. 

History  of  Buffalo  and  the  Senecas,  by  Ketcham.  Vol.  2. 
pp.  318-340. 

Trist,  Elizabeth : 

Letters  to  General  Lee. 

Collections,  New  York  Historical  Society.  Vol.  6.  pp. 
381-382. 

Turner,  O. : 

Pioneer  History  of  the  Holland  Purchase  of  Western  New- 
York,  pp.  666.  p.  277  et  seq.  8  vo.  Jewett^ 
Thomas  &  Co.,  Buffalo.     1849. 

History  of  the  Pioneer  Settlement  of  Phelps  and  Gorhams 
Purchase  and  Morris  Reserve,  pp.  588.  p.  80  et  seq. 
William  Ailing,  Rochester.     1852. 

Van  Campen,  Moses : 

Memorial  to  Congress.  Pritt's  Mirror  of  Olden  Time 
Border  Life.     pp.  697.     pp.  481-491.     Abington,  Va. 

Narrative. 
Same. 


A   BIBLIOGRAPHY   OF    SULLIVAN's    EXPEDITION.  69 

Van   Cortlandt,    Philip    (Colonel   commanding   Second   New   York 
Regiment)  : 
Autobiography,  with  Notes  by  Pierre  C,  Van  Wyck. 
Magazine  of  American  History.     Vol.  2.     p.  278  et  seq. 

Same. 

Elmira  Daily  Advertiser,  February   17th,    1879. 

Van  Hovenburgh,  Rudolphus  (Lieutenant  Fourth  New  York  Regi- 
ment) : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume.  ^  pp.  275-284. 

Table  of  Distances. 

New  York  Centennial  Volum.e.     p.  284. 

Van  Wyck,  Pierre  C. : 

Notes  to  Autobiography,  Philip  Van  Cortlandt. 
Magazine  of  American  History,     Vol.  2.     p.  278. 

Washington,   General   George : 

Instructions  to  General  Sullivan. 

Historical  Magazine.     Second   Series.     Vol.  2.     pp.   139- 
141. 

Letter  to  John  Jay,  President  of  Congress. 
Magazine  of  American  History.     Vol.  3.     p.  142. 

Letter  to  War  Council. 

July  5th,   1779. 

(As    to    Sullivan's    disappointment    as    to    Pennsylvania's 

assistance.) 
Pennsylvania  Archives.     First  Series.     Vol.  7.     p.  535. 

Webb,  Nathaniel  (Sergeant  Major  Second  New  York  Regiment)  : 
Journal. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  285-287. 

Same. 

Elmira  Republican,  September  nth  and  12th,  1855.     El- 
mira, New  York. 


70  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

Welles,  S.  R.   (M.  D.)  : 

Paper   read  before   the   Waterloo   Library   and  Historical 

Society,  November  27th,  1877. 
New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  527-535. 

White,  Pliny  T. : 

Note  to  History  of  the  Expedition  against  the  Five  Na- 
tions commanded  by  General  Sullivan  in  1779. 
Historical  Magazine.     Second  Series.     Vol.  3.     p.   198. 

Wilkinson,  J.  B. : 

Annals    of    Binghamton    and    of    the    Country   connected 

with  it  from  the  early  settlement,   p.  256.     12  mo. 
Binghamton,  New  York.     1840. 

Willers,  Diedrich,  Jr. : 

The  Centennial  Celebration  of  General  Sullivan's  Cam- 
paign against  the  Iroquois  in  1779.  Held  at  Water- 
loo, September  3d,  1879.  pp.  356.  8  vo.  Plates. 
Portraits.     Waterloo,  New  York,     i^ 


Willett,  William  M. : 

A  Narrative  of  the  Military  Actions  of  Colonel  Marinus 
Willett.     8  vo.     New  York.     183 1. 

Williams,  Rev.  Dwight : 

Poem,  Sullivan's  Centennial. 

New  York  Centennial  Volume,     pp.  506-510. 

Winsor,  Justin : 

Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  America. 
8  Vols.     Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.,  Boston.     1889. 
Vol.  VI.     pp.  637,  642,  653,  667,  669,  671  and  681. 
Vol.  VIII.     pp.  439. 

Handbook  of  the  American  Revolution,     pp.  206-208.     12 
mo.     Boston.     1880. 


AN  INDIAN  CIVILIZATION  AND  ITS 
DESTRUCTION. 


By  Colonel  S.  P.  Moulthrop. 


No  nearer  approach  to  w'hat  may  be  called  civilization,  if  the 
term  may  be  applied  to  a  people  who  left  no  record,  other  than  the 
legendary  lore  transmitted  from  father  to  son,  may  be  found  than 
the  Iroquoian  Confederacy,  whose  form  of  government  was  main- 
tained for  a  greater  length  of  time  than  that  of  any  republic  which 
'had  previously  or  has  since  existed. 

Their  location,  according  to  their  claim,  was  upon  the  highest 
part  of  the  Continent,  from  whence  flowed  the  Mohawk,  Hudson, 
Genesee,  Delaware,  Susquehanna,  Ohio  and  the  St.  Lawrence  riv- 
ers, going  in  all  directions  to  the  sea.  The  intersection  of  lakes 
and  streams,  separated  only  by  sihort  portages,  the  continuous  val- 
leys being  divided  by  no  mountain  barriers,  offered  unequalled 
facilities  for  intercommunication. 

Their  custom  of  settling  on  both  sides  of  a  river  or  encircling  a 
lake  made  the  tribal  boundaries  well  defined. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  features  of  aboriginal  geography 
was  the  location  of  their  principal  trails.  If  we  travel  either  of 
the  great  railways  extending  through  our  State,  we  are  upon  one 
of  the  leading  trails  that  Lewis  H.  Morgan  stated  were  used  in 
1732.     They  followed  the  lines  of  the  least  resistance. 

The  central  trail,  extending  from  east  to  west,  intersedted  by 
cross  trails  wthic'h  passed  along  the  shores  of  lakes  or  banks  of  the 
rivers,  commenced  at  the  point  where  Albany  now  is,  touched  the 
Mohawk  at  Schenectady,  following  the  river  to  the  carrying  place 
at  Rome,  from  thence  west,  crossing  the  Onondaga  Valley,  along 
the  foot  of  Cayuga  and  Seneca  Lakes,  terminating  at  Buffalo  Creek, 
the  present  site  of  the  city  of  Buffalo. 


72  NEW   ^'ORK   STATE   HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

This  trail  was  later  the  route  taken  by  early  settlers,  because 
it  connected  the  principal  villages  and  established  a  line  of  travel 
intxD  Canada  on  the  west  and  over  the  Hudson  on  the  east. 

Upon  the  banks  of  the  Susquehanna  and  its  tributaries,  which 
have  their  source  near  the  Mohawk,  and  the  banks  of  the  Chemung, 
which  has  its  source  near  the  Genesee  river,  were  other  trails,  all 
of  which  converged  at  the  junction  of  these  two  rivers,  forming 
the  southern  route,  into  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia.  On  these  foot- 
paths the  Iroquois  conducted  war  parties  and  became  well  versed 
in  the  topography  of  the  country. 

Lakes,  hills  and  streams  had  significant  names,  many  of  w*hich 
the  Anglicized  orthography  and  pronunciation  have  robbed  of  their 
euphony  and  force  of  accent. 

Mary  Jemison  says  that  "  No  people  can  live  more  happily  than 
the  Indians  in  times  of  peace."  Their  life  was  one  round  of  simple 
sport  and  pleasure,  in  keeping  with  their  free  life ;  their  simple 
wants  were  supplied  with  but  little  exertion.  Following  the  chase 
gave  them  amusement  and  served  to  keep  them  in  good  physical 
condition,  as  well  as  to  rettain  their  skill  with  weapons  that  were 
their  dependence  in  time  of  war. 

The  growing  youth  were  taught  Indian  warfare,  becoming  ex- 
perts with  the  tomahawk  and  scalping  knife.  At  such  times  fclie 
squaws  were  employed  with  their  simple  domestic  duties,  or  indus- 
triously tilling  the  soil.  Apple  and  peach  trees  were  planted  and 
cultivated  about  the  villages.  To  the  Jesuit  Fathers  they  were 
indebted  for  instruction  in  the  art  of  cultivating  fruit  trees,  as  well 
as  many  of  the  vegetables  which  they  raised  in  abund'ance ;  also 
producing  a  fine  quality  of  tobacco  whence  their  original  name, 
IREOKWA. 

The  reports  of  Sullivan's  officers  speak  of  cornfields  exceeding 
in  quality  and  quantity  anything  they  had  been  accustomed  to  in 
their  eastern  homes.  They  wrote  of  ears  of  corn  measuring  twenty- 
two  inches  in  length,  and  grass  as  high  as  the  backs  of  the  horses 
on  which  they  rode. 

Not  only  in  war  and  diplomacy  did  the  Iroquois  show  superior- 
ity, but  in  their  cultivation  of  crops  and  housebuilding  some  were 
so  good  as  to  be  called  by  General  Sullivan  elegant  Indian  homes. 
The  weight  of  evidence  goes  to  show  that  many  of  them  were 


AN   INDIAN   CIVILIZATION   AND   ITS   DESTRUCTION.  73 

framed,  and  of  such  a  creditable  order  of  architecture  as  to  surprise 
those  who  accompanied  Sullivan's  expedition.  Some  of  the  officers 
writing  home  said  that  the  houses  were  large  and  beautifully  paint- 
ed. Many  of  those  who  have  considered  the  Indian  as  a  forest 
roamer  will  be  incredulous  of  the  above  statement,  and  yet  there 
is  no  people  who  in  their  primitive  state  more  religiously  respected, 
or  distinctly  defined  the  family  ties  and  relationship.  There  is  a 
bright  and  pleasing  side  to  Indian  character. 

The  ordinary  picture  of  the  Indian  represents  him  with  war 
club  and  tomahawk.  They  do  not  deserve  the  appellation  of  sav- 
ages any  more  than  kindred  terms  might  be  applied  to  their  white 
successors. 

"  Bury  me  with  my  fathers  "  was  the  last  plea  of  the  red  man. 
Not  until  they  had  listened  to  the  teaching  of  the  whites  did  they 
view  death  with  terror,  or  life  as  anything  but  a  blessing. 

In  ancient  times  they  had  a  beautiful  custom  of  freeing  a  cap- 
tured bird  over  the  grave  on  the  evening  of  burial,  to  bear  away 
the  spirit  to  the  happy  home  beyond  the  setting  sun. 

The  following  motto  shows  that  hospitality  was  the  prevailing 
characteristic : 

"  If  a  stranger  wanders  about  your  abode,  welcome  him  to  your 
home,  be  hospitable  toward  him,  speak  to  him  with  kind  words, 
and  forget  not  to  always  mention  the  Great  Spirit." 

From  a  speculative  point  of  view  the  institutions  of  the  Iro- 
quois assume  an  interesting  aspect.  Would  they  naturally  have 
emancipated  the  people  from  their  strange  infatuation  for  a  hunter 
life?  It  can  not  be  denied  that  there  are  some  grounds  for  beHef 
that  their  institutions  would  have  eventually  improved  into  an  ad- 
vanced form  of  civilization.  The  Iroquois  manifested  sufficient 
intelligence  to  promise  a  high  degree  of  improvement  had  it  been 
directed  into  right  pursuits,  although  centuries  of  time  might  have 
been  required  to  effect  the  change. 

But  these  institutions  have  a  present  value  irrespective  of  what 
they  might  have  become.  Let  us  render  ^ardy  justice  by  preserv- 
ing, as  far  as  possible,  their  names,  deeds  and  customs,  and  their 
institutions. 

We  should  not  tread  ignorantly  upon  those  extinguished  coun- 
cil fires,  whose  light  in  the  days  of  original  occupation  was  visible 


74  NEW  YORK   STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

over  half  this  Continent.  They  had  planned  a  mighty  nation  and 
without  doubt  had  the  coming  of  the  Europeans  been  delayed  but 
a  century,  the  League  would  have  included  all  the  tribes  between 
the  Great  Lakes  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

The  first  stage  in  the  development  of  this  confederacy  was  the 
union  of  several  tribes  into  one  nation.  They  mingled  by  inter- 
marriage. The  Chief  ceased  to  be  alone  in  his  power  and  the  gov- 
ernment became  a  Pure  Democracy.  Several  nations,  thus  being 
formed  into  a  confederacy  or  league,  more  perfect,  systematic  and 
liberal  than  those  of  antiquity,  there  was  in  it  more  of  fixedness, 
more  of  dependence  upon  the  people,  and  more  of  vigor  and  strength. 

Their  original  congress  was  composed  of  fifty  sachems  and  it 
generally  met  at  the  Onondaga  Council  House.  The  business  of 
the  congress  was  conducted  in  a  grave  and  dignified  manner,  the 
reason  and  judgment  of  the  Chiefs  being  appealed  to,  rather  than 
their  passions.  It  was  considered  a  breach  of  decorum  for  a 
sachem  to  reply  to  a  speech  on  the  day  of  its  del'ivery,  and  no  ques- 
tion could  be  decided  without  unanimous  concurrence.  Tlie  sach- 
ems served  without  badge  of  office,  their  sole  reward  being  the 
veneration  of  their  people  in  whose  interest  they  were  meeting. 

Public  opinion  exercised  a  powerful  influence  among  the  Iro- 
quois, the  ablest  among  them  having  a  dread  of  an  adverse  criticism 
from  the  common  people. 

Subordinate  to  the  Congress  of  SaChems  were  the  noted  chiefs, 
such  as  Red  Jacket,  Big  Kettle,  Corn  Planter  and  others  who  in- 
fluenced the  councils  with  their  oratory. 

Women  were  recognized  by  them  as  having  rights  in  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  nation,  being  represented  in  council  by  chiefs,  known 
as  their  champions.  Thus  they  became  factors  in  war  or  peace,, 
and  were  granted  special  rights  in  the  concurrence  or  interference 
in  the  sale  of  lands,  claiming  that  the  land  belonged  equally  to  the 
tillers  of  the  soil,  and  its  defenders.  The  equality  of  rigihts  granted 
women  was  one  of  the  principal  factors  of  strength  in  their  con- 
federacy, or  union. 

Their  orators  studied  euphony  in  the  arrangement  of  their 
words.  Their  graceful  attitudes  and  gestures  made  their  discourse 
deeply  impressive.  A  straight,  commanding  figure,  with  blanket 
thrown  over  the  shoulder,  the  naked  arm  raised  in  gesture,  would. 


AN   INDIAN    CIVILIZATION    AND   ITS   DESTRUCTION.  75 

to  use  the  words  of  an  early  historian,  "  give  no  faint  picture  of 
Rome  in  her  early  days." 

A  difference  existed  between  the  Iroquois  and  other  tribes  with 
respect  to  oratory.  No  others  have  left  records  of  models  of  elo- 
quence except  in  single  instances  on  rare  occasions. 

Red  Jacket,  Logan  and  Corn  Planter  were  orators,  who  have 
by  their  eloquence  perpetuated  their  names  on  the  pages  of  history. 

In  the  happy  constitution  of  the  ruling  body  and  the  effective 
security  of  the  people  frotn  misgovernment,  the  confederacy  stands 
unrivalled.     The   prevailing  spirit  was   freedom. 

They  were  secured  all  fhe  liberty  necessary  for  the  united  state 
and  fully  appreciated  its  value. 

The  red  man  was  always  free  from  political  bondage.  He 
was  convinced  that  man  was  born  free  ;  that  no  person  had  any 
right  to  deprive  him  of  that  liberty.  Undoubtedly  the  reason  for 
this  was  the  absence  from  the  Indian  mind  of  a  desire  for  gain — 
that  great  passion  of  the  white  man — "  His  blessing  and  his  curse 
in  its  use  and  abuse." 

The  hunter  wants  of  the  Indian,  absence  of  property  in  a  com- 
parative sense,  and  the  infrequency  of  crime,  dispensed  with  a  vast 
amount  of  legislation  and  machinery  incident  to  the  protection  of 
civilized  society. 

The  system  upon  which  the  League  was  founded,  as  before 
stated,  was  a  singularly  well  chosen  one,  and  is  hig'hly  illustrative 
of  the  intellectual  character  of  this  people.  "  It  was  wisely  con- 
ceived by  the  untaught  statesman  of  the  forest,  who  had  no  prece- 
dents to  consult,  no  written  lore  of  ages  to  refer  to,  no  failures  or 
triumphs  of  systems  of  human  governments  to  use  as  models  or 
comparisons,  nothing  to  prompt  them  but  necessity  and  emergency." 

President  D wight  said,  "  Had  they  enjoyed  the  advantages  pos- 
sessed by  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  there  is  no  reason  to  believe  they 
would  have  been  at  all  inferior  to  these  celebrated  nations."  Their 
minds  appear  to  have  been  equal  to  any  effort  within  the  reac^h  of 
man.  Their  conquests,  if  we  consider  their  numbers  and  circum- 
stances, were  little  inferior  to  Rome  itself.  In  their  harmony,  the 
unity  of  their  operations,  the  energy  oi  their  character,  the  vast- 
ness,  vigor  and  success  of  their  enterprises,  and  the  strength  and 


76  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

sublimity  of  their  eloquence,  they  may  be  fairly  compared  to  the 
Greeks. 

Both  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  before  they  began  to  rise  into 
distinction,  had  already  reached  the  state  of  society  in  which  they 
were  able  to  improve.  The  Iroquois  had  not.  The  Greeks  and 
Romans  had  ample  means  for  improvement.  The  Iroquois  had 
none. 

The  destruction  of  the  confederacy  was  necessary  to  the  well 
being  of  the  colonists.  During  the  Revolutionary  war,  harassed 
as  they  were  by  roving  bands  instigated  by  the  tribes  to  massacre 
and  burn,  the  Colonial  government  authorized  the  Commander-in- 
Chief  to  administer  punishment  for  the  horrible  atrocities  commit- 
ted at  Wyoming  and  Cherry  Valley.  To  obtain  a  complete,  de- 
tailed account  of  the  manner  in  which  it  was  done,  one  has  but  to 
read  the  record  of  Sullivan's  Expedition  in  1779,  compiled  by  the 
Hon.  George  S.  Conover  for  the  Secretary  of  State,  1886. 

This  remarkable  undertaking  by  General  Sullivan  has  been  aptly 
compared  to  some  of  the  most  famous  expeditions  in  the  world's 
history.  The  boldness  of  its  conception,  the  bravery  of  the  officers 
and  men,  were  equaled  on  but  few  occasions  during  the  great  Rev- 
olutionary struggle. 

The  writings  and  researches  of  historians  of  the  present  day 
attach  greater  importance  to  this  expedition  than  formerly.  The 
collection  of  materials  during  the  last  centennial  celebrations  has 
resulted  in  shedding  much  light  upon  the  pages  of  Our  Country's 
history,  that  was  formerly  but  little  known. 

In  this  respect  General  John  S.  Clark,  Rev.  David  Craft,  Lock- 
wood  L.  Doty,  Hon.  George  S.  Conover  and  others  have  performed 
a  great  service  that  should  receive  recognition. 

The  colonists  were  particular'ly  concerned  regarding  the  attitude 
of  the  Iroquois,  who  were  considered  more  dangerous  than  three 
times  the  number  of  civilized  foes.  The  strong  influence  exerted 
by  the  Johnsons  with  their  allies,  the  Mohawks,  was  dreaded.  Sub- 
sequently these  fears  were  proved  well  grounded. 

When  the  General  Council  was  held  by  the  Iroquois  to  consider 
the  question  of  joining  the  British  in  the  war  against  the  colonies, 
a  division  occurred — the  Oneidas  opposing  the  alliance,  while  the 
Mohawks  were  anxious  for  an  alliance  with  the  British. 


AN   INDIAN   CIVILIZATION   AND   ITS  DESTRUCTION.  77 

As  unanimity  could  not  be  secured,  each  tribe  was  by  law  of 
the  League  free  to  engage  in  the  war  or  remain  at  peace  with  the 
Americans.  The  sequel  shows  that  the  British  agents,  with  pres- 
ents of  gunpowder  and  lead,  also  promises  of  a  bounty  to  be  paid 
for  scalps  taken  from  the  colonists,  were  successful  with  all  but 
the  Oneidas,  who  remained  true  to  their  first  declaration. 

To  friendship  alone  couid  the  colonists  appeal.  They  were  not 
able  to  assure  the  Indians  that  the  rum  of  the  Americans  was  as 
plenty  as  the  water  of  the  lake,  as  the  British  had  done. 

The  majority  of  the  Indians  concluded  that  the  colonists  were 
too  poor  or  too  mean  to  make  them  any  gifts.  Had  the  influences 
been  less  powerful  the  Indians  might  still  have  remained  the  friend 
of  the  settlers  as  he  had  been  during  long  years  of  peace. 

The  indignation  of  Pitt  in  denunciation  of  the  wrong  done  by 
the  employment  of  Indians  has  made  his  name  immortal.  How  dif- 
ferent the  policy  of  the  American !  The  offers  of  the  Oneidas  were 
courteously  yet  firmly  refused.  They  only  shared  in  the  struggle  as 
guides  or  scouts. 

Wyoming  in  July — Cherry  Valley  in  November,  were  only  on 
a  larger  scale  the  repetition  of  recurring  events  along  the  entire 
frontier.  The  blood-curdhng  yell,  accompanied  by  the  tomahawk 
and  scalping  knife,  were  a  constant  menace  to  the  settler.  The 
demand  for  decided  measures  was  imperative.  The  Wyoming  mas- 
sacre sent  a  thrill  of  horror  tlhrough  the  country,  and  renewed  the 
demand  for  retaliatory  measures. 

General  Washington  was  directed  to  take  such  measures  as  he 
deemed  advisable,  for  the  protection  of  the  frontiers.  Realizing 
the  country's  condition  and  the  great  need  of  economy  in  public 
expenditures,  Washington's  policy  for  1779  was  to  remain  on  the 
defensive,  except  as  mig'ht  be  found  necessary  to  hold  the  Indians 
in  check. 

England's  affairs  in  Europe  at  this  time  were  such  that  she 
would  not  be  apt  to  push  her  operations  in  America.  Washington 
himself  was  an  experienced  Indian  fighter — ^knew  how  they  could 
be  punished — early  favored  an  expedition  into  the  heart  of  the  In- 
dian country — having  but  little  faith  in  the  plan  of  establishing 
forts.     He  wished  to  carry  the  war  to  their  own  homes,  destroy 


78  NEW   YORK   STATE   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

villages  and  crops  and  compel  them  to  accept  peace  or  depend  on 
the  British  for  sustenance. 

The  country  to  be  traversed  on  such  an  expedition  was  but 
little  known,  so  Washington  during  the  winter  and  spring  devoted 
a  great  deal  of  time  to  obtaining  information  needed  and  planning 
for  the  campaign,  which  was  subsequently  shown  to  be  the  most 
important  event  of  that  year,  and  furnished  a  lasting  lesson  to  the 
hostile  tribes  of  the  North. 

After  the  declination  of  the  command  by  General  Gates,  Wash- 
ington tendered  the  command,  which  was  promptly  accepted  by 
General  Sullivan,  whose  patriotism  and  bravery  were  weli  known. 

Preparations  were  immediately  commenced  for  the  great  under- 
taking. Hamilton  under  Washington's  direction,  drew  up  a  letter 
of  instructions,  which  was  signed  by  Washington.  The  first  para- 
graph is  interesting: 

"May  31,  1779.  Sir: — The  expedition  you  are  appointed  to 
command  is  to  be  directed  against  the  hostile  tribes  of  the  Six  Na- 
tions of  Indians  with  their  associates  and  adherents.  The  imme- 
diate object  is  their  total  destruction  and  devastation  and  the  cap- 
ture of  as  many  persons  of  every  age  and  sex  as  possible.  It  will 
be  essential  to  ruin  their  crops,  now  on  the  ground,  and  prevent  their 
planting  more." 

Then  followed  instructions  more  in  detail,  showing  that  Wash- 
ington had  acquired  an  almost  accurate  knowledge  of  the  country 
not  only,  but  the  people  as  well.  His  instructions  were  carried  out 
almost  to  the  letter  as  far  as  the  army  proceeded. 

Sullivan  concluded  when  he  had  driven  them  from  the  valley 
of  the  Genesee  that  his  mission  was  fulfilled. 

Sensitiveness  tlhat  is  unreasoning  may  have  been  shocked  at 
Washington's  policy,  carried  out  by  Sullivan.  The  destruction  of 
forty  villages,  some  of  them  extensive,  as  reported  by  Sullivan, 
sixty  thousand  bushels  of  corn,  three  thousand  bushels  of  beans — 
in  one  orchard  fifteen  hundred  peach  trees — seemed  harsh  treat- 
ment, but  when  we  consider  that  a  major  portion  of  this  would  have 
furnished  the  Tories  witlh  sustenance,  another  view  must  be  taken. 

Humanity,  however,  dictated  the  firing  of  cannon  every  morn- 
ing, giving  the  Indians  an  opportunity  to  retreat,  which  was  in 


AN   INDIAN   CIVILIZATION    AND    ITS   DESTRUCTION.  79 

Strong  contrast  with  t'he  savage,  cruel  manner  of  Brant  and  Butler 
in  their  attacks  upon  peaceful  settlers. 

When  the  Senecas  returned  after  peace  was  declared,  their  re- 
spect for  Ha-na-de-ga-na-ars  (destroyer  of  villages),  as  Washing- 
ton was  called  by  them,  was  greatly  strengthened. 

When  Horatio  Jones,  Major  Van  Campen  and  others  moved 
into  their  territory,  they  were  kindly  treated,  and  gave  kind  treat- 
ment in  return. 

The  record  of  the  Iroquois  has  been  one  of  unbroken  peace  and 
friendship  since  then,  for  their  last  treaty  made  with  General  Wash- 
ington has  been  kept  inviolate. 


SULLIVAN'S  CAMPAIGN. 


By  William  Wait. 


In  the  campaign  of  1779  it  was  evident  that  the  British  intend- 
ed to  confine  their  operations  to  pillaging  expeditions  on  the  fron- 
tiers in  the  north,  and  an  effort  to  cripple  the  Union  in  the  south. 

In  July  of  the  previous  year,  Butler  and  Brant  with  a  force  of 
1600  Indians  and  Tories  had  entered  the  Wyoming  Valley  and 
spread  death  and  destruction  in  their  path,  and  in  November  raid- 
ed the  inhabitants  of  Cherry  Valley. 

Two  years  before,  St.  Leger  had  made  his  unsuccessful  attempt 
on  Fort  Stanwix  and  the  Mohawk  Valley,  while  Burgoyne  was 
attempting  to  force  his  way  through  our  northern  frontier. 

Nor  were  these  raids  upon  the  valleys  of  the  Mohawk  and  the 
Wyoming,  and  the  inhabitants  of  Cherry  Valley,  the  only  calam- 
ities visited  upon  the  frontiers.  By  reason  of  the  location  and 
small  size  of  the  border  settlements  and  the  great  distance  between 
detached  dwellings,  the  inhabitants,  from  the  very  beginning  of 
the  Revolutionary  struggle,  were  subject  to  constant  attack  by 
small  bands  of  Indians,  and  Tories  disguised  as  such,  who  mur- 
dered those  who  fell  into  their  hands  and  burned  and  pdllaged 
their  dwellings  until  none  but  the  most  intrepid  dared  remain  in 
their  homes.  The  supplicating  tears  of  women  and  children,  and 
the  wail  of  helpless  babes,  were  unheeded.  The  tomahawk  and 
war-club  fell  without  pity  upon  the  defenceless  heads  of  all  alike, 
and  the  scalps  of  women  and  children  and  the  silvered  locks  of  the 
aged  mingled  with  those  of  manhood  to  adorn  the  belt  of  the  sav- 
age, and  be  bartered  for  British  gold.  Here  and  there  a  heap 
of  ashes  and  a  few  putrefying  bodies  remained  to  show  the  location 
of  some  unfortunate  settler's  cabin  or  frontier  hamlet.  Desolation 
was  spread  from  one  end  of  the  border  to  the  other,  and  the  wail 
of  despair  was  not  to  be  resisted  by  the  Congress.     That  body  had 


Sullivan's  campaign.  8i 

received  a  constant  stream  of  appeals  for  aid  from  the  sufferers 
at  the  front  since  the  very  beginning  of  the  war.  A  large  part  of 
the  documentary  remains  of  that  period  consist  of  such  letters  to 
Washington,  Governor  Clinton,  and  others  in  authority. 

On  the  first  of  April,  1779,  Congress,  in  response  to  a  letter  of 
March  13th,  from  the  Legislature  of  New  York,  passed  a  resolu- 
tion authorizing  an  expedition  against  these  marauders.  The  cam- 
paign was  planned  by  the  Commander-in-chief.  Its  execution  was 
first  offered  to  General  Gates  because  of  his  seniority,  but  the  offer 
was  made  in  such  a  way  that  it  could  not  be  accepted,  and  Gates 
was  obliged  to  decline  in  favor  of  Major-General  John  Sullivan, 
whom  Washington  intended  from  the  first  should  be  its  comman- 
der. 

General  Washington's  orders  to  Sullivan  for  the  conduct  of 
the  campaign  were  very  explicit,  and  were  in  part  as  follows : 

"  The  immediate  objects  are  the  total  destruction  and  devasta- 
tion of  their  settlements,  and  the  capture  of  as  many  prisoners  of 
every  age  and  sex  as  possible.  It  will  be  essential  to  ruin  their 
crops  now  in  the  ground  and  prevent  their  planting  more  *  *  * 
parties  should  be  detached  to  lay  waste  all  the  settlements  around, 
with  instructions  to  do  it  in  the  most  eft'ectual  manner,  that  the 
country  may  not  be  merely  overrun,  but  destroyed.  Make  rather 
than  receive  attacks,  attend  with  as  much  impetuosity,  shouting, 
and  noise,  as  possible ;  and  make  the  troops  act  in  as  loose  and  dis- 
persed a  way  as  is  consistent  with  a  proper  degree  of  government, 
concert,  and  mutual  support.  It  should  be  previously  impressed 
upon  the  minds  of  the  men,  whenever  they  have  an  opportunity,  to 
rush  on  with  the  war-whoop  and  fixed  bayonet.  Nothing  will  dis- 
concert and  terrify  the  Indians  more  than  this." 

The  forces  were  gathered  in  three  divisions  ;  the  principal  and 
central  one,  rendezvouing  at  Wyoming,  was  composed  of  the  three 
brigades  of  Maxwell,  Poor,  and  Hand,  and  proceeded  up  the  valley 
of  the  Susquehanna  to  Tioga,  where  it  was  joined  by  the  right  di- 
vision under  Gen.  James  Clinton,  whose  force,  consisting  of  1,600 
men,  was  gathered  at  Canajoharie,  and  proceeded  down  the  head- 
waters of  the  Susquehanna.  The  left  division,  consisting  of  600 
men,  under  Col.  Daniel  Brodihead,  marched  up  the  Allegheny 
from  Pittsburgh,  leaving  that  place  the  nth  of  August,  burned  ii 


82  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

towns,  containing  about  165  houses,  which  were  for  the  most  part 
constructed  of  logs  and  framed  timber ;  destroyed  more  than  500 
acres  of  cultivated  land  then  in  full  crop,  and  took  loot  estimated 
as  worth  $30,000.  This  division  returned  to  Pittsburgh  the  14th 
of  September,  having  been  too  late  to  join  the  main  body,  and  never 
having  come  under  the  direct  command  of  Gen.  Sullivan. 

The  main  division  began  to  assemble  at  Wyoming  early  in  April, 
but  it  was  not  until  the  last  day  of  July,  in  the  afternoon,  that  they 
finally  began  their  advance.  The  artillery,  ammunition  and  pro- 
visions were  loaded  on  214  boats  (this  is  the  number  stated  by  Col. 
Proctor,  who  was  in  charge  of  the  fleet;  most  accounts  say  120), 
while  1,200  pack  horses  carried  the  baggage  and  camp  utensils, 
and  700  beef  cattle  were  driven  along  for  food.  Gordon,  and  some 
other  British  writers,  have  claimed  that  Sullivan  demanded  much 
more  than  he  should  in  the  way  of  supplies.  Some  of  Sullivan's 
enemies  at  home  made  the  same  charge ;  but  it  is  a  notorious  fact 
that  the  commander  had  great  difficulty  in  procuring  the  amount 
that  he  had  and  that  it  fell  far  short  of  what  prudence  required. 
As  it  was,  some  of  the  pork  was  packed  in  barrels  made  of  green 
staves,  and  spoiled.  Much  of  the  time  the  army  subsisted  on  short 
rations,  eked  out  by  green  corn  and  other  supplies  taken  from  the 
fields  of  the  Indians  which  they  were  destroying. 

Tioga  was  the  Iroquois  name  for  the  point  of  land  lying  be- 
tween the  Chemung  River  and  the  north  branch  of  the  Susque- 
hanna. Every  name  that  an  Indian  gave  to  a  place  or  a  person 
was  descriptive,  and  had  a  meaning.  Most  of  these  as  we  find 
them  written  are  corruptions  of  the  names  as  they  sounded  when 
spoken  by  an  Indian,  and  therefore  we  find  the  same  word  in  dif- 
ferent documents  spelled  in  as  many  ways  as  it  could  be  spelled 
by  illiterate  English,  Dutch  and  French  settlers,  with  a  few  extra 
letters  thrown  in.  Tioga  is  said  to  mean  anything  between  any 
other  two  things,  a  gate,  the  forks  of  a  river,  etc.  (from  Teyaogen, 
or  Teiohogen).  Van  Curler  in  his  Journal  of  1634  speaks  of  the 
Mohawk's  name  of  their  great  river  as  Vyoge.  Father  Jogues  gave 
Oiogue  as  the  Mohawk  name  for  the  Hudson,  in  1646.  Ohio  is 
another  corrupted  form  of  the  same  word,  and  all  seem  to  be  cor- 
rupted from  the  same  Iroquois  word,  meaning  a  large  stream. 
Many  other  Indian  place-names  occur  in  the  various  journals  of  the 


Sullivan's  campaign.  8;^ 

officers  engaged  in  this  expedition,  and  it  would  be  interesting  to 
take  tliem  up  and  consider  their  meaning  if  it  were  possible.  But 
in  the  above  case  it  seems  fair  to  suppose  that  Indians  coming  down 
the  trail  from  the  Chemung  Valley  should  speak  of  this  spot  as 
Vyoge,  or  Oiogue,  the  great  or  principal  river,  as  distinguished 
from  the  smaller  branch  above. 

However  that  may  be,  the  time  between  the  31st  of  July  and  the 
nth  of  August  was  consumed  by  the  main  body  of  the  army  in 
reaching  this  spot,  selected  as  the  meeting  place  of  the  divisions. 

On  their  march  for  this  place  after  lea\'4ng  Wyoming,  the  first 
night  they  encamped  at  a  place  called  by  the  Delaware  Indians, 
Lcchau-Hanneck,  or  Lackawanna,  also  said  to  mean  the  forks  of 
a  stream,  and  by  the  Iroquois  called  Hazirok,  with  something  of 
the  same  meaning.  The  following  night  they  encamped  at  a  place 
the  Indians  called  Quailutimack,  meaning,  "  We  came  upon  them 
unawares."  On  the  4th,  it  is  related,  they  crossed  a  small  creek, 
called  where  it  joins  the  Susquehanna,  Massasppi  (missisipu), 
great  river,  this  being  a  Delaware  word  meaning  about  the  same 
as  the  Iroquois  Oiogue. 

On  the  5th  the  detachment  lost  three  of  its  men,  one  soldier 
dying  of  the  so  called  "  falling  sickness,"  one  of  Proctor's  artillery- 
men being  drowned,  and  Sergt.  Martin  Johnson  dying  from  heat. 
Dr.  Elmer  informs  us  in  his  journal  that  Johnson  was-  a  hard  drink- 
er and  "  his  vitals  Were  decayed  by  spirituous  liquors,"  On  the 
Sth,  Col.  Proctor  destroyed  the  first  of  the  Indian  settlements,  a 
place  called  Newtychanning,  consisting  of  about  twenty  houses. 

The  army  arrived  at  Tioga  on  the  13th.  Here  they  remained 
until  the  25th,  awaiting  the  arrival  of  General  Clinton's  detach- 
ment. In  the  meantime  Fort  Sullivan  was  erected,  and  a  detach- 
ment sent  up  the  Chemung  River  to  destroy  an  Indian  town  of  the 
sam.e  name,  consisting  of  about  fifty  houses,  with  more  than  100 
acres  of  cultivated  fields  of  grain  and  other  Indian  produce.  Some 
of  the  troops  under  General  Hand,  as  they  pursued  the  Indians 
who  were  fieeing  from  the  village,  fell  into  an  ambush,  whereby 
six  were  killed  and  nine  wounded,  with  slight  loss  to  the  enemy. 
While  destroying  the  crops,  one  other  man  was  killed  and  three 
more  wounded  by  some  of  the  enemy  who  were  concealed  across 
the  river.     The  houses  here  destroved  were  built  of  split  and  hewed 


84  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

timber,  covered  with  bark,  and  in  the  center  of  the  town  were  two 
large  buildings,  presumably  council  houses.  None  of  the  buildings 
had  chimneys  or  floors.  While  herding  the  stock  in  the  camp  at 
Tioga,  the  Indians  succeeded  in  killing  and  scalping  several  of  the 
pack-horse  men  and  wounding  some  others. 

Meantime  a  detachment  under  Generals  Hand  and  Poor  were 
sent  up  the  Susquehanna  to  meet  General  Clinton. 

Gen.  Sullivan  had  written  Clinton  from  Wyoming  on  July  30th, 
'■'  I  wish  you  to  set  out  on  the  9th  of  next  month  (marching  moder- 
ately), as  some  allowance  is  to  be  made  for  bad  weather,  which 
will  probably  detain  us  some  time.  On  my  arrival  at  Tioga,  I  will 
immediately  detach  a  considerc-ble  body  of  light  troops  to  favor 
and  secure  your  march." 

Previous  to  this  date  Clinton  had  gathered  his  forces  at  Cana- 
joharie  and  transported  them  to  the  shore  of  Otsego  Lake,  the  level 
of  which  he  had  raised  about  two  feet  by  erecting  a  dam,  for  the 
purpose  of  causing  a  flood  which  would  float  his  expedition  in 
boats  over  the  shallows  of  the  Susquehanna  head-waters. 

Breaking  the  dam,  he  left  Otsego  Lake,  according  to  Sullivan's 
instructions,  on  the  9th  of  August,  and  proceeding  down  the  river 
with  little  difficulty,  destroyed  such  Indian  dwellings  and  crops  as 
came  in  his  path. 

Lieut.-Colonel  Pawling,  with  a  detachment,  was  marching  from 
Kingston  'Z'ia  Shandakin,  under  orders  to  join  Clinton  on  August 
i6th.  at  Annaquaga,  which,  before  it  was  destroyed  by  Col.  William 
Butler,  in  the  fall  of  1778,  was  quite  a  large  Jndian  settlement,  oc- 
cupying an  island  and  both  sides  of  the  river,  where  the  little  vil- 
lage of  Onaquaga  now  stands.  Clinton  arrived  at  this  place  on 
the  15th,  and  remained  there  until  the  17th,  awaiting  the  arrival 
of  Pawling.  In  the  center  of  the  island  he  found  the  cellars  and 
wells  of  about  sixty  houses,  also  fine  orchards.  Most  of  these 
buildings  had  been  log  houses,  with  stone  chimneys  and  glass  win- 
dows. 

Pawling  did  not  arrive,  but  returned  to  Kingston  on  September 
1st  and  reported  his  inability  to  join  Clinton,  owing  to  the  swollen 
streams  and  bad  roads.  Proceeding  on  their  way,  the  Right  Di- 
vision passed  several  Tuscarora  villages,  which  they  destroyed, 
with  the  crops.     Arriving  at  the  mouth  of  the  Chenango  Creek, 


Sullivan's  campaign.  85 

a  small  detachment  was  sent  four  miles  up  that  stream  to  destroy 
the  village  of  Chenango,  consisting  of  about  twenty  houses. 

On  the  19th  they  joined  the  detachment  of  General  Poor,  burn- 
ing the  villages  of  Chukkanut  and  Owagea,  and  three  days  later 
arrived  at  the  encampment  of  the  main  division  at  Tioga.  On  the 
23d  of  August,  by  the  accidental  disharge  of  a  musket.  Captain 
Kimball  was  killed  and  a  Lieutenant  wounded. 

Leaving  a  garrison  to  defend  Fort  Sullivan,  at  Tioga,  the  whole 
army  proceeded,  on  the  26th,  taking  the  route  up  the  Tioga  branch 
of  the  Susquehanna.  About  sixteen  miles  up  this  stream  was  a 
village  called  Newtown,  which  they  reached  on  the  29th.  Here 
the  light  troops,  which  were  marching  ahead,  discovered  a  breast- 
works, artfully  masked  by  green  bushes,  extending  for  about  half 
a  mile,  in  an  advantageous  place,  protected  by  a  high  mountain  on 
one  side,  the  river  on  the  other,  and  a  large  creek  in  front,  behind 
which  the  enemy  were  entrenched.  Here  occurred  the  most  im- 
portant fight  of  the  campaign.  The  design  of  the  enemy  appears 
to  have  been  primarily,  an  ambuscade.  His  force  of  British  reg- 
ulars, consisting  of  tv/o  battalions  of  Royal  Greens  and  Tories,  was 
led  by  Col.  John  Butler,  with  Captains  Walter  Butler  and  Mac- 
donald  as  subordinates.  The  Indian  forces  were  commanded  by 
the  great  Mohawk  chief,  Joseph  Brant.  All  the  cunning  of  the 
Indians,  combined  with  the  trained  tactics  of  the  British  regulars, 
were  here  exerted  to  check  the  advance  of  Sullivan's  invading 
army.  Had  the  Americans  not  discovered  the  trap  in  time  to  avoid 
it,  the  story  of  this  campaign  would  have  ended  here  in  a  tale  of 
butchery  hardly  equalled  in  the  annals  of  war.  But  three  com- 
panies of  Morgan's  riflemen,  the  pride  of  Wasbington,  were  in  ad- 
vance ;  veterans  of  a  hundred  battles,  and  in  no  way  inferior  to 
the  enemy  in  Indian  craft ;  and  the  ingenious  device  for  drawing 
our  forces  into  an  ambush  was  thwarted.  For  hours  the  battle 
waged  fiercely.  By  skillfully  maneuvering  his  troops  Sullivan  had 
nearly  succeeded  in  surrounding  the  enemy,  when,  admirably  com- 
manded, and  wisely  discreet,  the  signal  for  retreat  was  sounded 
just  in  time  to  escape.  The  entire  loss  to  the  Americans  was  three 
killed  and  thirty-nine  wounded.  Twelve  Indians  were  found  dead 
on  the  field,  but  the  number  of  their  wounded  is  unknown. 

The  events  of  the  succeeding  days  during  which  the  expedition 


86  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

was  prosecuting  its  errand  of  destruction,  were  a  constant  repeti- 
tion of  each  other.  The  army  was  almost  constantly  on  the  move, 
searching  out  and  destroying  such  settlements  as  could  be  found. 
The  Indians  skulked  away  like  a  pack  of  wolves  at  the  approach 
of  the  hunter,  turning  now  and  then  to  snap  at  their  pursuers,  and 
then  vanishing.  Where  once  had  stood  their  pleasant  villages  sur- 
rounded by  fruitful  fields,  was  only  left  heaps  of  smouldering 
ashes  and  masses  of  trampled  grain  and  prostrate  fruit  trees.  They 
needed  no  spies  to  keep  them  informed  of  the  progress  of  the  in- 
vaders. A  trail  of  smoke  by  day  and  a  ruddy  glow  on  the  sky  at 
night  told  it  too  plainly.  The  scourge  had  fallen.  Not  only  were 
the  frontiers  cleared  but  the  doom  of  the  Iroquoian  Confederacy 
was  sealed,  and  its  dominion  over  the  vast  territory  which  it  had 
so  long  ruled  was  destroyed  forever.  From  the  mountains  of 
northern  Pennsylvania,  through  the  beautiful  valley  of  the  Susque- 
hanna and  the  lake  region  of  central  New  York  to  the  fruitful  val- 
ley of  the  Genesee,  no  Indian  settlement  of  importance  was  left. 
Said  Sullivan  in  his  official  report :  "  The  number  of  towns  de- 
stroyed by  this  army  amounted  to  40,  beside  scattering  houses. 
The  quantity  of  corn  destroyed,  at  a  moderate  computation,  must 
amount  to  160,000  bushels,  with  a  vast  quantity  of  vegetables  of 
every  kind.  Every  creek  and  river  has  been  traced,  and  the  whole 
country  explored  in  search  of  Indian  settlements,  and  I  am  well 
persuaded  that,  except  one  town  situated  near  the  Alleghany,  about 
50  miles  from  Genesee,  there  is  not  a  single  town  left  in  the  coun- 
try of  the  Five  Nations. 

"  It  is  with  pleasure  I  inform  Congress  that  this  army  has  not 
suffered  the  loss  of  forty  men,  in  action  or  otherwise,  since  my 
taking  the  command,  though  perhaps  few  troops  have  experienced 
a  more  fatiguing  campaign.  I  flatter  myself  that  the  orders  with 
which  I  was  entrusted  are  fully  executed,  as  we  have  not  left  a 
single  settlement  or  field  of  corn  in  the  country  of  the  Five  Nations, 
nor  is  there  even  the  appearance  of  an  Indian  on  this  side  of  Niag- 
ara." 


CONTINUATION  OF  NATHANIEL  WEBB'S  JOURNAL 


As  Published  in  the  Elmira  Republican  of  Sept. 
llthand  12th,  1855. 


Note — In  the  volume  containing  the  "  Journals  of  the  Mili- 
tary Expedition  of  Major  General  John  Sullivan  against  the  Six 
Nations  of  Indians  in  1779,"  prepared  by  Frederick  Cook,  Secre- 
tary of  State,  and  published  by  the  State  in  1887,  on  page  285  et 
seq,  is  published  part  of  the  Journal  of  Nathaniel  Webb,  and  a  note 
says  that  a  portion  of  the  Journal  cannot  be  found. 

In  a  scrap-book  originally  kept  by  Thos.  Maxwell,  Esq.,  which 
was  recently  bought  in  an  old  book  shop  in  New  York,  I  find  the 
missing  Journal,  and  give  herewith  the  portion  supposed  to  be  lost. 

WILLIAM  WAIT. 

Note — In  Col.  Gansevoort's  Journal  of  the  same  expedition, 
the  entry  is  as  follows : 

"  31st. — Decamped  at  8  o'clock, — marched  over  mountainous 
ground  until  we  arrived  at  the  forks  of  Newtown — there  entered 
on  a  low  bottom,  (Tuttle's  flats),  crossed  the  Kayuga  branch,  (New- 
town creek),  and  encamped  on  a  pine  plain.  Much  good  land  about 
Newtown.     Here  we  left  the  Tioga  branch  to  our  left." 

September  i. — The  army  moved  at  8  A.  M.  Several  defiles  and 
a  large  swamp  occasioned  ov.r  Brigade  to  encamp  about  three  miles 
in  the  rear  of  the  army.  The  army  encamped  that  night  at  Cath- 
arine's town.  The  enemy  had  all  fled  from  this  town  the  night  be- 
fore and  left  an  old  squaw. 

2. — Our  brigade  joined  the  army  at  Catharine's  town.  Lay  the 
remaining  part  of  the  day  for  refreshment,  &c. 

3. — We  destroyed  some  five  fields  of  corn  and  decamped  at  8 
A.  M.  Marched  this  day  about  11  miles.  Encamped  that  night 
near  the  banks  of  the  Seneca  Lake.  Marched  this  day  through  a 
remarkable  country  for  timber. 

4. — Decamped  at  9  A.  M.  Burnt  a  small  town  on  this  day's 
march.  Encamped  at  7  P.  M.  The  country  still  remains  well  tim- 
bered. 


88  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

5. — Decamped  at  10  A.  M.  Marched  this  day  about  six  miles. 
Encamped  that  night  at  Conoyah,  a  beautiful  town  situated  be- 
tween the  Seneca  and  Kengah  lakes — distance  between  those  lakes 
8  miles.     (Gansevoort  writes  it  Kandaiah.) 

6 — Lay  in  encampment.  This  town  is  beautifully  situated  in 
several  respects — a  fine  level  country — some  fine  fields  of  corn,  a 
fine  apple  orchard,  about  twenty  houses — ^situated  about  twenty 
miles  from  Seneca  lake.  One  white  man  deserted  from  the  enemy 
that  had  been  taken  prisoner  last  summer  from  Wyoming.  Several 
horses  were  captured  at  this  town.  Decamped  at  4  P.  M.,  moved 
about  4  miles.  Encamped  in  a  beautiful  piece  of  woods  near  the 
Lake.  Col.  Gansevoort,  of  our  Brigade,  was  sent  to  destroy  Ken- 
gah town  joining  Kengah  lake,  where  they  burnt  several  houses, 
got  about  twenty  horses,  &c. 

7. — Decamped.  Marched  to  Kanadesago,  a  town  situated  about 
three  miles  from  the  west  end  of  the  lake,  the  capital  of  the  Sen- 
ecas.  (This  was  what  is  called  the  old  Castle  near  Geneva.)  Cross- 
ing the  Seneca  creek  (or  outlet)  and  several  large  defiles  occa- 
sioned our  not  arriving  in  town  till  some  time  in  the  evening.  This 
town  consists  of  about  60  houses.  Several  large  fields  of  corn. 
We  found  a  white  male  child  the  enemy  had  left  behind. 

8. — The  army  was  employed  in  destroying  corn,  beans,  fruit 
trees,  &c.  A  detachmient  sent  to  destroy  a  town  about  12  miles 
from  this  town.  (This  was  Cashong,  Kashonguash,  on  tTie  west 
side  of  the  Seneca.) 

9. — All  the  sick  and  lame  sent  to  Tioga.  At  11  A.  M.  we 
marched,  following  the  road  that  leads  to  Niagara.  Marched 
about  13  miles.     Encamped  near  a  brook  that  night. 

10. — Decamped  at  6  A.  M.  Marched  this  day  about  13  miles — 
part  of  the  day  through  a  swampy  country,  abounding  chiefly  in 
beech  and  maple,  some  remarkably  large  white  ash  trees — latter 
part  of  the  day  through  a  grassy  country.  Passed  the  end  of  Con- 
nandockque  lake.  Encamped  near  some  fine  fields  of  corn.  This 
town  contains  about  20  houses. 


Sullivan's  campaign.  89 

II. — Decamped  at  4  A.  M.,  after  destroying  the  town  and  veg- 
etables, &c.  Marched  this  day  to  Hannayouya  (Honeoye).  This 
town  is  situated  at  the  end  of  a  small  Lake  of  the  same  name — con- 
tains about  15  houses — a  large  flat  of  excellent  land. 

12. — The  provisions  and  superfluous  baggage  of  the  army  were 
left  at  this  town,  with  a  guard  of  about  200  men  and  two  field 
pieces.  The  army  decamped  at  11  A.  M.  and  marched  towards 
the  Genesee  flats.  Marched  about  10  miles  and  encamped  in  the 
woods — passed  this  day  a  small  lake  called  Konyoughojoh. 

13. — Decamped  at  6  A.  M.  Marched  about  two  miles  and  halt- 
ed at  Adjustah.  This  town  contains  about  26  houses.  While  we 
halted  at  this  town,  Lieut.  Boyd,  with  20  men  of  the  Rifle  Corps, 
was  sent  to  the  next  town  to  reconnoitre  the  enemy.  On  his  return 
about  700  of  the  enemy  ambushed  him,  killed  and  took  18  of  the 
party.  After  the  corn,  &c.,  was  destroyed  and  'the  town  set  in 
flames,  we  moved  off  to  the  next  town.  Our  brigade  marched 
some  miles  around  to  gain  the  rear  of  the  enemy,  but  as  usual  they 
had  fled  before  us.  This  town  contains  about  18  houses,  situated 
at  the  southern  end  of  the  Genesee  flats,  on  the  banks  of  a  small 
river  that  leads  into  the  Genesee  river. 

14. — 9  A.  M.  the  army  decamped,  passed  the  river,  entered  the 
Genesee  flats.  This  flat  is  judged  to  contain  near  6,000  acres.  We 
passed  the  Genesee  river.  This  river  runs  with  a  strong  current 
out  of  a  hilly  country.  Three  miles  below  where  we  forded,  is 
navigable  to  lake  Ontario.  We  burnt  a  small  town  on  the  bank  of 
the  river  and  marched  that  night  to  Genesee  castle.  There  the  body 
of  Lieut.  Boyd  and  one  man  was  found  murdered  in  a  barbarous 
manner,  too  horrid  to  mention.  This  town  is  the  metropolis  of  that 
nation ;  contains  about  140  houses.  Some  fine  buildings  in  it ;  sit- 
uated about  40  miles  from  Niagara,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Gene- 
see river.  The  soil  is  exceedingly  rich  for  10  or  12  miles  along 
the  river.  In  and  about  this  town,  it  was  judged  there  were  800 
acres  of  corn,  beans,  and  vegetables  of  every  kind. 

15. — The  whole  army  was  employed  in  destroying  the  corn,  &c. 
Now  the  general  having  completed  and  fulfilled  his  orders,  after 
destroying  the  corn  and  setting  the  town  in  flames,  the  army  passed 


90  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

the  river  and  encamped  upon  the  flats.     One  woman  and  one  child 
made  their  escape  from  the  savages  and  came  to  us  that  evening. 

i6. — Lay  by  to  destroy  corn  along  the  flats.  Decamped  at  lo 
A.  M.     Encamped  at  Aojuhtah. 

17. — Decamped  at  gun  firing.     Encamped  at  Honeoye. 

18. — Decamped  at  10  A.  M.  that  day  to  Canandaigua.  En- 
camped on  the  east  side  of  the  Lake. 

19. — Marched   to   Connadasago. 

20. — A  party  of  900  men  was  detached  under  command  of  Col. 
Butler,  to  destroy  the  Kengah  tribe,  and  a  party  of  100  men  under 
command  of  Col.  Gansevoort  to  destroy  part  of  the  Mohawk  tribe. 
Decamped  at  3  P.  M.  and  encamped  on  the  east  side  of  Seneca  Lake. 

21. — A  party  of  100  men  was  detached  under  Col.  Dearborn  to 
destroy  the  towns  on  the  west  side  of  Kenkah  lake.  Decamped  at 
8  A.  M.,  passed  Candiah  about  three  miles  and  encamped  at  4  P.  M. 

22. — Decamped  at  7  A.  M.  Encamped  that  night  within  seven 
miles  of  Catharine  town. 

24. —  (23d.  ?)  Decamped  at  7  A.  M.,  passed  Catharine  town  and 
encamped  near  the  Big  Swamp  that  night. 

24. — Decamped  at  5  A.  M.,  passed  the  swamp  and  halted  some 
time  for  refreshment.  Encamped  that  night  at  Fort  Reed,  where 
we  met  provisions  and  stores  for  the  reception  of  the  Army.  Upon 
our  arrival  at  this  place,  (now  Elniira),  13  cannon  were  discharged 
from  the  fort  and  was  returned  from  one  of  our  pieces  15  times. 
The  latter  was  discharged  in  the  space  of  one  minute  and  a  half. 
Dried  provisions,  &c. 

(Colonel  Gansevoort's  Journal  notes  the  proceedings  of  this 
day  as  follows :  "  Passed  the  swamp  so  much  dreaded  from  its 
"  badness,  without  any  difficulty  and  arrived  at  the  forks  of  New- 
"  town,  where  Capt.  Reed  with  a  detachment  of  200  men  had  thrown 
"  up  a  breastwork  to  guard  some  stores  and  cattle  brought  forward 
"  from  Tioga  for  the  army  in  case  of  necessity.       Saluted  by  13 


SULLIVAN  S   CAMPAIGN.  9 1 

'*  rounds  of  cannon   from  the  breast-work,  which   number  we   re- 
"  turned  from  our  artillery."^) 

Fort  Reed  was  on  the  west  side  of  the  Newtown  creek  and  on 
the  north  bank  of  the  Tioga,  where  the  creek  falls  into  the  river. 
It  was  a  breast-work  and  was  surrounded  by  palisades  including 
some  three  or  four  acres.  The  western  line  of  palisades  can  be 
traced  on  the  west  side  of  the  junction  canal  and  on  the  east  side  of 
Water  st.,  a  little  south  of  the  Fair  grounds.  The  Journal  con- 
tinues. 

25. — All  the  loaded  muskets  in  the  army  were  discharged  at  5 
A.  M.  The  army  was  drawn  up  in  one  line  and  fired  three  rounds 
per  man.  After  the  discharge  of  13  cannon,  for  our  new  ally  the 
King  of  Spain,  several  oxen  were  killed  for  the  officers  and  men. 

(Col.  Gansevoort's  Journal  thus  describes  this  atTair :  "25. — 
"  This  morning  the  small  arms  of  the  whole  army  were  discharged 
"  at  5  o'clock.  The  Vv'hole  were  drawn  up  in  one  line,  with  a  field 
"  piece  on  the  right  of  each  brigade,  to  fire  a  fen  de  joie — ist.  thir- 
"  teen  rounds  of  cannon  ;  2d,  a  running  fire  of  musketry,  from  right 
"  to  left — repeated  twice.  Fifty  oxen  were  killed  on  this  joyous 
"  occasion,  one  delivered  to  each  Brigade  and  one  to  the  Artillery 
"  and  staff.  This  was  done  in  consequence  of  Spain  having  de- 
"  clared  war  against  Britain.") 

26. — At  12  A.  M.,  the  party  under  command  of  Col.  Dearborn 
came  in  after  destroying  a  fine  country  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Kengah  Lake.     They  brought  in  two  squaws  with  them. 

2y. — 400  men  under  the  command  of  Col.  Courtland,  was  em- 
ployed in  destroying  corn  up  the  river.  30  boats  arrived  from 
Tioga. 

28. — ^All  the  sick  were  sent  to  Tioga.  The  party  under  the 
command  of  Col.  Butler,  returned  from  destroying  the  Kengah 
tribe.  They  found  a  most  beautiful  country  abounding  in  vast 
quantities  of  corn  and  vegetables  of  all  kinds ;  the  same  party  under 
command  of  Col.  Courtland,  was  employed  up  the  river ;  also,  500 
men  were  employed  down  the  river,  towards  Tioga,  destroying 
corn  and  vegetables  on  the  flats. 


92  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

29. — Decamped  6  A.  M.  Encamped  that  night  3  miles  below 
Chemung  and  within  3  miles  of  Tioga.  j 

30. — Decamped  at  6  A.  M.,  arrived  at  Fort  SulHvan  at  i  P.  M.  ' 
Upon  our  arrival  the  garrison  discharged    13   cannon  and   we  re- 
turned the  same.     Pitched  tents  on  the  ground  we  occupied  before. 

October  3. — A  party  of  500  men  turned  out  to  load  the  boats 
and  demolish  P'ort  Sullivan.  The  army  drew  6  days'  flour  to  carry 
them  to  Wyoming. 

4. — Decamped  at  6  A.  M.  Passed  the  river  and  encamped  that 
night  within  5  miles  of  Standing  Stone,  near  the  river. 

5. — All  the  cattle,  stores  and  horses  were  sent  down  to  Wyom- 
ing. The  whole  went  on  board  the  boats.  The  fleet  got  under 
way  at  6  A.  M. 

6. — The  fleet  got  under  way  at  9  A.  M.  Arrived  at  evening  at 
Shawney  Flats. 

7. — The  whole  fleet  got  under  way  at  9  A.  M.,  and  arrived  at 
Wyoming  at  2  P.  M.  When  it  hove  in  sight  13  cannon  were  fired 
by  the  garrison  and  returned  by  the  fleet.  The  army  encamped 
near  the  garrison. 

8. — Two  hundred  men  were  detached  to  repair  the  road  from 
this  post  to  Easton  and  to  remain  there  until  the  army  arrives. 

10. — Gen.  Sullivan  set  out  for  Easton,  leaving  the  command  to 
Gen.  Clinton.  Decamped  at  ii  A.  M.  Encamped  that  night  at 
Bullock's  tavern. 

II. — The  rear  of  the  army  came  up  to  camp  at  9  A.  M.  March- 
ed this  day  and  encamped  between  the  Shades  of  Death  and  the  Big 
Swamp. 

12. — Decamped  at  7  A.  M.  Encamped  that  night  at  the  White 
Oak  Run. 

13. — Decamped  at  8  o'clock  in  the  morning.  The  army  moved 
that  dav  to  Brink's  Mills. 


SULLIVAN  S    CAMPAIGN.  93 

14. — Decamped  at  lo  A.  M.  Passed  the  Wind  Gap  and  en- 
camped that  night  within  12  miles  of  Easton. 

15. — Decamped  at  6  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  arrived  at 
Easton  at  2  P.  M.  Encamped  in  the  Forks  of  the  Delaware  on 
the  bank  of  the  Lehigh. 

17. — Our  Brigade  mustered.  The  Rev.  Parson  Evans  delivered 
a  discourse^  to  the  army  in  the  German  church. 

In  the  same  volume  is  given  a  table  of  distances  as  traveled  by 
the  army  from  Easton  to  Genesee  Castle,  as  surveyed  by  Mr.  Lodge, 
Surveyor  to  the  Western  army : 

From  Easton   to  Wyoming 65  miles 

Lackawanna     75  " 

Quelutinack    82 

"  Tunkhannock  Creek 93  " 

"  Mesupin    102  " 

"  Vanderlip's  Farm 107  " 

"  Wyalusing    115  " 

"  Wysaching   Creek I29ya  " 

Tioga 145 

"  Chemung    157  " 

"  Forks   at   Newtown 165  " 

"  French  Catharines,  or  Evoquagah.  . .  .i83^/^-  " 

"  Condiah,  or  Appleton 211  " 

"  Outlet  of  Seneca  Lake 222%  " 

"  Canadesaco,  or  Seneca  Lake 226  " 

"  Canandaigua     241^'^  '' 

"  Honeoye   255  '' 

Adjustah    267'/^  " 

"  Gasagularah    274MS  " 

"  Genesee   Castle 280  " 


CONCERNING  THE  MOHAWKS. 


By  W.  Max  Reid. 


I  am  somewhat  at  a  loss  to  select  a  name  for  the  subject  of  this 
paper.  I  dare  not  dignify  it  by  the  title  of  a  history  of  the  Mo- 
hawks, because  a  true  history  of  that  notable  people  never  has  been 
or  never  can  be  written.  It  is  true  that  "  Colden's  Five  Nations," 
"  Morgan's  League  of  the  Iroquois,"  and  Schoolcraft's  notes  are 
looked  upon  as  authority  on  this  subject,  but  Morgan's  work  is  in 
a  great  measure  legendary  and  altogether  unsatisfying,  and  the 
same  may  be  said  of  Colden  and  Schoolcraft,  although  the  little 
that  Colden  has  to  say  about  the  Mohawks  is  accepted  as  authority 
as  far  as  it  goes. 

As  to  the  origin  of  the  Mohawks,  it  will  always  remain  a  mys- 
tery. Conjecture  may  or  may  not  approach  the  truth,  but  from  the 
fact  that  they  had  no  written  language,  no  records  on  stone  or  parch- 
ment from  which  we  can  obtain  knowledge  of  their  origin  or  early 
history,  it  is  evident  that  our  only  sources  of  information  are  the 
vague  traditions  that  have  been  transmitted  orally  from  parent  to 
child  or  from  Sachem  to  Sachem. 

How  unreliable  and  unsatisfactory  these  oral  traditions  are,  may 
be  noted  in  what  is  called  the  "  Iroquoian  Cosmology,"  or  the  "  Cre- 
ation," as  translated  by  J.  N.  B.  Hewitt,  of  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology. 
Mr.  Hewitt  gives  three  versions  of  the  "  Creation,"  the  Onondaga, 
Mohawk  and  the  Seneca.  They  are  practically  alike,  diflfering  only 
in  minor  statements.  The  Onondaga  is  the  longest  and  the  Seneca 
the  shortest  version.  I  will  give  you,  however,  a  condensed  render- 
ing of  the  Mohawk  tradition.     It  says : 

"  In  the  sky  above  were  man-beings,  both  male  and  female,  who 
dwelt  in  villages,  and  in  one  of  the  lodges  was  a  man  and  woman, 
who  were  down-fended,  that  is,  they  were  secluded,  and  their  lodge 
was  surrounded  by  the  down  of  the  cat-tail,  which  was  a  sign  that 


CONCERNING   THE    MOHAWKS.  95 

no  one  should  approach  them,  nor  were  they  allowed  to  leave  this 
precinct.  The  man  became  ill  and  stated  that  he  would  not  get  well 
until  a  dogwood  tree  standing  in  his  dooryard  had  been  uprooted. 
So  when  his  people  had  uprooted  the  tree  he  said  to  his  wife,  '  Do 
thou  spread  for  me  something  there  beside  the  place  where  stood 
the  tree.'  Thereupon  she  spread  something  for  him  there  and  he 
then  lay  down  on  what  she  had  spread  for  him,  and  he  said  to  his 
wife :  '  Here  sit  thou,  beside  my  body.'  Now  at  that  time  she  did 
sit  beside  him  as  he  lay  there.  Then  he  said  to  her:  'Do  thou 
hang  thy  legs  down  into  the  abyss.'  For  where  they  had  uprooted 
the  tree  there  came  to  be  a  deep  hole,  which  went  through  the  sky, 
and  the  earth  was  upturned  about  it. 

"  And  while  he  lay  there  he  recovered  from  his  illness  and  turn- 
ing on  his  side  he  looked  into  the  hole.  After  a  while  he  said  to 
his  wife :  *  Do  thou  look  thither  into  the  hole  to  see  what  things 
are  occurring  there  in  yonder  place.'  Arid  as  she  bent  her  body  to 
look  into  the  hole  he  took  her  by  the  nape  of  the  neck  and  pushed 
her  and  she  fell  into  the  hole  and  kept  falling  into  the  darkness 
thereof.  After  a  while  she  passed  through  and  as  she  looked  about 
her,  as  she  slowly  fell,  she  saw  that  all  about  her  was  blue  in  color 
and  soon  discovered  that  what  she  observed  was  a  vast  expanse  of 
water,  on  which  floated  all  kinds  of  water  fowls  in  great  numbers. 

"  Thereupon.  Loon,  looking  into  the  water  and  seeing  her  re- 
flection, shouted,  '  A  man-being,  a  female  is  coming  up  from  the 
depths  of  the  waters.'  The  Bittern,  answering,  said,  *  She  is  not 
indeed  coming  up  out  of  the  depths  of  the  water,  she  is  falling  from 
above.'  Thereupon  they  held  a  council  to  decide  what  they  should 
do  to  provide  for  her  welfare. 

"  They  finally  invited  Great  Turtle  to  come.  Loon,  thereupon, 
said  to  him,  '  Thou  should  float  thy  body  above  the  place  where 
thou  art  in  the  depths  of  the  water.'  And  then  as  Great  Turtle 
arose  to  the  surface,  a  large  body  of  ducks  of  various  kinds  arose 
from  the  face  of  the  water,  elevated  themselves  in  a  very  compact 
body,  and  went  up  to  meet  her.  And  on  their  backs  did  she  alight, 
and  they  slowly  descended,  bearing  her  body  on  their  backs,  and 
on  the  back  of  Great  Turtle  they  placed  her. 

"  Then  Loon  said,  '  Come,  you  deep  divers,  dive  and  bring  up 
earth.'  Many  dived  into  the  water,  and  Beaver  was  a  long  time 
gone.     When  his  back  appeared  he  was  dead,  and  when  they  ex- 


96  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

amined  his  paws,  they  found  no  earth.  Then  Otter  said,  *  It  is  my 
turn.'  Whereupon  he  dived,  and  after  a  longer  time  he  also  came 
up  dead.  Neither  did  he  bring  up  any  earth.  It  was  then  that 
Muskrat  said,  '  I  also  will  make  the  desperate  attempt.'  It  was  a 
still  longer  time  that  he  was  under  water,  but  after  a  w'hile  he  also 
floated  to  the  surface,  dead.  In  his  paws  was  mud  and  his  mouth 
was  full  of  mud.  And  they  took  this  mud  and  coated  the  edge  of 
Great  Turtle's  shell  all  around,  and  other  muskrats  dived  and  floated 
dead,  but  brought  up  mud,  which  was  placed  on  Great  Turtle's  back. 
And  the  female  man-being  sat  on  the  back  of  Great  Turtle  and  slept. 
And  when  she  awoke  the  earth  had  increased  in  size,  and  she  slept 
again,  and  when  she  awoke,  willows  were  growing  along  the  edge 
of  the  water.  And  then,  also,  when  she  again  awoke,  the  carcass  of 
a  deer  recently  killed,  lay  there,  and  a  fire  was  burning,  and  a  sharp 
stone.  And  she  dressed,  cooked,  and  ate  her  fill.  And  after  a 
tvhile  a  rivulet  appeared  and  rapidly  the  earth  increased  to  great 
size,  and  grass  and  herbs  sprung  from  the  earth  and  grew  to  ma- 
turity. 

"  And  after  a  while  the  female  man-being  gave  birth  to  a  girl 
child,  who  grew  rapidly  to  maturity,  and  not  long  after  gave  birth 
to  two  male  man-beings,  but  the  daughter  died  in  giving  birth  to 
the  twins.  And  the  grandmother  cut  ofif  the  head  of  her  dead 
daughter  and  hung  her  body  in  a  high  place  and  it  became  the  sun, 
and  the  head  she  placed  in  another  place  and  it  became  the  moon. 

"  And  when  she  examined  one  of  the  infants  she  found  his  flesh 
was  nothing  but  flint  and  there  was  a  sharp  comb  of  flint  over  the 
top  of  his  head,  but  the  flesh  of  the  other  was  in  every  respect  like 
a  man-being. 

"  It  seems  that  these  two  were  antagonistic  from  their  birth,  the 
grandmother  clinging  to  the  flint  child  and  driving  the  other  into 
the  wilderness ;  and  in  his  wanderings  he  came  to  the  shore  of  a 
lake  and  saw  a  lodge  standing  there.  Looking  in  the  doorway  he 
saw  a  man  sitting  there,  who  said  to  him,  '  Enter  thou  here.  This 
man  was  Great  Turtle,  who  gave  him  a  bow  and  arrow,  and  also 
gave  him  two  ears  of  corn,  one  in  the  milky  state,  which  he  told 
him  to  roast  and  eat  as  food,  and  the  other,  which  was  mature,  he 
should  use  for  seed  corn. 

"  He  also  endowed  him  with  preternatural  powers.     And  when 


CONCERNING   THE    MOHAWKS.  97 

he  was  about  to  depart,  he  said  to  the  young  man,  '  I  am  Great 
Turtle,  I  am  thy  parent.' 

"  SapHng,  which  was  the  name  of  the  young  man-being,  created 
animals  out  of  earth,  and  birds  by  castiijg  handfuls  of  earth_into 
•the  air.  He  also  formed  the  body  of  a  man  and  the  body  of  a 
woman,  and  gave  them  life  and  placed  them  together.  Returning 
shortly  after  he  found  them  sleeping.  Again  and  again  he  returned 
and  still  they  slept.  '  Thereupon  he  took  a  rib  from  each  and  sub- 
stituted the  one  for  the  other  and  replaced  each  one  in  the  other's 
body.  It  was  not  long  before  the  woman  awoke  and  sat  up.  At 
once  she  touched  the  breast  of  the  man  lying  at  her  side,  just  where 
Sapling  had  placed  her  rib,  and,  of  course,  that  tickled  him.  There- 
upon he  awoke.     Awoke  to  life  and  understanding.'  " 

As  in  the  Biblical  story  of  Cain  and  Abel,  the  two  brothers 
fought  and  in  the  end  one  was  slain.  But  is  was  the  unrighteous 
one,  the  one  with  the  flint  body,  who  lost  his  life. 

Nearly  three  hundred  years  ago,  the  Jesuits  recorded  traditions 
of  the  Algonquins  and  Huron-Iroquois  of  Canada,  which  were  prac- 
tically the  same  in  their  main  features  as  the  above.  (See  Jesuit 
Rel.  vol.   ID,  pages  127-129.) 

The  Montagnais  and  Adirondacks  of  Canada,  and  in  fact  all  the 
Algonquin  nations,  seem  to  have  some  tradition  of  the  deluge,  which 
in  some  way  is  mixed  with  the  Huron-Iroquois  tradition  of  the 
creation.     In  fact,  it  deals  with  a  re-creation  of  the  earth. 

They  say  that  one  Mes'sou  restored  the  world  when  it  was  lost 
in  the  waters.     Their  story  of  the  deluge  is  practically  as  follows : 

This  Messou  went  a  hunting  with  lynxes,  instead  of  dogs,  and 
was  warned  that  it  would  be  dangerous  for  his  lynxes  in  a  certain 
lake  near  the  place  where  he  was.  One  day  as  he  was  hunting  an 
elk  his  lynxes  gave  it  chase  even  into  the  lake ;  and  when  tihey  reach- 
ed the  middle  of  it,  they  were  submerged  in  an  instant.  When  Mes- 
sou arrived  there  and  sought  his  lynxes,  who  were  indeed  his 
brothers,  a  bird  told  him  that  it  had  seen  them  in  the  bottom  of  the 
lake,  and  that  certain  animals  or  monsters  held  them  there.  He  at 
once  leaped  into  the  water  to  rescue  them,  but  immediately  the  lake 
overflowed,  and  increased  so  prodigiously  that  it  inundated  and 
drowned  the  whole  earth.  Astonished,  he  gave  up  all  thought  of 
his  lynxes  and  turned  his  attention  to  creating  the  world  anew. 
First  he  sent  a  raven  to  find  a  small  piece  of  earth  with  which  to 


98  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

build  a  new  world.  The  raven  returned  unsuccessful.  He  made  an 
Otter  dive  down,  but  he  could  not  reach  the  bottom.  At  last  a  musk- 
rat  descended  and  brought  back  some  earth.  With  this  bit  of  earth 
Messou  restored  every  thing  to  its  former  condition. 

But  it  is  among  the  Iroquois  that  Great  Turtle  plays  the  prin- 
cipal part  in  the  creation.  In  fact  it  is  said  that  he  upholds  the  earth 
to  this  day.  In  one  of  the  cases  of  the  "  Richmond  collection  " 
in  the  museum  of  the  Montgomery  County  Historical  Society,  is  an 
old  rattle  which  can  be  traced  back  more  than  a  hundred  years.  We 
have  looked  upon  it  as  an  interesting  relic  of  the  Senecas,  a  rude 
musical  instrument.  It  is  made  from  a  turtle  shell  and  skin,  and  in 
the  enclosed  space  has  been  placed  pebbles  for  rattles. 

But  this  instrument  is  interesting  beyond  all  that.  Father  Le- 
June,  in  his  Relation  of  1639,  makes  the  following  statement  in 
describing  a  dance  at  a  feast  given  for  a  sick  woman :  "  At  the 
head  of  tihe  procession  marched  two  masters  of  ceremonies,  singing 
and  holding  the  tortoise,  on  which  they  did  not  cease  to  play.  This 
tortoise  is  not  a  real  tortoise,  but  only  the  shell  and  skin,  so  arranged 
as  to  make  a  sort  of  drum  or  rattle.  Having  thrown  certain  peb- 
bles into  it  they  make  from  it  an  instrument  like  that  the  children  in 
France  used  to  play  with.  There  is  a  mysterious  something,  I  know 
not  what,  in  this  semblance  of  a  tortoise,  to  Which  these  people  at- 
tribute their  origin.     We  shall  know  in  time  what  there  is  to  it." 

It  is  said  that  in  no  Amerind  (the  word  Amerind  is  a  new  word 
coined  by  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology  to  take  the  place  of  the  three 
words  "  North  American  Indian."  You  will  notice  that  it  is  com- 
posed or  formed  from  the  first  four  letters  of  American  and  the 
first  three  letters  of  Indian)  language,  could  the  Jesuit  Priests  find 
a  word  to  express  the  idea  of  God  or  His  attributes.  Although  the 
most  charitable  of  people  and  showing  the  utmost  aflfection  for 
their  children,  the  Jesuits  v^^ere  unable,  in  the  Amerind  language, 
to  impress  upon  them  or  to  communicate  to  them,  the  idea  of  an 
all-loving  and  charitable  Supreme  Being.  They  had  their  Manitou, 
but  they  feared  them  and  gave  them  the  character  of  the  devil,  one 
w^ho  should  be  propitiated  by  presents,  by  penances,  or  by  scourges 
and  feasts. 

In  the  Amerind's  mind,  each  animal  had  a  king,  as  the  Great 
Turtle,  the  Great  Bear,  etc.  The  fathers  said  to  them  if  the  animals 
have  each  a  Supreme  Being,  why  should  not  man  have  a  great  chief 


CONCERNING   THE    MOHAWKS.  99 

of  men,  who  lives  in  the  sky ;  a  Great  Spirit.  This  idea  they  ac- 
cepted, and  altlioug'h  they  did  not  or  could  not  give  him  tlie  at- 
tributes of  the  Christian's  God,  the  Great  Spirit  became  "  a  distinct 
existence,  a  pervading  power  in  the  universe,  and  a  dispencer  of  jus- 
tice." 

This  idea  the  Jesuits  had  to  accept,  although  in  exceptional 
cases,  they  seemed  to  impress  their  idea  of  God  upon  some  of  their 
converts  while  they  had  them  at  the  missions,  but  they  were  sure  to 
become  apostates  when  they  returned  to  their  people  in  the  wilder- 
ness. So  you  will  see  that  "  The  Great  Spirit "  of  the  Indians  is 
a  modern  idea  received  from  the  whites  and  not,  as  some  think, 
a  Supreme  Being  evolved  ages  ago  from  the  Amerind  mind. 

Parkman  says :  "  The  primative  Indian  believed  in  the  immor- 
tality of  the  soul,  and  that  skilful  hunters,  brave  warriors,  and  men 
of  influence  went,  after  deafli,  to  the  happy  hunting-grounds,  while 
the  slothful,  the  cowardly,  the  weak  were  doomed  to  eat  serpents 
and  ashes  in  dreary  and  misty  regions,  but  there  was  no  belief  that 
the  good  were  to  be  rewarded  for  moral  good,  or  the  evil  punished 
for  a  moral  evil." 

So  you  will  see  that  the  writing  of  a  history  of  the  Mohawks 
would  be  an  arduous  task,  a  history  filled  with  mystery  and  super- 
sitition  together  with  kindly  deeds  and  warlike  acts,  a  history  of 
a  people  ertdowed  with  minds  that  were  able  to  conceive  a  union 
of  tribes,  states  or  nations,  call  them  what  you  may,  and  to  per- 
petuate that  union  for  centuries,  the  success  of  which  suggested 
to  our  forefathers  the  union  of  states,  the  government  under  which 
we  now  live. 

I-  Of  C.  *'  HOLLANDER." 


ROBERT  R.  LIVINGSTON, 

The  Author  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase. 


Hon.  D.  S.  Alexander. 


After  signing  the  treaty  ceding  Louisiana  to  the  United  States, 
Robert  R.  Livingston  declared  it  the  noblest  work  of  his  life.  If 
one  may  not  assent  to  this  enthusiastic  statement  of  the  speaker, 
who  had  been  a  member  of  the  committee  to  draft  the  immortal 
Declaration  of  Independence,  it  is  easy  to  admit  tJhat  his  work 
stands  next  in  historical  importance  to  the  treaty  of  1783,  which 
recognized  American  independence.  It  added  half  an  empire  to 
our  domain,  and,  a  century  later,  gave  Edward  Everett  Hale  op- 
portunity to  speak  of  Livingston  as  "  the  wisest  American  of  his 
time,"  since  "  Franklin  had  died  in   1780." 

When  Livingston  signed  the  Louisiana  treaty  he  was  fifty-six 
years  of  age,  tall  and  handsome,  with  an  abundance  of  hair  already 
turning  gray,  which  fell  in  ringlets  over  a  square,  high  forehead, 
lending  a  certain  dignity  that  made  him  appear  as  great  off  the 
bench  as  he  did  when  gowned  and  throned  as  Chancellor.  In  the 
estimation  of  his  contemporaries  he  was  one  of  the  most  gifted 
men  of  his  time,  and  the  judgment  of  a  later  age  has  not  reversed 
their  decision.  He  added  learning  to  great  natural  ability,  and 
brilHancy  to  profound  thought,  and  although  so  deaf  as  to  make 
communication  with  him  difficult,  he  came  very  near  concealing  the 
defect  by  his  remarkable  eloquence  and  conversational  gifts.  Ben- 
jamin Franklin  called  him  "  the  Cicero  of  America."  His  love  for 
the  beautiful  attracted  Edmund  Burke.  It  is  doubtful  if  he  had  a 
superior  in  the  State  in  the  knowledge  of  history  and  the  dlassics, 
and  in  the  study  of  science  Samuel  L.  Mitchell  alone  stood  above 
him.  He  lacked  the  creative  genius  of  Hamilton,  the  prescient 
gifts  of  Jay,  and  the  skill  of  Aaron  Burr  to  marshal  men  for  selfish 
purposes;  but  he  was  rt  home  in  debate  with  the  ablest  men  of 


1 


ROBERT   R.    LIVINGSTON.  lOI 

his  time,  a  master  of  sarcasm,  of  trenchant  wit,  and  of  feUcitous 
rhetoric.  It  is  likely  that  he  lacked  Kent's  application.  But  of 
ninety-three  bills  passed  by  the  legislature  from  1778  to  1801,  a 
period  that  spans  his  life  as  Chancellor,  and  which  were  afterward 
vetoed  by  the  Council  of  Revision,  Livingston  wrote  opinions  in 
twenty-three,  s'everal  of  them  elaborate,  and  all  revealing  capacity 
for  legislation.  In  these  vetoes  he  stood  with  Hamilton  in  resist- 
ing forfeitures  and  confiscations ;  he  held  with  Richard  Morris 
that  loyal  citizens  could  not  be  deprived  of  lands,  though  bought 
of  an  allien  enemy ;  he  agreed  with  Jay  in  upholding  common  law 
rig^hts  and  limiting  the  death  penalty ;  and  he  had  the  support  of 
George  Clinton  and  John  Sloss  Hobart  in  disapproving  a  measure 
for  the  gradual  abolition  of  slavery,  because  the  legislature  thought 
it  politically  expedient  to  deprive  colored  men  of  the  right  to  vote 
who  had  before   enjoyed  such  a  privilege. 

In  the  field  of  politics,  Livingston's  search  for  office  did  not 
result  in  a  happy  career.  So  long  as  he  stood  for  a  broader  and 
stronger  national  life  his  intellectual  rays  flashed  far  beyond  the 
horizon  of  most  of  his  contemporaries,  but  the  joy  of  public  life 
was  clouded  when  he  entered  the  domain  of  partisan  politics.  His 
mortification  that  someone  other  than  himself  was  appointed  Chief 
Justice  of  the  United  States  Supreme  Court,  made  Hamilton's 
funding  system,  especially  the  proposed  assumption  of  State  debts, 
sufficient  excuse  for  becoming  an  anti-federalist,  and  had  he  pos- 
sessed those  qualities  of  leadership  that  bind  party  and  friends  by 
ties  of  unflinching  service,  he  might  have  reaped  the  reward  that 
his  ambition  so  ardently  craved ;  but  his  peculiar  temper  unfitted 
him  for  such  a  career.  Jealous,  fretful,  sensitive,  and  suspicious, 
he  was  as  restless  as  his  eloquence  was  dazzling,  and  when,  at  last, 
he  became  the  anti-federalist  candidate  for  governor  in  1798,  in 
opposition  to  John  Jay,  the  campaign  ended  in  deep  humiliation. 
His  candidacy  was  clearly  a  dash  for  the  Presidency.  He  reason- 
ed, as  every  ambitious  New  York  statesman  has  reasoned  from 
that  day  to  this,  that  if  he  could  carry  the  State  in  an  oflf  year,  he 
would  be  needed,  as  the  candidate  of  his  whole  party,  in  a  Presi- 
dential year.  This  reasoning  reduces  the  governorship  to  a  sort 
of  springboard  from  which  to  vault  into  the  White  House,  and 
although  only  one  man  in  a  century  has  performed  the  feat,  it  has 
always  figured  as  a  popular  and  potent  factor  in  the  settlement  of 


I02  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

political  nominations.  George  Clinton  t'houglit  the  Presidency 
would  come  to  him,  and  Hamilton  inspired  Jay  with  a  similar  no- 
tion ;  but  Livingston,  sanguine  of  better  treatment,  was  willing, 
for  the  sake  of  undertaking  it,  voluntarily  to  withdraw  from  the 
professional  path  along  which  he  had  moved  to  great  distinction. 

The  personal  qualities  which  seemed  to  unfit  Livingston  for 
political  leadership  in  New  York  did  not  strengthen  his  usefulness 
in  France.  It  was  the  breadth  of  view  wihicli  distinguished  him 
in  the  formation  of  the  Union  that  brought  him  success  as  a  diplo- 
mat. With  the  map  of  America  spread  out  before  him  he  handled 
the  Louisiana  problem  as  patriotically  as  he  had  argued  for  a 
stronger  national  life,  and  when,  at  last,  he  signed  the  treaty,  he 
had  forever  enlarged  the  geography  of  his  country. 

As  the  American  minister  to  the  court  of  Napoleon,  Livingston 
reached  France  in  November,  1801.  President  Jefferson  had  al- 
ready heard  a  rumor  of  the  retrocession  of  Lou'isiana  by  Spain  to 
France,  and  had  given  it  little  heed.  He  had  cheerfully  acquiesced 
in  Spain's  occupation  of  New  Orleans,  and  after  its  retrocession 
to  France  he  talked  pleasantly  of  securing  West  Florida  through 
French  influence.  "  Such  proof  on  the  part  of  France  of  good 
will  toward  the  United  States,"  he  wrote  Livingston,  in  Septem- 
ber, 1 80 1,  "  would  contribute  to  reconcile  the  latter  to  France's 
possession  of  New  Orleans."  But  when,  a  year  later,  a  French 
army,  commanded  by  Leclerc,  Napoleon's  brother-in-law,  had  dev- 
astated St.  Domingo  and  aroused  the  hostility  of  American  mer- 
chants and  shipmasters  by  his  arbitrary  treatment,  Jefferson  sensed 
the  danger  of  having  Napoleon  for  a  next-door  neiglibor  on  the 
Mississippi.  In  a  moment  his  tone  changed  from  one  of  peace  to 
a  threat  of  war.  "  The  cession  of  Louisanan  to  France,"  he  de- 
clared, in  a  letter  to  Livingston,  April  16,  1802,  "  works  most 
sorely  on  the  United  States.  There  is  on  the  globe  one  single  spot, 
the  possessor  of  which  is  our  natural  and  habitual  enemy.  It  is 
New  Orleans.  France,  placing  herself  in  that  door,  assumes  to  us 
the  attitude  of  defiance.  The  day  that  France  takes  possession  of 
New  Orleans  fixes  the  sentence  which  is  to  restrain  her  forever 
within  her  low-water  mark.  It  seals  the  union  of  two  nations, 
who  in  conjunction  can  maintain  exclusive  possession  of  the  ocean. 
From  that  moment  we  must  marry  ourselves  to  the  British  fleet 
and  nation." 


ROBERT   R.    LIVINGSTON.  103 

In  his  anxiety  the  President  also  instructed  Madison,  his  Secre- 
tary of  State,  to  write  Pinckney,  the  American  minister  at  Madrid, 
to  guarantee  to  Spajn,  if  it  had  not  already  parted  with  its  title, 
peaceable  possession  of  Louisiana  beyond  the  Mississippi,  on  con- 
dition of  its  ceding  to  the  United  States  the  territory,  including 
New  Orleans,  on  the  east  side.  As  the  year  wore  on,  however, 
and  Leclerc's  death  followed  his  report  of  his  losses,  Jefiferson  be- 
came much  easier,  advising  Livingston  that  French  possession  of 
Louisiana  v/ould  not  be  '*  important  enough  to  risk  a  breach  of 
the  peace."  But  before  the  ink  had  time  to  dry,  almost  simultan- 
eously with  the  death  of  Leclerc,  came  the  news,  through  Governor 
Claiborne  of  the  Territory  of  Mississippi,  that  the  Spanish  In- 
tendent  had  forbidden  Americans  the  right  to  deposit  their  mer- 
chandise at  New  Orleans.  This  was  a  stunning  blow  to  the  Presi- 
dent. The  treaty  of  1795  stipulated  that  the  King  of  Spain  would 
"  permit  the  citizens  of  the  United  States,  for  the  space  of  three 
years  from  this  time,  to  deposit  their  merchandise  and  effects  in 
the  Port  of  New  Orleans,  and  to  export  them  from  thence,  with- 
out paying  any  other  duty  than  a  fair  price  for  the  hire  of  the  stores, 
and  his  majesty  promises  either  to  continue  this  permission  if  he 
find  during  that  time  it  is  not  prejudicial  to  the  interests  of  Spain, 
or,  if  he  should  not  agree  to  continue  it  thus,  he  will  assign  to  them 
on  another  part  of  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi  an  equivalent  es- 
tablishment." That  the  three  years'  limitation  had  expired  during 
President  Adams'  administration  without  the  right  being  extended 
or  its  equivalent  established,  did  not  help  Jefferson  out  of  his  diffi- 
culty, since  the  Kentucky  and  Tennessee  settlers  were  already 
cleaning  their  flintlocks  on  the  theory  that  it  was  easier  to  drive 
out  a  few  Spaniards  than  to  dislodge  a  French  army  after  it  had 
fortified.  This  was  good  reasoning  if  Louisiana  was  to  be  taken 
by  force.  But  Jefferson,  even  when  writing  threatening  letters, 
had  no  thought  of  war.  "  Peace  is  our  passion,"  he  wrote  Sir  John 
Sinclair,  and  in  the  presence  of  threatening  hostilities  he  did  noth- 
ing to  prepare  for  war.  His  message  to  Congress,  which  opened 
a  few  days  after  the  reception  of  Claiborne's  dispatch,  made  no 
mention  of  the  New  Orleans  trouble.  He  talked  about  everything 
else,  but-  of  what  everybody  else  was  talking  about  the  President 
said  nothing.  The  western  settlers,  vitally  interested  in  a  depot 
of  deposit  at  New  Orleans,  resented  such  apparent  apathy,  and  by 


I04  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

resolutions  and  legislative  action  encouraged  the  federalists  to  talk 
so  loudly  for  war  that  the  President,  alarmed  at  the  condition  of 
the  public  mind,  sent  James  Monroe's  name  to  the  Senate  as  min- 
ister extraordinary  to  France  and  Spain.  On  January  13,  1803, 
the  day  of  Monroe's  confirmation,  Jefferson  hastened  to  write  him, 
explaining  what  he  had  done  and  why  he  had  acted.  "  The  agi- 
tation of  the  public  mind  on  occasion  of  the  late  suspension  of  our 
right  of  deposit  at  New  Orleans,"  said  he,  "  is  extreme.  In  the 
western  country  it  is  natural  and  grounded  on  honest  motives ;  in 
the  seaports  it  proceeds  from  a  desire  for  war,  which  increases 
the  mercantile  lottery ;  among  federalists  generally,  and  especially 
those  of  Congress,  the  object  is  to  force  us  into  war  if  possible,  in 
order  to  derange  our  finances ;  or,  if  this  cannot  be  done,  to  attach 
the  western  country  to  them  as  to  their  best  friends,  and  thus  get 
again  into  power.  Remonstrances,  memorials,  etc.,  are  now  circu- 
lating through  the  whole  of  the  western  country,  and  signed  by  the 
body  of  the  people.  The  measures  we  have  been  pursuing,  being 
invisible,  do  not  satisfy  their  minds.  Something  sensible,  there- 
fore, is  necessary." 

This  "  sensible  something "  was  Monroe's  appointment,  which 
"  has  already  silenced  the  federalists,"  continued  the  President. 
"  Congress  will  no  longer  be  agitated  by  them ;  and  the  country 
will  become  calm  as  fast  as  the  information  extends  over  it." 

The  better  to  support  Monroe,  Madison  explained  to  Pichon, 
the  French  minister  in  Washington,  the  necessity  for  the  undivided 
possession  of  New  Orleans,  claiming  that  it  had  no  sort  of  interest 
for  France,  while  the  United  States  had  no  interest  in  extending  its 
population  to  the  right  bank,  since  such  emigration  would  tend  to 
weaken  the  state  and  to  slacken  the  concentration  of  its  forces. 
"  In  spite  of  affinities  in  manners  and  languages,"  said  the  Secre- 
tary of  State,  "  no  colony  beyond  the  river  could  exist  under  the 
same  government,  but  would  infallibly  give  birth  to  a  separate 
state,  having  in  its  bosom  germs  of  collision  with  the  east,  the 
easier  to  develop  in  proportion  to  the  very  affinities  between  the 
two  empires." 

This  explained  the  true  attitude  of  Jefferson  and  Madison. 
They  did  not  seek  territory  west  of  the  Mississippi.  Their  thought 
centered  in  the  purchase  of  New  Orleans ;  it  was  the  "  one  spot  on 
the  globe,  the  possessor  of  which  is  our  natural  and  habitual  en- 


ROBERT    R.    LIVINGSTON.  105 

emy ;"  France's  possession  of  it  "  must  marry  us  to  the  British 
fleet  and  nation ;"  upon  it  "  every  eye  in  the  United  States  is  now 
fixed ;"  to  gain  it  Pinokney  was  charged  "  to  guarantee  to  Spain 
the  peaceable  possession  of  the  territory  beyond  the  Mississippi ;" 
in  Madison's  opinion  "  the  boundary  line  between  the  United  States 
and  Louisiana  should  be  the  Mississippi ;"  according  to  his  theory 
"  no  colony  beyond  the  Mississippi  could  exist  under  the  same 
government  with  that  on  the  east  side ;"  nor  did  the  United  States 
have  any  interest  in  building  up  a  colony  beyond  the  Mississippi. 
In  other  words,  Jefferson  saw  only  New  Orleans  ;  he  wanted  only 
New  Orleans  and  peace ;  and  to  get  the  one  and  keep  the  other, 
Monroe  was  sent  to  Paris  to  secure  "  our  rights  and  interests  in  the 
river  Mississippi  and  in  the  territories  eastward  thereof." 

In  the  meantime  Livingston  had  taken  a  different  view.  It  is 
not  clear  that  he  appreciated  the  future  value  of  the  great  north- 
west more  than  did  Jefferson  or  Madison,  but  in  his  argument  for 
the  purchase  of  New  Orleans  he  had  included  in  his  request  nine- 
tenths  of  the  territory  now  known  as  the  Louisiana  Purchase. 
Singularly  enough  Livingston's  letter  happened  to  be  addressed 
to  Talleyrand,  Napoleon's  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  on  the  very 
day  Monroe's  name  went  to  the  United  States  Senate  for  con- 
firmation, and  although  the  latter's  instructions  limited  negotiations 
to  the  east  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  Livingston's  argument  included 
the  west  bank.  "  Presuming,"  he  writes  Talleyrand,  "  that  the 
Floridas  are  in  the  hands  of  France,  I  shall  predicate  what  I  have 
to  offer  upon  that  presumption.  France  can  have  but  three  objects 
in  the  possession  of  Louisiana  and  Florida :  The  first  is  the  com- 
mand of  the  Gulf ;  second,  the  supply  of  her  islands ;  third,  an 
outlet  fior  the  people,  if  her  European  population  should  be  too 
gresLt  for  her  territory." 

"  Having  treated  this  subject  more  at  large  in  a  paper  which 
you  have  had  the  goodness  to  read,"  Livingston  continued,  "  I  will 
not  dwell  upon  it  here ;  but  propose  what  it  appears  to  be  the  true, 
policy  of  France  to  adopt,  as  affecting  all  her  objects,  and  at  the 
same  time  conciliating  the  affections  of  the  United  States,  giving 
a  permanency  to  her  establishments,  which  she  can  in  no  other  way 
hope  for.  First,  let  France  cede  to  the  United  States  so  much  of 
Louisiana  as  lays  above  the  mouth  of  the  river  Arkansas.  By  this 
a  barrier  will  be  placed  between  the  colony  of  France  and  Canada, 


\ 

Io6  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

from  which  she  may,  otherwise,  be  attacked  with  the  greatest 
facility,  and  driven  out  before  she  can  derive  any  aid  from  Europe. 
Let  her  possess  Florida  as  far  as  the  river  Perdito,  with  all  the 
ports  on  the  gulf,  and  cede  West  Florida,  New  Orleans,  and  the 
territory  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Mississippi  to  the  United  States. 
This  cession  will  only  be  valuable  to  the  latter  from  its  giving 
them  the  mouths  of  the  river  Mobile  and  other  small  rivers  which 
penetrate  their  territory,  and  in  calming  their  apprehensions  re- 
lative to  the  Mississippi.  It  may  be  supposed  that  New  Orleans 
is  a  place  of  some  moment ;  it  will  be  so  to  the  United  States,  but 
not  to  France.  The  right  of  depot  which  the  United  States  claims 
and  will  never  relinquish,  must  be  the  source  of  continued  disputes 
and  animosities  between  the  two  nations,  and  ultimately  lead  the 
United  States  to  aid  any  foreign  power  in  the  expulsion  of  France 
from  that  colony.  Independent  of  this,  as  the  present  commercial 
capital  of  New  Orleans  is  mostly  American,  it  will  be  instantly 
removed  to  Natchez,  to  which  the  United  States  can  give  such  ad- 
vantages as  to  render  New  Orleans  of  little  importance.  Upon  any 
other  plan.  Sir,  it  needs  but  little  foresight  to  predict  that  the  whole 
of  this  establishment  must  pass  into  the  hands  of  Great  Britain, 
which  has,  at  the  same  time,  the  command  of  the  sea,  and  a  martial 
colony  containing  every  means  of  attack.  While  the  fleets  block 
up  the  seaports,  she  can,  without  the  smallest  difficulty,  attack  New 
Orleans  from  Canada  with  15,000  or  20,000  men  and  a  host  of 
savages.  France,  by  grasping  at  a  desert  and  an  insignificant  tow.i, 
and  thereby  throwing  the  weight  of  the  United  States  into  the  scale 
of  Britain,  will  render  her  mistress  of  the  new  world.  By  the 
possession  of  Louisiana  and  Trinidad  the  colonies  of  Spain  will 
lie  at  her  mercy.  By  expelling  France  from  Florida  and  possess- 
ing the  ports  on  the  Gulf,  she  will  command  the  Islands.  The 
East  and  West  Indies  will  pour  their  commodities  into  her  ports ; 
and  the  precious  metals  of  Mexico,  combined  with  the  treasures 
of  Hindostan,  enable  her  to  purchase  nations  whose  aid  she  may 
require  in  confirming  her  power.  Though  it  would  comport  with 
the  true  policy  and  magnanimity  of  France  gratuitously  to  offer 
these  terms  to  the  United  States,  yet  they  are  not  unwilling  tO' 
purchase  them  at  a  price  suited  to  their  value  and  to  their  own 
circumstances,  in  the  hope  that  France  will  at  the  same  time  satisfy 


ROBERT   R.    LIVINGSTON.  107 

their  distressed  citizens  the  debts  which  they  have  a  right  by  so 
many  titles  to  demand." 

These  arguments  do  not  read  hke  the  letters  of  Jefferson  or  the 
instructions  of  Madison.  There  is  no  suggestion  that  the  United 
States  is  without  interest  in  the  right  bank  of  the  Mississippi  for 
fear  of  a  divided  government,  or  because  germs  of  collision  will 
develop  in  spite  of  affinities  in  manners  and  language.  New  Or- 
leans is  minimized,  the  great  west  is  magnified.  A  glance  at  the 
map  shows  that  he  offered  to  purchase  half  an  empire,  leaving  to 
France  only  a  small  corner  in  the  southwest  bordering  on  Texas. 
His  argument  fixed  its  limitation.  "  First,  let  France  cede  to  the 
United  States  so  much  of  Louisiana  as  lay  above  the  mouth  of  the 
river  Arkansas,  West  Florida,  NewOrleans,  and  the  territory  on  the 
west  bank  of  the  ^Mississippi."  Talleyrand  thought  the  rest  would 
be  of  little  value.  "  I  will  give  you  a  certificate,"  he  said,  in  the 
course  of  the  discussion,  "  that  you  are  the  most  importunate  ne- 
gotiator I  have  yet  met  with."  For  this  and  his  aid  to  Robert 
Fulton,  Edward  Everett  Hale  called  Livingston  "  the  wisest  Amer- 
ican of  his  time." 

Napoleon  received  Livingston's  argument  three  days  after  he 
heard  of  Leclerc's  death.  To  a  soldier  who  had  entered  Italy  over 
the  Alps,  the  suggestion  of  an  attack  from  Canada  would  strongly 
appeal :  with  Nelson  on  the  ocean,  he  could  understand  the  help- 
lessness of  a  French  army  in  New  Orleans ;  and  after  the  failure 
of  Leclerc  in  St.  Domingo,  the  presence  of  yellow  fever  and  other 
obstacles  to  success  in  Louisiana  would  not  seem  improbable.  Such 
a  discussion  at  such  a  time,  therefore,  was  certain  to  have  the  most 
profound  influence,  and  from  January  10  to  April  10,  1803,  Liv- 
ingston kept  his  reasons  constantly  before  the  First  Consul  and  his 
ministers  as  the  only  policy  to  conserve  the  true  interest  of  France, 
to  impair  the  strength  of  England,  and  to  win  the  affection  of  the 
United   States. 

"  I  have  never  yet  had  any  specific  instructions  from  you  how 
to  act  or  what  to  offer,"  he  wrote  Madison  on  February  18,  1803, 
eighteen  days  before  Monroe  left  the  United  States ;  "  but  I  have 
put  into  Napoleon's  hands  some  notes  containing  plain  truths 
mixed  with  that  species  of  personal  attention  which  I  know  to  be 
most  pleasing.  The  only  basis  on  which  I  think  it  possible  to  do 
anything  here  is  to  connect  our  claims  with  offers  to  purchase  the 


lo8  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Floridas.  Upon  this  subject  my  notes  turn.  I  have  first  en- 
deavored to  show  how  little  advantage  France  is  likely  to  make 
from  these  colonies ;  the  temptation  they  offer  to  Britain  to  attack 
them  by  sea  and  from  Canada;  the  effect  a  conquest  of  them  by 
Britain  would  have  on  the  islands ;  and  the  monopoly  which  that 
conquest  would  give  to  a  rival  power  to  the  trade  of  the  West  as 
well  as  of  the  East  Indies.  I  have  dwelt  upon  the  importance  of 
a  friendly  intercourse  between  them  and  us,  both  as  it  respects  their 
commerce  and  the  security  of  their  islands ;  and  I  have  proposed  to 
them  the  relinquishment  of  New  Orleans  and  West  Florida  as  far 
as  the  River  Perdito,  together  with  all  the  territory  lying  to  the 
north  of  the  Arkansas,  under  an  idea  that  it  was  necessary  to  in- 
terpose us  between  them  and  Canada,  as  the  only  means  of  pre- 
venting an  attack  from  that  quarter.  For  this  I  proposed  an  in- 
definite sum,  not  wishing  to  mention  any  till  I  should  receive  your 
instructions.  These  propositions  with  certain  accompaniments 
were  well  received,  and  were  some  days  under  the  First  Consul's 
consideration.  I  am  now  lying  on  my  oars  in  hopes  of  something 
explicit  from  you.  I  consider  the  object  of  immense  importance ; 
and  this  perhaps  the  favorable  moment  to  press  it." 

While  Livingston's  letter  was  being  read  in  Washington,  con- 
veying to  Jefferson  the  first  suggestion  of  a  purchase  other  than 
that  of  New  Or'leans,  the  First  Consvtl  was  making  up  his  mind  to 
accede  to  Livingston's  request.  When  the  decision  did  come,  it 
came  with  Napoleonic  suddenness.  For  three  months  he  had  con- 
sidered it ;  but  not  until  Sunday,  April  lo,  did  he  make  known  his 
intention ;  then,  in  a  moment,  without  warning,  he  let  his  desire  be 
known  to  Talleyrand  and  Marbois.  "  I  can  scarcely  say  that  I  cede 
it,"  said  Napoleon,  "  for  it  is  not  yet  in  our  possession.  If,  how- 
ever, I  leave  the  least  time  to  our  enemies,  I  shall  only  transmit 
an  empty  title."  Marbois  agreed,  Talleyrand  dissented,  and  the 
trio  parted ;  but  at  daybreak,  on  Monday,  Napoleon  sent  for  Mar- 
bois, declaring  that  "  irresolution  and  deliberation  are  no  longer  in 
season ;  I  renounce  Louisiana.  It  is  not  only  New  Orleans  that  I 
cede ;  it  is  the  whole  colony,  without  reserve.  I  know  the  price  of 
what  I  abandon.  I  renounce  it  with  the  greatest  regret ;  to  attempt 
obstinately  to  retain  it  would  be  folly.  I  direct  you  to  regulate  the 
affairs.     Have  an  interview  this  very  day  with  Mr.  Livingston." 

Whatever  occurred  after  this  belongs  simply  to  the  making  of 


ROBERT   R.    LIVINGSTON.  1 09 

a  bargain.  The  mind  of  Napoleon  had  acted.  It  is  not  easy,  per- 
haps, to  differentiate  the  influences  that  led  to  such  action,  but  it 
is  not  difficult  to  measure  them.  In  writing  the  Minister  of  Marine, 
Talleyrand  explained  that  "  the  empire  of  circumstances,  foresight 
of  the  future,  and  the  intention  to  compensate  by  an  advantageous 
arrangement  for  the  inevitable  loss  of  a  country  which  was  going 
to  be  put  at  the  mercy  of  another  nation — all  these  motives  have 
determined  the  Government  to  pass  to  the  United  States  the  right 
it  had  acquired  from  Spain  over  the  sovereignty  and  property  of 
Louisiana."  In  brief,  Napoleon's  sale  of  Louisiana,  as  explained 
by  the  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  disposed  of  a  country  which 
he  would  inevitably  lose  whenever  war  occurred  with  England. 
This  was  the  argument  Livingston  had  been  urging  for  three 
months,  with  evident  effect.  Had  he  been  less  earnest  or  dramatic, 
Napoleon's  purpose  might  not  then  have  exploded  into  an  order 
to  sell.  The  American  Minister  knew  he  was  dealing  with  a  man 
guided  by  such  an  implacable  hatred  of  England,  that  when  he  was 
not  fighting  her  openly,  he  was  plotting  against  her  secretly ;  that 
his  one  purpose,  his  one  hope,  his  great  ambition,  was  her  con- 
quest. In  his  argument,  therefore,  Livingston  dangled  before  him 
a  picture  to  feed  his  hatred — a  picture  of  Trinidad  and  Louisiana 
forming  a  base  from  which  England  might  drive  Spain  from  Flor- 
ida, command  the  islands  of  the  Gulf,  and  receive  into  its  ports  the 
riches  of  the  West  Indies  and  the  treasures  of  Mexico.  Thus,  Liv- 
ingston's presence  becomes  a  great  factor  in  the  sale.  It  took  six 
months  to  communicate  with  the  L^nited  States,  but  only  six  days 
to  do  business  with  the  man  who  was  pressing  the  sale  upon  him. 
If  more  time  had  elapsed,  the  sudden  decision  might  have  been 
changed  with  equal  suddenness,  for  Napoleon,  aside  from  his  in- 
constancy, had  cause  to  shrink  from  his  intended  action.  It  meant 
the  violation  of  a  sacred  pledge  to  Spain,  the  death  of  Talleyrand's 
pet  colonial  policy,  the  certain  disgust,  sooner  or  later,  of  the  French 
people,  and  a  hot  quarrel  with  Lucien  and  Joseph  Bonaparte,  his 
brothers. 

In  the  negotiations  that  followed  Livingston  ventured  to  offer 
twenty  million  francs,  and  Marbois  finally  suggested  sixty  millions, 
with  payment  of  the  American  claim  to  the  amount  of  trwenty  mil- 
lions more.  Thus  ended  the  historic  midnig'ht  conference  during 
which  the  bargain  was  practically  made.     "  It  is  so  very  important," 


no  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

wrote  Livingston,  "  that  you  should  be  apprised  that  a  negotiation 
is  actually  opened,  even  before  Mr.  Monroe  is  presented,  in  order 
to  calm  the  tumult  which  the  news  of  war  will  renew,  that  I  have 
lost  no  time  in  communicating  it.  We  shall  do  all  we  can  to  cheap- 
en the  purchase,  but  my  present  sentiment  is  that  we  shall  buy." 

Considering  the  extent  of  the  purchase  and  the  danger  of  de- 
lay, Livingston  would  have  been  justified  in  closing  the  bargain 
then  and  there.  Had  he  known  the  action  of  Lucien  Bonaparte, 
who  had  secured  the  recession  from  Spain,  and  of  Joseph's  insin- 
cerity, upon  whom  he  even  depended  to  help  along  the  negotiation, 
he  might  well  have  taken  counsel  of  his  fears ;  but  the  great  real 
estate  dealer  enjoyed  driving  a  good  bargain,  and  so  he  argued  and 
held  aloof,  professing  that  the  United  States  "  had  no  disposition  to 
extend  across  the  river ;"  that  they  "  would  be  perfectly  satisfied 
with  New  Orleans  and  the  Floridas ;"  that  they  "  could  not  give 
any  great  sum  for  the  purchase ;"  that  "  it  was  vain  to  ask  anything 
so  greatly  beyond  our  means ;"  that  "  true  policy  would  dictate  to 
the  First  Consul  not  to  press  such  a  demand,"  since  "  he  must  know 
the  payment  of  such  a  sum  would  render  the  present  government 
unpopular."  He  minimized  the  importance  of  the  deal,  describing 
West  Florida  as  "  barren  sands  and  sunken  marshes,"  and  New 
Orleans  as  "  a  small  town  built  of  wood,  of  about  seven  thousand 
souls,"  a  territory  "  only  valuable  to  the  United  States  because  it 
contained  the  mouths  of  some  of  their  rivers,"  going  so  far  as  to 
venture  a  prophecy  that  "  an  emigrant  would  not  cross  the  Missis- 
sippi in  a  hundred  years ;"  yet,  throughout  weeks  of  dickering,  he 
never  surrendered  his  purpose  to  buy  whether  t*he  price  be  cheap- 
ened or  not. 

His  anxiety  was  greatly  increased  by  the  disclosure  of  Monroe's 
commission,  since  it  contained  power  only  to  treat  for  lands  on  the 
east  side  of  the  Mississippi.  "  It  may,  if  things  should  take  a  turn 
favorable  to  France,"  he  wrote  Madison,  April  17,  "  defeat  all  we 

may  do,  even  at  the  moment  of  signing You  will  recollect 

that  I  have  been  long  preparing  this  government  to  yield  us  the 

country  above  the  Arkansas,  and  I  am  therefore  surprised 

that  our  commission  should  have  entirely  lost  sight  of  the  object." 

Livingston's  fears  proved  groundless,  and  the  dickering  went 
on  until  April  29,  when  Marbois'  original  figures  were  accepted — 
sixty  million  francs  to  France,  and  twenty  million  francs  to  Amer- 


ROBERT    R.    LIVINGSTON.  HI 

ican  claimants ;  in  all,  fifteen  million  dollars.  Three  days  later,  on 
May  2,  1803,  the  treaty  was  signed. 

It  is  not  surprising  that  Livingston  felt  proud  and  aappy.  Other 
treaties  of  consequence  had  been  negotiated  by  Americans — the 
treaty  of  alliance  with  France,  the  treaty  of  peace  with  England, 
and  Jay's  treaty  of  1795  ;  but  none  was  more  important  than  Liv- 
ingston's. Besides,  it  was  unparalleled  in  the  field  of  diplomacy, 
since  Louisiana  cost,  comparatively,  almost  nothing. 

Perhaps  Livingston's  pride  was  only  equalled  by  Jefferson's 
surprise.  A  mother  is  usually  prepared  for  the  coming  of  the  baby 
that  is  to  enlarge  and  illuminate  her  home.  Its  clothes  are  ready, 
the  nursery  is  furnished,  and  everything  is  waiting  its  advent ; 
but  President  Jefferson  was  unprepared  for  the  Louisiana  Pur- 
chase. It  was  so  entirely  unsought  on  his  part  that  he  had  given 
the  subject  no  consideration  until  half  an  empire  came  tumbling 
upon  him  like  a  great  meteor  out  of  the  midnight  sky.  At  first,  he 
thought  he  would  cede  a  part  of  it  to  the  Indians  in  exchange  for 
their  holdings  on  the  east  side  of  the  Miseissippi,  and  "  shut  up  all 
the  rest  from  settlement  for  a  long  time  to  come."  "I  have  indulged 
myself  in  these  details,"  he  writes  James  Dickinson,  August  9, 
1803,  "  because  the  subject  being  new  it  is  advantageous  to  inter- 
change ideas  on  it  and  to  get  our  notions  all  corrected  before  we 
are  obliged  to  act  upon  them."  Then  he  raised  the  question  of  a 
constitutional  amendment.  "  I  suppose  Congress  must  appeal  to 
the  nation  for  an  additional  article  to  the  constitution  approving 
and  confirming  an  act  which  the  nation  had  not  previously  author- 
ized," he  wrote  Senator  Breckenridge  of  Kentucky.  ''  The  consti- 
tution has  made  no  provision  for  our  holding  foreign  territory,  still 
less  for  incorporating  foreign  nations  into  our  Union.  The  Execu- 
tive in  seizing  the  fugitive  occurrence  which  so  much  advances  the 
good  of  their  country  have  done  an  act  beyond  the  constitution." 

When  such  views  reached  France,  Livingston  hurried  off  several 
letters  to  Jefferson,  assuring  him  "  that  were  the  business  to  do 
over  again  it  would  never  be  done.  They  think  we  have  obtained 
an  immense  advantage  over  them.  Though  the  appearance  of  war 
had  some  influence,  it  had  much  less  than  is  ascribed  to  it.  I  know 
from  a  faithful  source  that  tlie  Spanish  government  has  made  the 
most  serious  remonstrances  against  the  cession  of  Louisiana,  and 
that  it  is  now  well  understood  that,  if  any  additional  clause  of 


112  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

ratification  should  be  introduced  by  the  United  States,  this  govern- 
ment would  profit  of  the  circumstance  to  annul  the  whole  work." 

Jefiferson  did  not  need  a  further  hint.  "  I  wrote  you  on  the 
I2th  inst.  on  the  subject  of  Louisiana  and  the  constitutional  pro- 
vision which  mig-ht  be  necessary  for  it,"  he  says  to  Senator  Breck- 
enridge.  "  A  letter  just  received  yesterday  shows  that  nothing 
must  be  said  on  that  subject  which  may  give  a  pretext  for  retreat- 
ing, but  that  we  should  do  sub  silentio  what  shall  be  found  neces- 
sary. Be  so  good,  therefore,  as  to  consider  that  part  of  my  letter 
confidential.  It  strengthens  the  reason  for  desiring  the  presence 
of  every  friend  of  the  treaty  on  the  first  day  of  the  session.  Per- 
haps you  can  impress  this  necessity  on  the  Senators  from  the  west- 
em  States  by  private  letter." 

President  Jefferson  was  a  strict  constructionist.  He  did  not 
believe  the  constitution  gave  Congress  power  to  acquire  additional 
territory ;  he  dreaded  the  concentration  of  power  in  the  executive, 
and  perhaps  his  teachings  did  more  than  all  other  men  to  inspire 
the  popular  mind  with  that  dread ;  but  when  he  discovered  that  the 
time  required  to  secure  a  constitutional  amendment,  exciting,  as  it 
would,  a  long  debate  in  Congress,  might  defeat  the  Louisiana  Pur- 
chase by  arousing  French  feeling  against  its  sale,  he  did  not  hesi- 
tate to  bury  his  constitutional  convictions,  and  to  force  through 
Congress  the  necessary  ratification.  Nor  did  he  ever  attempt  any 
defense  of  his  inconsistency  save  that  the  welfare  of  the  nation 
demanded  such  action.  Thomas  Jefferson  was  not  afraid  of  being 
inconsistent.  To  a  great  soul  this  is  not  weakness.  There  are 
ages  that  are  creative.  At  such  times  two  classes  of  men  are 
prominent  and  needed — ^one  shackled  to  traditions,  the  other  guided 
by  visions.  Thomas  Jefferson  belonged  to  the  latter.  In  1776  the 
American  people  not  only  broke  the  bonds  binding  them  to  old  Eng- 
land, but  forged  other  bonds  which  would  bind  them  to  a  new 
political,  social  and  industrial  order,  and  of  those  who  hammered 
these  new  ties  into  harmony  with  the  longing  and  aspirations  of 
men,  Thomas  Jefferson  stands  among  the  foremost  Fathers.  He 
got  his  light  from  within.  He  believed  in  the  people,  in  the  gov- 
ernment which  they  had  accepted,  and  with  Gladstonian  enthusiasm 
he  sought  to  lead  the  one  and  mould  the  other  along  lines  of  stabil- 
ity ;  but  when  theory  and  idealism  ran  counter  to  practice  and  ex- 
perience, he  did  not  hesitate  to  adopt  the  practical  and  let  theory 


ROBERT   R.    LIVINGSTON.  II3 

wait.  This  is  the  secret  of  his  action  in  1803.  To  cHng  to  an 
abstract  principle  would  lose  an  appreciable  blessing  to  his  country, 
and  so  he  let  go  the  abstract  principle.  This  is  the  inconsistency 
of  a  great  statesman,  the  contradictoriness  of  genius. 

But  commendable  as  was  the  part  of  Thomas  Jefferson  in  that 
great  transaction,  it  must  not  conceal  the  truth  of  history.  He  was 
not  even  the  promotor,  much  less  the  author  of  the  Purchase.  His 
mind  was  intent  upon  a  present  need,  a  single  spot,  instant  relief, 
made  necessary  by  the  fierce  demand  of  a  frontier  people  claiming 
a  depot  of  deposit.  It  was  Robert  R.  Livingston  who  had  the 
vision. 

The  distinguished  Chancellor,  however,  did  not  prove  as  care- 
ful and  painstaking  a  lawyer  as  he  was  bold  and  successful  as  a 
diplomatist,  for  in  drawing  the  claims  convention,  he  neglected 
to  include  all  claims,  estimated  their  total  much  too  low,  omitted 
a  rule  of  apportionment,  and,  most  grievous  of  all,  left  the  final 
decision  as  to  what  claims  should  be  selected  for  pa}Tnent  to  the 
French  government.  This  was  the  rock  that  wrecked  him.  The 
legitimate  claims  of  American  citizens  amounted  to  many  millions, 
but  Livingston  fixed  the  limit  at  three  and  three-quarters  millions, 
and  compelled  claimants  to  secure  settlement  through  the  corrupt 
Talleyrand  and  his  rascally  agents,  who  took  one-half  for  their 
services.  Livingston  thought  he  had  drafted  the  convention  "  with 
particular  attention,"  and  Monroe,  who  thought  differently,  tried 
his  hand  with  no  better  success ;  then  Marbois  turned  it  to  the  ad- 
vantage of  the  Frenchmen.  The  Americans  needed  a  careful  law- 
yer. 

The  scandal  growing  out  of  this  convention  deepened  and  can- 
kered until  Livingston  quarreled  with  the  American  Claims  Com- 
missioners, excited  remonstrances  from  the  British  government, 
and  nagged  the  United  States  consul  at  Paris  into  charging  him 
not  only  with  blind  and  insatiable  vanity,  with  hints  of  corrupt  and 
criminal  motives,  but  with  ^'  imbecility  of  mind." 

"  I  considered  the  claims  convention  as  a  trifle  compared  with 
the  other  great  object,"  he  explained  to  Madison,  "  and  as  it  had 
already  delayed  us  many  days,  I  was  ready  to  take  it  under  any 
form."  He  was  clearly  right  in  the  comparative  importance  of 
the  treaty  and  the  convention,  but  after  Marbois  had  reserved  to 


114  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

the  French  government  the  right  of  final  decision  in  each  case,  Liv- 
ingston was  inexcusable  in  omitting  a  rule  of  apportionment,  since 
it  excluded  all  claimants  except  the  favored  Few  whom  the  corrupt 
Frenchman  selected  because  of  their  willingness  to  divide. 

But  the  poisoned  arrow  that  entered  deepest  into  Livingston's 
soul  was  the  robbery  of  his  laurels.  His  successful  negotiation 
of  the  treaty,  putting  him  into  the  class  from  which  Presidents 
were  then  drawn,  won  him  the  dislike  of  Jefferson,  the  distrust  of 
Madison,  and  the  jealousy  of  Monroe,  who,  considering  him  a 
rival,  carefully  concealed  whatever  would  reflect  credit  upon  him. 
His  dispatches  to  Madison  became  a  sealed  book  in  the  Department 
of  State;  his  letters  to  Jefferson  were  not  suffered  to  shadow  the 
President's  halo ;  his  work,  practically  completed  before  Monroe's 
arrival  in  Paris,  did  not  reach  the  eye  or  the  ear  of  the  American 
people.  The  great  achievement  filled  the  air,  rejoicing  the  country 
as  no  other  event  since  the  treaty  of  peace  with  England,  but  little 
praise  came  to  Livingston.  The  public  gave  Monroe  credit  for  the 
treaty,  and  Livingston  discredit  for  the  claims  convention.  When, 
finally,  Monroe  admitted  that  his  part  in  the  negotiation  amounted 
to  nothing,  he  also  encouraged  tJhe  belief  that  Livingston  did  as 
little.  It  is  impossible  to  say,  of  course,  just  w'hat  influenced  Na- 
poleon to  give  Marbois  the  order  of  April  ii.  It  was  not  war,  for 
war  did  not  come  until  a  year  later  ;  it  was  not  money,  for  the  Prince 
of  Peace  would  have  given  more ;  it  was  not  anger  at  Spain,  for 
no  real  cause  then  existed ;  it  was  not  fear  of  England,  for  Bona- 
parte did  not  fear  an  enemy  he  expected  to  crush ;  it  was  not  St. 
Domingo,  for  Leclerc's  failure  already  belonged  to  the  past,  with 
Corsica  and  Egvpt.  Perhaps  Napoleon  himself  could  not  have 
given  the  real  reason.  But.  however  this  may  be,  the  fact  is  deeply 
imbedded  in  history  that  Livingston  was  the  first  American  to  sug- 
gest the  acquisition  of  that  then  vast  and  dimly  outlined  country 
which  has  been  known  for  over  a  hundred  years  as  the  Louisiana 
Purchase — stretching  west  and  northwest  of  the  Mississippi,  above 
the  winding  Arkansas,  beyond  the  waters  of  the  Missouri,  across 
plains  and  flower-covered  prairies  to  the  far-away  Rockies,  where 
the  Yellowstone  leaps  from  its  hiding,  and  snow-clad  summits  pierce 
a  summer's  skv. 


THE   FOUNDERS  OF  TEMPERANCE. 
(From  an  Old  Prim.) 


THE  BIRTH  AT  MOREAU  OF  THE 
TEMPERANCE  REFORMATION. 


By  Dr.   Charles  A.   Ingraham. 


History  concerns  itself  chiefly  with  the  fiats  of  kings,  the  coun- 
cils of  cabinets,  the  enactments  of  legislatures,  the  processes  and 
results  of  diplomacy  and  the  issues  of  war.  Upon  the  pages  of 
the  world's  annals  appears  the  magnificent  pageantry  of  the  past, 
as  with  silken  banners  and  silver  trumpets  dominion  proudly  passes 
in  perpetual  review.  Thus,  as  the  historian  animates  his  chapters 
with  those  dramatic,  intellectual  and  heroic  elements  wWch  abound 
in  the  court,  the  statehouse  and  upon  the  field  of  battle,  the  high 
spirit  of  chivalry  is  encouraged  and  an  intelligent  patriotism  is 
promoted.  But  how  fares  it  with  that  company  of  men  and  women 
who,  frequently  in  obscure  pl'aces  and  by  unpretentious  methods, 
have  in  the  realms  of  discovery,  invention  and  ethics,  also  advanced 
the  prosperity  and  happiness  of  society?  It  must  be  admitted  that 
they  are  too  often  neglected  and  that  the  fruitful  lessons  which 
their  lives  have  to  communicate  remain  too  generally  unappropri- 
ated. This  paper,  diverging  somewhat  from  the  beaten  higliway 
of  history,  has  for  its  purpose,  to  rescue  from  threatened  oblivion 
the  memory  of  a  noble  man  and  the  record  of  his  monumental  work. 

A  few  months  since,  while  attending  a  convention  held  in  one  of 
the  churches  of  Easton,  the  discussion  having  turned  to  the  subject 
of  temperance,  I  remarked  that  it  might  be  proper  to  state  that  we 
were  congregated  not  far  from  the  place  where  the  world's  first 
temperance  society  had  its  birth.  I  was  afterward  surprised  and 
gratified  to  learn  that  in  that  very  neighborhood  Dr.  Clark,  its 
founder,  had  dwelt  when  a  young  man  engaged  in  the  study  of 
medicine.  Not  being  of  a  superstitious  turn,  I  have  dismissed  from 
my  mind  the  notion  that  his  shade  was  at  my  elbow  prompting  me 
to  introduce  him  to  the  audience.     My  interest  having  been  revived. 


Il6  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

I  consulted  the  leading  reference  books  with  the  result  of  discov- 
ering that,  while  they  all  were  in  substantial  agreement  as  to  Dr. 
Clark  having  established  the  initial  temperance  association  at  Mo- 
reau  in  1808,  there  were  no  biographical  accounts  of  him,  nor  de- 
tails concerning  the  history  of  the  organization.  This,  for  so  great 
an  event  and  institution,  struck  me  as  being  a  very  remarkable  omis- 
sion. My  curiosity  to  learn  more  was  now  stronger  than  ever,  and 
the  centennial  anniversary  of  the  formation  of  the  association  being 
near,  I  resolved  to  unearth,  if  possible,  the  full  history  of  the  so- 
ciety and  the  life  of  its  founder.  Being  utterly  in  the  dark  as  to 
any  authority  upon  the  subject,  I  made  known  my  desire  for  in- 
formation through  the  medium  of  newspapers  circulating  in  the 
historic  townships,  and  with  gratifying  results. 

My  principal  materials  have  been  these :  "  The  History  of  the 
Temperance  Reformation,"  1853,  by  Rev.  Lebbeus  Amlstrong,  a 
member  of  the  society  and  intimately  associated  with  Dr.  Clark  in 
the  establishment  of  the  same ;  "  A  History  of  Temperance  in  Sara- 
toga County,"  1855,  by  Judge  William  Hay ;  and  an  obituary  by  the 
late  Dr.  A.  W.  Holden,  of  Glens  Falls,  which  appeared  in  the  Mes- 
senger of  that  place  in  1866.  The  last  is  an  admirable  elucidation 
of  the  life  and  character,  to  the  closing  day,  of  the  great  champion 
of  temperance.  The  two  physicians  had  been  fellow  townsmen,  and 
evidently  friends,  if  we  may  judge  by  the  sympathetically  appre- 
ciative manner  with  which  Dr.  Holden  writes.  Of  the  408  pages 
of  Armstrong's  and  of  the  153  pages  of  Hay's  book,  but  compar- 
atively few  are  devoted  to  Dr.  Clark  and  his  work.  The  authors 
boast  of  him  and  his  achievement,  but,  living  yet  in  the  dim  light 
of  his  day,  they  were  evidently  unable  to  perceive  fully  the  grandeur 
of  the  moral  movement  which  he  had  inaugurated.  Hence,  their 
works  are  taken  up  mainly  with  discussions  of  the  Maine  liquor 
law,  which  then  agitated  much  of  the  country.  Armstrong's  and 
Hay's  books  have  become  very  rare,  but  copies  of  both  may  be 
found  in  the  New  York  State  library. 

Among  every  people,  in  every  age,  intemperance  has  been  rec- 
ognized as  an  evil,  and  from  ancient  times  a  variety  of  means  have 
been  adopted  to  prevent  or  diminish  its  desolating  influences.  Royal 
decrees  have  gone  forth  commanding  the  rooting  up  of  vineyards, 
and  parliaments  have  legislated  against  it.     The  code  of  Draco  even 


BIRTH   AT   MOREAU  OF  THE  TEMPERANCE  REFORMATION.  1 1? 

went  so  far  as  to  visit  the  penalty  of  death  upon  the  drunkard.  The 
milder  methods  of  moral  suasion  have,  since  the  e'arliest  recorded 
days,  been  with  loving  constancy  declaimed  in  the  ears  of  the  peo- 
ple, but  so  imperative  is  the  demand  for  strong  drink  that  the  cup 
continues  in  spite  of  all  hindrances  to  hold  dominion  over  multi- 
tudes of  men. 

But  beyond  all  other  peoples  of  the  world  in  love  of  intoxicating 
beverages  stand  the  Teutonic  races,  among  whom  it  is  said  distilled 
liquors  were  first  substituted  for  fermented  drinks.  The  classic 
pages  of  Tacitus  tell  us  of  the  unbridled  license  which  the  northern 
tribes  of  Europe  gave  to  their  appetites  and  of  the  scenes  of  drunken 
riot  which  characterized  their  social  events.  The  chase,  the  battle 
aind  the  feast  were  their  delights,  and  when  done  with  life,  their 
ambition  was  to  reside  in  the  immortal  hall  of  Valhalla.  There, 
each  day  having  fought  before  the  palace,  and  with  every  trace  of 
their  wounds  duly  obliterated,  they  hoped  to  sit  down  daily  to  re- 
gale themselves  with  mead  and  meat.  The  convivial  propensities 
of  the  Teuton  have  been  inherited  by  the  Anglo-Saxon  race,  and  it 
cannot  be  denied  that  the  English  speaking  people  are  among  the 
heaviest  drinking  populations  of  the  earth.  Yet,  the  Germanic 
family  of  nations  has  done  more  for  the  advancement  of  civiliza- 
tion than  perhaps  any  other  race  in  history.  It  has  emancipated 
and  exalted  woman,  and  hallowed  the  home,  and  fostered  patriotism 
and  religion.  It  has  produced  the  greatest  scholars,  the  most  bril- 
liant scientists  and  the  profoundest  philosophers.  But  among  na- 
tions as  among  individuals,  it  is  against  the  intellectually  highly 
organized  that  the  genius  of  alcohol  particularly  directs  its  malev- 
olent arts. 

The  latter  half  of  the  i8th  century  saw  England  almost  over- 
whelmed with  drunkenness  and  its  associated  vices.  In  a  sermon 
entitled,  "  On  Dissipation,"  by  John  Wesley,  published  in  1788,  he 
opens  his  discourse  with  this  statement: 

"  Almost  in  every  part  of  our  nation,  more  especially  in  the  large 
and  populous  towns,  we  hear  a  general  complaint  among  sensible 
persons  of  the  still  increasing  dissipation.  It  is  observed  to  diffuse 
itself  more  and  more  in  the  court,  the  city  and  the  country." 

During  the  close  of  the  same  period  this  country  was  given  over 
body  and  soul  to  the  alluring  power  of  inebriation.     Intemperance 


Il8  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

was  the  rule  rather  than  the  exception,  as  it  has  bcome  in  our  day. 
Occasions  of  birth,  marriage  and  death  were  alike  considered  ap- 
propriate to  the  free  indulgence  in  liquor,  and  all  classes  participated 
in  the  drinking,  even  clergymen  joining  in  the  conviviaiities  with 
little  or  no  forfeiture  of  dignity. 

Social  distempers,  like  those  of  the  body,  are  accompanied  by 
the  agency  of  restoration.  The  sick  man,  debilitated  and  suffering 
from  the  violence  of  his  symptoms,  seeks  bis  bed  and  calls  his  phy- 
sician, thus  placing  himself  in  the  most  favorable  attitude  for  re- 
covery. Were  it  not  for  the  realization  of  his  distress,  he  might, 
in  default  of  rest  and  medicine,  hurry  himself  into  the  grave.  So, 
within  some  of  the  more  morally  sensitive  souls  of  the  country, 
commenced  to  be  experienced  an  unhappy  sense  of  our  degradation 
and  depth  of  misery.  Cries  of  warning  and  expostulation  began 
to  be  heard  in  the  land.  One  of  these  rose  higher  than  the  others, 
even  echoing  down  through  the  years  to  our  own  time.  It  was 
that  of  Dr.  Benjamin  Rush,  of  Philadelphia.  Standing  in  relation 
to  Dr.  Clark  as  of  a  voice  crying  in  the  wilderness,  his  work  in 
the  field  of  temperance  merits  more  than  a  casual  remark.  It 
consists  of  but  a  small,  thirty-two  page  pamphlet,  but  condensed 
in  its  limited  proportions  is  a  world  of  moral  dynamite. 

It  bears  the  title :  "  An  Inquiry  Into  the  Effects  of  Ardent 
Spirits  Upon  the  Human  Body  and  Mind,  With  an  Account  of  the 
Means  of  Preventing  and  of  the  Remedies  for  Curing  Them,"  and 
was  published  in  1785.  So  great  bad  been  the  salutary  influence  of 
this  little  treatise,  that  the  centennial  anniversary  of  its  issue  was 
duly  celebrated  at  Philadelphia.  It  is  not  a  profound  essay ;  indeed, 
the  wayfaring  man,  though  a  fool,  may  easily  grasp  its  lucid  ideas. 
Neither  is  it  calculated  to  be  very  offensive  to  any  class  of  readers, 
for  it  takes  issue  only  with  distilled  liquors,  recommending  fer- 
mented beverages  as  substitutes.  Moreover,  the  confirmed  toper 
can  read  the  pamphlet,  not  only  without  umbrage,  but  with  interest ; 
for  there  is  an  intensity,  a  directness  ol  statement  in  its  style  w*hich 
hold  the  reader,  even  to  this  day,  with  t^he  simple  art  of  its  literary 
merit.  Besides,  there  appears  running  through  its  pages  a  quaint 
humor,  which  no  doubt  had  much  to  do  with  gaining  its  popularity 
throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  land. 

A  unique  and  ingenious   feature   of  the  essay   is  the  author's 


BIRTH  AT  MOREAU  OF  THE   TEMPERANCE   REFORMATION.  Il9 

'"  Moral  and  Physical  Thermometer,"  which  forms  its  frontispiece. 
On  the  ascending  scale,  "  Strong  Beer  "  is  placed  in  the  lowest  and 
''  Water  "  at  the  highest  degree,  with  remarks  indicating  improving 
mental  and  physical  conditions  in  the  rising  course.  On  the  de- 
scending scale,  "  Punch "  occupies  the  highest  while  "  Rum  day 
and  night  "  is  found  at  the  lowest  place,  accompanied  between  points 
by  a  fearfully  intensifying  array  of  vices,  diseases  and  penalties. 

In  this  connection  might  be  quoted  the  author's  interpretation 
of  a  familiar  myth : 

"  The  fable  of  Prometheus,  on  whose  liver  a  vulture  was  said 
to  prey  constantly,  as  a  punishment  for  his  stealing  fire  from  heaven, 
was  intended  to  illustrate  the  painful  efifects  of  ardent  spirits  upon 
that  organ  of  the  body." 

Here  is  a  curious  anticipation  of  the  modern  gold  cure,  as  it 
took  form  in  the  fertile  intellect  of  Dr.  Rush : 

"  The  association  of  the  idea  of  ardent  spirits,  with  a  painful 
or  disagreeable  impression  upon  some  part  of  the  body,  has  some- 
times cured  the  love  of  strong  drink.  *  *  *  This  appeal  to 
that  operation  of  the  human  mind,  which  obliges  it  to  associate 
ideas,  accidentally  or  otherwise  combined,  for  the  cure  ol  vice,  is 
very  ancient.  It  was  resorted  to  by  Moses  when  he  compelled  the 
Children  of  Israel  to  drink  the  solution  of  the  golden  calf  (which 
they  had  idolized)  in  water.  This  solution  if  made,  as  it  most 
probably  was,  by  means  of  what  is  called  hepar  sulphuris,  was  ex- 
tremely bitter,  and  nauseous,  and  could  never  be  recollected  after- 
wards, without  bringing  into  equal  detestation,  the  sin  which  sub- 
jected them  to  the  necessity  of  drinking  it." 

In  this  pamphlet  was  sounded  the  first  eflFective  call  for  a  com- 
bined movement  against  the  evil  of  intemperance — a  trumpet  call 
v.'hich  reverberated  in  the  soul  of  Dr.  Clark  until,  nobly  responding, 
he  stood  forth  alone  before  the  world,  having  inscribed  upon  his 
banner  the  word,  Organization.     For  Dr.  Rush  had  said : 

"  Let  good  men  of  every  class  unite  and  besiege  the  general 
and  state  governments,  with  petitions  to  limit  the  number  of  tav- 
erns, to  impose  heavy  duties  upon  ardent  spirits,  to  inflict  a  mark 
of  disgrace,  or  a  temporary  abridgement  of  some  civil  right  upon 
every  man  convicted  of  drunkenness.  *  *  *  Xo  aid  the  opera- 
tion of  these  laws,  would  it  not  be  extremely  useful  for  the  rulers 


I20  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

of  the  different  denominations  of  Christian  churches  to  unite  and 
render  the  sale  and  consumption  of  ardent  spirits  a  subject  of  ec- 
clesiastical jurisdiction?" 

Such  are  a  few  of  the  characteristic  portions  of  Dr.  Rush's  fa- 
mous essay,  a  work  which  revived,  not  only  the  moral  sense  of  this 
country,  but  also  of  Eng-land,  where  it  was  republished  in  the  fol- 
lowing year.  But  the  giant  of  intemperance  exhibited  no  signs  of 
weakness,  though  he  had  been  undoubtedly  pierced  in  a  vital  part. 
The  weapon  of  Dr.  Rush  had  been  slim,  but  keen — a  highly  tem- 
pered rapier,  more  effective  than  in  after  years  was  the  broad  sword 
of  Lyman  Beecher's  "  Sermons  on  Temperance."  With  an  amiable 
exterior,  the  skillful  reforming  fencer  had  managed  to  keep  his 
antagonist  off  his  guard  while  he  transfixed  and  permanently  crip- 
pled him.  But  another  mode  of  attack  was  necessary  in  order  to 
bring  him  under  control.  To  indulge  yet  further  in  figurative 
speech :  Dr.  Rush  had  manufactured  the  ammunition  but  who  was 
to  fire  the  gun? 

It  is  always  a  pleasure  to  visit  the  homes  of  eminent  persons 
who  long  since  have  died.  To  look  upon  the  scenes  that  they  once 
beheld ;  to  walk  in  the  paths  that  they  once  trod,  is  like  coming  into 
familiar  intercourse  with  the  intimate  friend  of  the  honored  dead, 
and  we  go  from  the  places  hallowed  by  such  associations  with  a 
sense  of  having  gained  almost  a  personal  acquaintance  with  the 
great  who  there  have  had  a  habitation.  The  native  town  of  Dr. 
Billy  James  Clark  was  beautiful  old  Northampton,  in  Massachusetts. 
Primitively  Nonotuck  of  the  Indians,  it  was  venerable  even  on  his 
birthday,  January  4,  1778,  and  then,  as  now,  it  was  foremost  in 
culture  and  intelligence.  Here,  Jonathan  Edwards  had  lived  and 
labored,  leaving  upon  the  town  an  ineradicable  impress  of  his  saintly 
character  and  heavenly  doctrines.  Here,  David  Brainerd^  the  zeal- 
ous missionary  to  the  Indians,  broken  in  health,  had  died  under  the 
roof  of  Edwards,  who  had  extended  to  him  the  loving  hand  of  hos- 
pitality. It  was  eminently  fitting  that  a  life  destined  to  exercise 
so  profoundly  beneficial  an  influence  in  promoting  the  higher  estate 
of  the  race  should  have  its  beginning  in  a  town  so  distinguished 
for  its  enlightenment  and  piety. 

Ithamar  Clark,  when  his  little  son  Billy  was  about  six  years 
old,  left  Northampton  and  took  up  his  residence  in  Williamstown, 


BIRTH  AT   MOrEAU  OF  THE  TEMPERANCE  REFORMATION.  121 

Massachusetts,  where  also  was  the  home  of  Mrs.  Clark's  father. 
For  a  period  of  four  years  the  boy  attended  the  school  which  after- 
wards developed  into  Williams  College,  at  the  end  of  which  time 
the  family  changed  its  home  to  Pownal,  Vermont.  Of  the  details 
of  the  domestic  life  of  the  Clarks,  we  have  no  record.  Nothing  is 
known  of  the  wife  of  Ithamar  Clark,  except  that  her  maiden  name 
was  Sarah  Simonds,  and  that  she  was  a  daughter  of  Benjamin 
Simonds,  who  had  been  a  colonel  in  the  Continental  army,  serving 
in  the  campaign  against  Burgoyne.  It  is  probable  that  the  moral 
and  religious  leanings  of  Dr.  Clark  were  inherited  from  or  instilled 
by  his  mother.  His  father  seems  not  to  have  been  much  interested 
in  the  ideas  that  his  son  did  so  much  to  advance.  Previous  to  his 
settling  at  Pownal,  he  had  followed  agriculture  and  shoemaking, 
but  now,  in  the  capacity  of  tavernkeeper,  he  began  selling  liquor. 

In  Dr.  Holden's  article  it  is  stated  that  the  tavern  was  located 
upon  a  farm  that  Mr.  Clark  had  purchased,  one  and  a  half  miles 
from  Pownal  on  the  Bennington  road. 

Young  Billy  Clark,  standing  behind  his  father's  bar  and  dealing 
out  intoxicating  drinks,  was  in  a  position  to  observe  thoroughly 
the  pernicious  effects  of  dallying  with  alcohol.  His  daily  occupa- 
tion was  an  open  book,  as  thrilling  as  lurid  chapters  of  fiction,  and 
the  letters  of  it  remained  upon  his  soul  in  characters  of  unquench- 
able fire.  Abraham  Lincoln,  when  a  young  man,  having  gone  down 
the  Mississippi  as  a  flat-boatman,  visited  the  slave  market  of  New 
Orleans.  He  was  deeply  aflfected  by  the  harrowing  scenes  he  there 
beheld,  and  he  registered  a  vow  that  should  ever  the  opportunity 
present  itself,  he  would  strike  with  all  his  power  the  institution 
that  encouraged  such  iniquities.  Thus  was  planted  the  germ  that 
budded,  blossomed  and  bore  fruit  in  the  Proclamation  of  Emanci- 
pation. No  doubt  it  was  the  memory  of  his  father's  bar-room, 
with  the  evils  radiating  from  it,  that  urged  forward  Dr.  Clark  to 
the  culmination  of  his  great  destiny. 

Some  writers  give  the  name  of  Dr.  Clark  as  William  J.  or  W. 
J.  Clark,  but  he  himself  signed  it,  B.  J.  Clark,  while  the  best  au- 
thorities refer  to  him  as  Dr.  Billy  J.  Clark.  It  is  probable  that  Dr. 
Clark,  becoming  widely  known  by  the  more  famiHar  title,  found 
it  convenient  to  substitute  the  same  for  William. 

When  about  fifteen  years  of  age,  his  father  having  died,  young 


122  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

Clark  returned  to  Northampton  to  attend  school  there  for  a  term 
of  one  year.  This  experience  was  probably  of  great  benefit  to  the 
youth,  not  only  in  improving  his  education,  but  by  introducing  him 
to  one  of  the  most  refined  and  intelligent  communities  in  New  Eng- 
land. The  inspiration  of  the  life  of  Edwards  was  dominant  in  the 
society  of  the  old  town,  and  his  books  were  still  treasured  and  read. 
It  is  interesting  to  reflect  that  the  living  spirit  of  the  great  divine 
may  have  been  a  quickening  influence  in  the  heart  of  this  thoughtful 
youth ;  that  the  story  of  the  heroic  life  of  Brainerd  may  have  ap- 
pealed to  his  rehgious  and  enterprising  nature ;  that  the  memory  of 
one  or  both  of  these  devoted  men  may  have  contributed  to  the 
molding  of  his  mind  into  the  worthy  fashion  in  which  it  subsequent- 
ly displayed  itself  to  the  world.  Be  this  as  it  may,  not  long  after 
his  return  to  the  farm,  he  abandoned  the  bar  and  began  the  study  of 
medicine  under  Dr.  Caleb  Gibbs,  of  Pownal.  Still  making  his  home 
at  the  farm,  he  pursued  his  studies  for  the  space  of  two  years,  re- 
munerating his  preceptor  by  assuming  the  care  of  his  horses.  We 
find  him  at  the  end  of  that  period,  in  1797,  entering  as  a  student 
the  office  of  Dr.  Lemuel  Wicker,  of  Easton,  Washington  County,  N. 
Y.,  with  whom  he  remained  until  March  21,  1799,  when  he  began 
the  practice  of  medicine  in  the  town  of  Moreau.  He  opened  his 
ofifice  not  far  from  what  afterwards  became  known  as  Clark's  Cor- 
ners. This  historic  neighborhood  is  situated  about  three  miles  in 
a  westerly  direction  from  Fort  Edward,  and  five  miles  south  of 
Glens  Falls.  Here,  having  married  Joanna  Payn,  of  Fort  Miller, 
and  purchased  a  farm,  he  made  his  permanent  residence.  The  rise 
of  Dr.  Clark  had  been  phenomenal ;  from  a  bartender  to  the  dignity 
of  a  profession,  and  all  in  the  space  of  four  or  five  years !  Dr. 
Clark  was  but  twenty-one  when  he  came  to  Moreau.  Having  pre- 
viously satisfied  the  preliminary  requirements,  he  was  advanced  to 
the  full  privileges  of  a  physician  in  a  license  granted  by  the  judge 
of  the  court  of  common  pleas  for  Washington  County,  in  the  month 
of  June  following  his  settlement  in  Saratoga  County. 

From  his  home  in  Moreau,  Dr.  Clark  for  thirty-four  years  went 
up  and  down  the  long  stretches  of  his  rides,  ministering  faithfully 
to  the  sick.  The  region  was  in  a  primitive  condition,  with  poor 
roads,  and  was  but  thinly  inhabited.  Ex'hausting  to  body  and  mind, 
as  must  necessarily  have  been  his  labors,  he  yet  had  a  disposition 


I 


BIRTH   AT  MOREAU  OF  THE   TEMPERANCE   REFORMATION.  1 23 

to  employ  himself  in  the  sphere  of  agriculture  and  to  inform  him- 
self upon  the  political  issues  of  the  day.  In  1820  he  represented 
his  county  as  Member  of  Assembly.  Through  his  daily  visits  to 
the  sick,  Dr.  Clark  was  afforded  exceptional  advantages  for  observ- 
ing and  studying  the  effects  upon  the  people  of  the  prevailing  in- 
temperance, which  had  taken  a  particularly  strong  grasp  upon  the 
population  among  which  he  had  come  to  dwell. 

Armstrong  seems  to  attribute  the  heavy  drinking  in  Moreau 
to  the  leading  industry,  stating  that  "  all  the  towns  and  counties  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  ever-rolling  Hudson  were  teeming  with  lumber," 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  predisposing  cause  of  the  general 
and  excessive  use  of  intoxicants  in  England,  it  is  not  difficult  to 
point  out  the  conditions  which  contributed  to  the  growth  of  tJhe  same 
practice  in  this  country.  The  lives  of  the  people  were  laborious, 
monotonous,  and  unmitigated  by  those  social  relaxations  which  in 
modern  times  so  greatly  lighten  the  burdens  and  alleviate  the  sor- 
rows of  life.  Books  and  periodicals  were  not  plentiful,  and  the 
character  of  the  preva^iling  literature  was  not  such  as  to  invite  the 
attention  of  the  average  reader.  Transportation  being  by  horse- 
power along  the  country  roads,  public  houses,  each  with  its  bar, 
were  encountered  at  every  turn,  while  the  little  stores  to  be  found 
at  the  cross-roads,  also  dispensed  liquor  to  all  comers.  Add  to  this 
the  fact  that  the  materials  from  which  intoxicating  beverages  are 
manufactured  were  abundantly  grown  within  our  borders,  and  near 
to  our  shores,  and  it  will  be  appreciated  how  naturally  the  people 
fell  into  intemperate  habits. 

For  a  period  of  nine  years,  while  Dr.  Clark,  in  all  extremities 
of  weather,  rode  on  horseback  to  the  bedsides  of  his  widely  sep- 
arated patients,  the  burden  of  the  drink-evil  weighed  heavily  upon 
his  mind.  .  He  was  a  man  of  energy ;  one  who  was  not  easily 
thwarted  in  the  carrying  out  of  his  plans.  But  here  was  a  task  that 
seemed  too  hard  for  him.  What  could  one  man  accomplish  in  the 
presence  of  such  indifference  and  overwhelming  opposition? 

The  mode  of  action  that  Dr.  Clark  finally  adopted  was  that  of 
organization — a  working  together  of  the  friends  of  temperance  for 
a  common  purpose.  This  now  seems  like  a  very  natural  solution 
of  the  problem  of  finding  his  best  means  of  procedure ;  but  Dr. 
Clark  was  the  first  man  to  announce  and  to  give  the  idea  practical 


124  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

demonstration,  though  it  is  not  probable  that  he  possessed  any  clear- 
ly defined  conception  of  the  lines  along  which  it  was  to  operate,  nor 
of  the  vast  proportions  which  the  movement  was  destined  to  attain. 
Like  a  prophet  under  the  guiding  influence  of  inspiration,  scarcely 
knowing  what  he  did,  he  was  yet  availing  himself  of  a  fundamental 
principle  of  all  nature.  For,  investigate  wherever  one  may,  from 
the  vilest  atom  of  earth  to  the  court  of  high  heaven,  organization  is 
the  law  of  every  upward  step.  The  ancients,  dimly  apprehending 
this  sublime  truth,  conceived  of  the  universe  as  a  gigantic  animal, 
a  cosmic  leviathan,  vVhole,  complete  and  harmonious  in  all  its  parts, 
while  philosophy  has  ever  striven,  though  in  vain,  to  demonstrate 
by  processes  of  reason  what  the  higher  authority  of  intuition  has 
proclaimed  in  all  generations. 

Dr.  Rush,  by  reason  of  a  liberal  education,  supplemented  by 
medical  study  in  the  capitals  of  Europe,  and  on  account  of  his  high 
social,  professional  and  literary  standing,  greatly  outshone  his  co- 
worker, the  struggling  country  doctor  on  the  frontier  of  Northern 
New  York.  But  these  two  greatest  factors  in  the  advent  of  the 
temperance  reformation,  and  who,  it  should  be  said,  were  acquaint- 
ances through  the  medium  of  correspondence,  each  performed  his 
peculiar  part,  and  who  can  determine  which  is  entitled  to  the  greater 
honor.  Dr.  Rush  manufactured  the  ammunition,  but  Dr.  Clark 
fired  the  gun,  his  match  being  organization. 

The  idea  of  forming  a  temperance  society  had  perhaps  been 
suggested  to  Dr.  Clark  by  his  connection  with  the  Saratoga  County 
Medical  Society,  the  first  institution  of  its  kind  in  this  state,  and  of 
which  he  was  the  founder.  He  had  attempted  early  in  April,  1808, 
to  interest  prominent  men,  whom  he  had  met  at  Ballston  Springs 
at  a  session  of  court,  in  his  projected  temperance  enterprise.  His 
plan  may  have  been  to  estaiblish  a  central  society  at  the  county  seat 
and  to  encourage  the  organization  of  branches  in  the  surrounding 
towns ;  but,  to  use  Dr.  Clark's  own  words,  "  they  with  one  accord 
began  to  make  excuses  and  brand  our  scheme  as  Utopian  and  vision- 
ary." Previous  to  this,  however,  he  had  taken  the  initiative  in  the 
work  among  his  neighbors,  for  he  says :  "  I  returned  to  Moreau 
like  a  bow  well  bent  that  had  not  lost  its  elasticity,  and  resumed 
the  labor  there."  The  determination  he  exhibited  was  remarkable, 
and  one  cannot  dwell  upon  the  difficulties  with  which  he  contended 


BIRTH  AT  MOreAU   OF  THE   TEMPERANCE  REFORMATION.  125 

and  meditate  upon  the  unselfish,  devoted  and  humanitarian  spirit 
by  which  he  was  actuated  without  expressing  admiration. 

The  first  successful  step  in  the  sublime  drama  of  the  temperance 
reformation  took  place  in  the  same  month  of  April,  referred  to  a 
moment  ago,  when  Dr.  Clark  made  his  memorable  visit  to  his  min- 
ister.    I  quote  from  Armstrong : 

"  After  having  projected  a  plan  of  a  temperance  organization, 
the  doctor  determined  on  a  visit  to  his  minister,  the  author  of  tliese 
memoirs,  who  was  then  the  pastor  of  the  flourif'  ing  Congregational 
church  in  the  town  of  Moreau,  The  visit  was  made  on  a  dark  even- 
ing, no  moon  and  cloudy.  After  riding  on  horseback  about  three 
miles,  through  deep  mud  of  clay  road,  in  the  breaking-up  of  winter, 
the  doctor  knocked  at  his  minister's  door,  and  on  entrance,  before 
taking  seat  in  the  house,  he  earnestly  uttered  the  following  words: 
'  Mr.  Armstrong,  I  have  come  to  see  you  on  important  business.' 
Then,  lifting  up  both  hands,  he  continued :  '  We  shall  all  become  a 
community  of  drunkards  in  this  town  unless  something  is  done  to 
arrest  the  progress  of  intemperance.'  " 

The  poet  has  sung  in  soul-stirring  numbers  of  the  midnight 
ride  of  Paul  Revere.  There  are,  indeed,  certain  resemblances  be- 
tween it  and  Dr.  Clark's  historic  adventure.  It  was  night ;  there 
was  national  peril ;  heroes  were  in  the  saddle,  and  the  voices  of 
their  fervent  appeals  were  destined  to  reverberate  down  the  aisles 
of  time — "  words  that  shall  echo  forevermore," 

Due  notice  having  been  given  to  the  people  of  the  ■toW'iis  of 
Moreau  and  Northumberland,  a  meeting  for  the  purpose. of  forming 
a  temperance  society  was  held  at  the  pubHc  house  of  Captain  Peter 
L.  Mawney,  at  Clark's  Corners,  on  April  13,  1808.  Resolutions 
were  adopted,  the  chief  of  whidi  was  that  "  in  the  opinion  of  t^is 
meeting  it  is  proper,  practicable  and  necessary  to  form  a  temperance 
society  in  this  place ;  and  that  the  great  and  leading  object  of  this 
society  is  wholly  to  abstain  from  ardent  spirits."  A  committee,  of 
which  Dr.  Clark  was  chairman,  was  appointed  to  prepare  the  By- 
laws for  the  organization,  and  twenty-three  persons  enrolled  them- 
selves as  members. 

The  following  is  the  list  of  the  signers :  Isaac  B.  Pa}Ti,  Ichabod 
Hawley,  David  Parsons,  James  Mott,  Alvaro  Hawley,  Thomas  Cot- 
ton, David  Tillotson,  Billy  J.  Clark,  Charles  Kellogg,  jr.,  Elnathan 


126  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

Spencer,  Asaph  Putnam,  Hawley  St.  John,  Nicholas  W.  Angle, 
Dan  Kellogg,  Ephraim  Ross,  John  M.  Berry,  John  T.  Sealy,  Cyrus 
Wood,  James  Rogers,  Tlenry  Martin,  Sidney  Berry,  Joseph  Sill, 
Solomon  St.  John. 

The  meeting  having  adjourned  one^week,  to  April  20,  at  the 
Mawney  house,  a  long  and  comprehensive  system  of  By-laws  was 
then  adopted.  Article  I  stated  that  "  This  society  shall  be  known 
by  the  appellation  of  Union  Temperance  Society  of  Moreau  and 
Northumberland."  Like  Dr.  Rush's  essay,  the  Constitution  of  the 
society  took  grounds  only  against  spirituous  liquors,  making  ex- 
ceptions regarding  the  use  of  them  in  circumstances  of  religious 
ordinances,  sickness  and  public  dinners. 

It  was  not  until  1843  that  the  society  "  after  a  long  season  of 
declension,"  on  a  motion  put  by  Dr.  Clark,  adopted  a  resolution  of 
total  abstinence. 

Col.  Sidney  Berry,  ex- judge  of  Saratoga  county,  was  chosen 
president  and  Dr.  Clark  secretary  of  the  new  society.  As  there 
exists  an  apparent  contradiction  as  to  the  particular  roof  under 
which  this  historic  meeting  was  held,  one  account  stating  that  it 
occurred  at  the  Mawney  house  and  another  at  the  neighboring  school 
house,  it  is  proper  to  say  here"  that  this  discrepancy  is  removed  by 
the  statement  made  in  Judge  Hay's  book,  page  22,  that  the  session 
opened  in  the  Mawney  house,  but  that  "  the  society  completed  its 
organization  "  in  the  school  house.  In  the  association,  as  a  coherent 
institution,  coming  into  existence  within  the  walls  of  sudh  a  build- 
ing, may  be  found  a  prophecy  of  what  the  temperance  movement  in 
the  future  was  to  lay  particular  stress  upon — that  is,  upon  tem- 
perance teaching  in  the  public  schools.  Indeed,  it  should  be  said 
that  the  Moreau  society  itself  was  an  educative  organization  as 
well  as  a  moral  one,  having  a  circulating  library  and  maintaining  a 
lyceum. 

But,  although  it  had  at  its  head  intelHgent,  hig<h-minded  and 
enterprising  men,  its  career  was  hard  and  discouraging  to  its  mem- 
bers. "  That  little,  feeble  band  of  temperance  brethren,"  says  Arm- 
strong, '*'  holding  their  quarterly  and  annual  meeitings  in  a  country 
district  school  house  from  April,  1808,  onward  for  several  years, 
without  the  presence  of  a  single  female  at  their  temperance  meet- 
ings ;  who  were  made  the  song  of  the  drunkard ;  who  were  ridiculed 


BIRTH  AT   MOREAU  OF  THE   TEMPERANCE   REFORMATION.  1 27 

by  the  scoffs  of  the  intemperate  world ;  und'iscipHned  in  arms  of 
even  moral  suasive  tactics  for  warfare,  and  unable  of  themselves 
to  encounter  the  Prince  of  Hell,  with  his  legions  of  instrumental- 
ities *  *  *  vvere,  nevertheless,  the  seed  of  the  great  temper- 
ance reformation." 

That  Armstrong  deplored  the  narrow  ideas  which  prevailed  to 
the  discouraging  of  woinen  from  fraternizing  with  the  society,  is 
more  explicitly  shown  in  tihe  words  which  express  his  gratification 
in  the  great  numbers  of  women  who,  by  their  presence  and  co- 
operation, subsequently  aided  so  much  in  the  promotion  of  the  work. 
Dr.  Clark  also  protested  against  the  exclusion  of  women  from  mem- 
bership in  the  temperance  societies.  These  statements  are  intro- 
duced that  it  may  be  known  that  the  two  leading  men  in  the  Moreau 
society  would  have  hailed  with  delight  the  advent  of  the  Woman's 
Christian  Temperance  Union.  That  great  institution,  not  reckoning 
many  others  devoted  to  the  same  cause,  is  of  itself  alone  a  glorious 
monument  to  the  pioneers  of  Moreau  who,  in  a  tempest  of  scorn 
and  ridicule,  laid  its  foundations.  Wisely  the  Woman's  Christian 
Temperance  Union,  as  the  name  implies,  built  up  its  sublime  edifice 
of  the  same  material — the  granite  of  organization.  From  towns, 
through  counties,  states,  nations  and  the  civilized  world,  it  carries 
on  systematically  its  vast  and  beneficent  enterprises.  Words  cannot 
express,  nor  the  mind  conceive,  the  power  of  the  prodigious  en- 
ginery which,  distributed  in  a  diversity  of  directions,  is  being  ex- 
erted daily,  hourly  and  momentarily  by  this  great  association  of 
consecrated  women.  And  here  let  me  say  that  not  only  did  the 
temperance  reformation  come  into  existence  within  the  borders  of 
our  commonwealth,  but  that  the  late  Frances  Elizabeth  Willard, 
the  great  light  in  the  organization  of  which  I  have  been  speaking, 
was  a  daughter  of  the  state  of  New  York. 

Dr.  Clark  continued  in  the  practice  of  medicine  for  a  quarter 
of  a  century  after  the  formation  of  the  Moreau  temperance  society, 
making  his  residence  on  the  farm  of  his  original  purchase.  Of 
this  long  period  of  professional  labor  there  remains  no  memorial, 
though  in  common  with  the  routine  duties  of  medical  men,  it  un- 
doubtedly abounded  in  elements  which,  interesting  of  tliemselves, 
would  be  all  the  more  so  as  belonging  to  the  life  of  one  so  distin- 
guished in  the  annals  of  reform.     Beginning  to  experience  the  phy- 


128  CONCERNING    THE    MOHAWKS. 

sical  effects  of  his  protracted  devotion  to  his  profession,  and  hav- 
ing accumulated  considerable  property,  Dr.  Clark  in  1833  purchased 
real  estate  in  Glens  Falls  and  embarked  there  in  the  retail  drug 
business.  This  successful  enterprise  engaged  his  attention  until 
1849,  when  he  retired  from  trade.  Two  years  later,  longing  for 
the  quiet  life  on  the  farm,  he  returned  to  reside  at  the  old  home 
at  Clark's  Corners.  He  was  now  at  the  age  of  seventy-three,  but 
enjoyed,  with  the  exception  of  a  gradual  failing  of  the  sense  of 
sight,  an  almost  unimpaired  mental  and  physical  vitality.  But  the 
gloom  before  his  eyes  grew  remorselessly  thicker  and  thicker  until 
every  familiar  scene  and  the  faces  of  family  and  friends  faded  from 
'his  view.  In  the  custody  of  this  great  affliction,  the  spirit  of  Dr. 
dark  was  not  crushed,  but  rather  purified  and  exalted,  so  that  he 
who  in  earlier  years  had  been  conspicuous  as  the  heroic  leader, 
was  now  none  the  less  remarkable  for  his  Christian  humiHty,  hope 
and  love.  A  few  years  longer  he  tarried  upon  the  eartih,  in  order 
that  there  might  be  registered  upon  the  hearts  of  men  the  beauty 
and  nobility  of  the  character  that  was  his.  And  then,  at  Glens 
Falls,  in  the  home  of  his  son,  James  C.  Clark,  the  spirit  of  the 
great  reformer  went  to  its  long  home.  His  death  occurred  on 
Wednesday  morning,  September  20,  1866.  Dr.  Holden  says : 
"  The  intelligence  of  his  departure  was  swiftly  borne  through  the 
place ;  his  name  was  on  every  lip  as  all,  with  hushed  reverence, 
bore  testimony  to  'his  virtues,  and  to  the  usefulness  of  a  life  lumin- 
ous with  the  light  of  a  Christ-born  principle." 

Notwithstanding  his  portrait,  in  its  severe  lines,  gives  evidence 
of  his  decisivie  mind  and  undeviating  purpose,  he  yet  possessed 
elements  of  character  that  endeared  him  to  all.  While  in  terms 
of  affectionate  banter,  alluding  to  his  spirit  of  determination  and 
his  practice  of  proposing  to  formulate  the  mind  of  public  meetings 
in  resolutions,  he  was  sometimes  spoken  of  as  "  Resolution  Billy," 
the  people  knew  that  beneath  the  crust  of  self-reliant  earnestness 
dwelt  the  loving  humanitarian  and  the  undying  fires  of  a  moral 
volcano. 

Unlike  the  experience  of  the  most  of  those  w<ho  entertain  pro- 
nounced ideas  and  proclaim  them  in  the  face  of  established  custom. 
Dr.  Clark  seems  to  have  retained  his  popularity.  Evidently  he 
was  a  very  tactful  man.     In  1809,  the  year  following  the  forma- 


BIRTH   AT  MOREAU  OF   THE   TEMPERANCE   REFORMATION.  129 

tion  of  the  temperance  society,  he  was  made  supervisor  of  the 
town  of  Moreau,  and  although  his  activity,  constant,  wide  and 
diversified,  was  being  powerfully  directed  against  the  intemperate 
habits  of  the  people,  he  seems  to  have  maintained  their  confidence 
and  friendship.  He  was  again  chosen  supervisor  in  1821.  We 
may  derive  a  hint  of  his  high  standing  in  the  public  estimation 
from  the  fact  that  he  was  chosen  in  1848  for  the  New  York  Elec- 
toral college,  whose  choice  was  Taylor  and  Filmore. 

The  funeral  address  of  Rev.  A.  J.  Fennel,  of  the  Glens  Falls 
Presbyterian  Church,  has  been  preserved  and  appears  as  a  supple- 
ment to  Dr.  Holden's  obituary  article.  Rev.  Mr,  Fennel  having 
been  Dr.  Clark's  pastor,  his  discourse  is  of  great  biographical  value. 
His  opening  remarks  were  particularly  well  chosen  and  impressive. 
He  said : 

"  I  feel,  my  friends,  that  Providence  calls  us  to  perform  no 
mean  office  to-day.  We  are  to  convey  to  their  final  resting  place 
the  mortal  remains  of  one  who  has  been  a  power  in  tlhe  world  for 
great  good  to  the  children  of  men — whose  name  will  enter  into 
history  as  that  of  a  benefactor  of  the  community ;  and  whose  in- 
fluence, as  an  element  in  the  temperance  reformation,  will  run  on 
into  future  generations.  It  cannot  do  us  any  hurt,  it  ought  to  do 
us  good,  to  pause  a  few  moments  in  this  habitation  now  made 
sacred  as  the  spot  whence  the  earnest  spirit  of  so  devoted  and  use- 
ful a  man  took  its  departure  to  the  heavenly  rest,  and  reflect  on  his 
life  of  activity  and  toil,  and  observe  how  Providence  used  him  for 
our  good  and  the  good  of  our  children." 

With  appropriate  public  demonstrations,  the  remains  of  Dr. 
Clark  were  borne  to  the  burying  ground  of  the  Union  Meeting 
House,  in  Moreau,  and  placed  to  rest  beside  the  grave  of  his  wife. 
There,  two  miles  from  the  historic  spot  where  he  unfurled  the  ban- 
ner of  a  world-wide  moral  movement,  his  as'hes  mingled  with  the 
soil  that  his  devotion  has  made  of  honorable  distinction. 

Thus,  have  I  attempted  to  disentangle,  gather  up  and  lead  in 
continuous  discourse  the  scattered  threads  which  I  have  found  in 
my  study  of  this  neglected  subject.  If  I  have  rendered  more  co- 
herent and  tangible  the  life  and  achievement  of  a  universally  in- 
fluential philanthropist,  I  shall  be  pleased ;  but  I  hope,  besides  that 
good  result,  the  consideration  of  the  memoirs  of  a  man  who  had 


13°  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

a  great  mission  in  the  world  and  who  ably  and  conscientiously  dis- 
charged it,  will  serve  to  impress  upon  us  a  sense  of  the  power  of 
elevated  ideas  when  duly  championed  by  even  one  consecrated  soul. 

Acknozi'ledgcment. 

In  expressing  my  appreciation  of  the  assistance  which  has  been 
rendered  me  in  the  collection  of  materials  for  the  preparation  of 
this  paper,  I  would  particularly  mention  Mr.  James  A.  Holden,  of 
Glens  Falls,  who  'has  furnished  me,  from  the  library  of  his  father, 
the  late  Dr.  A.  W.  Holden,  with  most  valuable  m.atter,  some  of 
which  could  have  been  obtained  from  no  other  source.  I  also  duly 
acknowledge  my  indeibtedness  to  Hon.  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe,  of 
Sandy  Hill,  \viho  interested  himself  in  my  search  for  data,  and 
feel  myself  under  obligations  to  the  SchnylerviUe  Standard  and  to 
the  Glen  Falls  Times  for  gratuitously  publishing  my  request  for 
information. 

Commitnications. 

From  the  letters  relating  to  the  subject  in  hand  which  I  have 
received,  I  glean  the  following.  I  might  say  that  the  discrepancy 
which  appears  in  the  descriptions  of  Dr.  Olark's  person  may  be 
accounted  for  by  the  diflferent  ages  and  conditions  of  healtih  in 
which  he  is  best  remembered  by  the  several  Observers : 

From  Dr.  Albert  Mott,  Cohoes :  "  The  location  of  the  Union 
Meeting  House  was  at  Reynold's  Corners,  about  four  or  five  hun- 
dred feet  from  the  corner,  directly  east.  The  burying  ground  was 
north  and  across  the  road  from  the  meeting  house." 

From  Rev.  Dr.  Jos.  E.  King,  Fort  Edward:  "In  1858  tfie 
old  church  (Union  Meeting  House)  was  filled,  to  enjoy  tihe  com- 
memorative exercises  of  the  50th  year  since  the  origin  of  the  tem- 
perance cause,  and  I  heard  Hon.  Judge  McKean,  of  Saratoga,  ad- 
dress the  congregation.  There  was  singing,  prayer,  a  poem  by 
Lura  Boies,  &c." 

Statement  of  Judge  Lyman  H.  Northrup,  of  Sandy  Hill,  w<ho 
remembers  Dr.  Clark :  "  He  always  carried  upon  his  countenance 
a  mild,  genial,  pleasant  expression ;  dressed  with  neatness,  and 
appeared  to  be  a  good  sort  of  a  fellow,  and  exhibited  not;  at  all  that 
asperity  which  we  associate  in  our  minds  with  the  active  reformer." 


BIRTH  AT  MOREAU  OF  THE   TEMPERANCE   REFORMATION.  131 

From  William  Gary,  of  Gansevoort,  who  was  intimate  with  Dr. 
Glark:  "He  had  rather  small,  black  eyes,  which  would  be  gen- 
erally considered  rather  piercing.  His  hair  was  black  and  very 
profuse ;  eye-brows  very  shagg}-.  His  height  I  should  put  at  5  ft. 
ID  in.,  and  weight  about  170  lbs." 

From  B.  F.  Lapham,  of  Glens  Falls :  "  I  was  well  acquainted 
with  Dr.  B.  J.  Clark.  He  lived  on  the  same  street  we  did  for 
many  years,  and  when  he  died  I  helped  prepare  his  body  for  burial. 
He  was  rather  eccentric  in  many  t^hings  and  very  resolute.  There 
never  was  a  meeting  held  but  he  would  suggest  some  resolution, 
so  they  nicknamed  him  '  Resolution  Billy.'  Dr.  Clark's  name  will 
be  famous  through  all  time  as  the  originator  of  the  first  temperance 
organization  that  ever  existed.  He  was  an  ardent  and  efficient 
laborer  all  his  life." 

From  Miss  Anna  Mott,  of  Glens  Falls.  Miss  Mott  is  a  daugh- 
ter of  James  ^lott,  who  was  a  co-laborer  in  the  temperance  cause 
with  Dr.  Clark,  and  his  neighbor  at  Clark's  Corners :  "  As  I  re- 
member Dr.  B.  J.  Clark,  he  was  a  cultured,  refined  man,  with  fine 
sensibility.  He  ihad  a  kind  word  and  look  for  every  one  that  was 
worthy  of  it.  He  was  of  medium  height  and  size.  His  hair  and 
eyes  were  black ;  his  foreihead  high  and  broad.  His  mouth  and 
chin  bespoke  firmness.  His  complexion  'was  dark.  As  I  saw  Dr. 
Clark,  he  was  a  very  kind,  gentlemanly  old  man,  and  appreciated 
every  kindness   he   received." 

From  Austin  L.  Reynolds,  of  South  Glens  Falls.  Mr.  Rey- 
nolds knew  Dr.  Clark  for  many  years,  and  assisted  him  in  the 
temperance  work :  "  Dr.  Clark's  name  was  Billy,  instead  of 
William.  He  was  stocky  in  form,  and  weighed  albout  175  lbs. 
His  height  was  about  5  ft.  6  in.;  complexion  fair;  dark  hair  and 
eyes,  and  very  heavy  eyebrows.  He  was  pecuniarily  successful  as 
a  physician  and  as  a  business  man.  Was  the  owner  of  several 
farms  and  was  interested  in  a  paper  mill,  situated  on  what  is  known 
as  Snoot  Kill  Creek.  Later,  he  moved  to  Glens  Falls  and  was 
proprietor  of  a  drug  store  for  a  number  of  years  in  that  village. 
Then  he  returned  to  Clark's  Corners  wifh  his  daughter,  Mrs. 
Alfred  C.  Farlin    (widow),  as  housekeeper,  and  remained  at  his 


132  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION, 

homestead  for  several  years.  He  lost  his  eyesight  and  was  en- 
tirely blind.  Then  he  returned  to  Glens  Falls,  and  died  in  1866. 
He  left  one  son  and  three  daughters,  all  of  whom  are  now  dead." 

A   Visit  to  Clark's  Corners. 

In  order  that  I  might  obtain  a  better  understanding  of  the 
topography  of  the  neighborhood,  I  visited  Clark's  Corners  on  a 
day  in  August,  1905.  Driving  west  from  Fort  Edward,  at  a  dis- 
tance of  three  miles  I  came  to  Reynolds'  (four)  Corners.  I  was 
very  courteously  received  by  Mr.  Austin  L.  Re>Tiolds,  who  gave 
me  full  information  as  to  all  the  historic  spots  connected  with  the 
Moreau  society.  Mr.  Reynolds  is  at  an  advanced  age,  more  than 
eighty,  but  he  promptly  and  clearly  communicated  to  me  the  facts 
herewith  set  forth. 

The  roads  at  Reynolds'  Corners  run  toward  the  cardinal  points, 
and  the  burying  ground  of  the  Union  Meeting  House  is  at  a  short 
distance  east  of  the  corners,  as  already  has  been  stated  by  Dr.  Mott. 
The  remains  of  Dr.  Clark  were  removed  from  this,  the  place  of 
their  first  burial,  and  were  re-interred  at  Glens  Falls.  The  site  of 
the  Union  Meeting  House  is  unoccupied,  the  present  chapel  stand- 
ing on  other  ground,  some  distance  to  the  west.  The  Union 
Meeting  House  was  Dr.  Clark's  place  of  worship,  and  his  pastor, 
Rev.  Lebbeus  Armstrong,  resided  at  the  parsonage,  one-half  mile 
south  of  the  church  and  on  the  west  side  of  the  hig^liway.  The 
cottage  which  stands  on  the  site  of  Armstrong's  home  is  now  the 
residence  of  Mr.  Halsey  Chambers.  It  was  here  tlhat  Dr.  Clark 
came  in  the  night  upon  his  historic   errand. 

Clark's  (four)  Corners  are  directly  south  of  Reynolds'  Corners 
and  two  miles  distant.  The  north  and  south  road  is  crossed  at 
right  angles  by  the  other.  Both  of  these  locatities  are  open  coun- 
try, that  of  Clark's  Corners  having  the  appearance  of  fertility  and 
thrift ;  pleasant  homes  and  commodious  buildings  being  numerous. 
Clark's  Corners  may  be  conveniently  reached  from  the  village  of 
Gansevoort,  on  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Railroad,  two  miles 
south. 

The  site  of  the  Mawney  house  is  at  Clark's  Corners.  It  stood 
on  the  northwest  corner.  Another  building  has  since  been  erected 
upon   this  ground.     Dr.   Clark's   home  stood   across  the   road,   on 


BIRTH  AT  MOREAU  OF  THE   TEMPERANCE   REFORMATION.  1 33 

the  southwest  corner.  The  house  has  disappeared,  but  the  cellar 
walls  stand  almost  intact.  About  forty  rods  south  of  the  corners 
and  on  the  east  side  of  the  road  is  the  site  of  the  school-house  in 
which  the  Moreau  society  held  its  meetings.  A  dwelling  house, 
the  home  of  Mr.  George  Haviland,  now  occupies  that  plot  of 
ground. 

The  sites  of  the  Union  Meeting  House,  parsonage,  Mawney 
house.  Dr.  Clark's  house,  and  the  school  house,  should  be  ap- 
propriately  marked. 


THE  DEMOCRATIC  IDEAL. 


By  Hon.  Milton  Reed. 


The  shrewd  saying  of  the  Swedish  'Ohtancellor  Oxenstiern, 
'An  nescis,  mi  Uli,  quantilla  pnidentia  regitur  orhis?" — "Dost 
thou  not  know,  my  son,  with  how  Httle  wisdom  the  world  is  gov- 
erned ?  "  (has  been  substantially  true  in  every  epoch  in  the  world's 
history.  Everything  human  must  needs  be  imperfect,  and  in  noth- 
ing is  imperfection  more  plainly  exhibited  than  in  the  successive 
schemes  of  government  which  men  have  attempted.  Some  have 
been  broad-based  and  have  lasted  for  what  we,  in  our  ordinary 
reckoning,  call  a  long  period  of  time.  But  most  of  them  have  been 
built  on  the  sand ;  a  few  storms,  shocks,  convulsions,  and  they  have 
fallen.  Men  have  generally  made  but  sorry  work  in  trying  to 
govern  each  other.  The  individual  may  govern  himself  after  a 
fashion ;  but  to  govern  wisely  another  man,  or,  still  harder,  great 
masses  of  men,  even  where  there  has  been  community  of  public 
interests,  of  language,  religion  and  custom — aye,  there  has  been 
the  rub!  Human  history  has  often  been  called  a  great  tragedy; 
but  no  tragic  element  is  more  ghastly  or  more  overwhelming  than 
the  catastrophes  in  which  most  governments  have  collapsed.  Am- 
bitious attempts  at  world-power,  the  most  splendid  combinations 
1o  group  nations  into  a  civic  unity,  have  tottered  to  their  fall,  as 
i.urely  as  the  little  systems  which  have  had  their  day  and  ceased  to 
be, — shifting,  fleeting,  impotent. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  see  \Vhy  this  has  been  so.  Social  life  is 
only  one  plhase  of  the  great  organic  hfe  of  the  species ;  one  scene 
of  the  human  drama  of  which  the  earth  has  been  "  the  wide  and 
universal  theatre."  Change,  transition,  development,  birth,  growth, 
death,  are  universal  elements  in  the  cosmic  order.  Of  the  slow 
but  inevitable  changes  in  the  physical  history  of  the  earth,  Tenny- 
son savs : 


THE   DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL.  135 

"  There  rolls  the  deep,  where  stood  the  tree ; 
O  earth,  what  changes  hast  thou  seen ; 
There  where  the  long  street  roars,  has  been 
The  stillness  of  the  central  sea. 
"  The  hills  are  shadows,  and  they  flow 

From  form  to  form ;  and  nothing  stands ; 
They  melt  like  mists,  the   solid  lands ; 

Like  clouds  they  shape  themselves  and  go." 

If  this  mutation  be  true  of  organic  changes  in  the  physical 
earth,  working  through  immeasurable  aeons,  it  is  even  as  dramat- 
ically true  of  organized  social  life. 

We  are  learning  to  take  a  new  view  of  history.  It  is  no  longer 
regarded  as  a  collection  of  isolated  facts.  Veracious  history  is  a 
record  of  the  orderly  progression  of  events,  developed  by  evolu- 
tionary processes.  There  is  in  it  no  break,  no  hiatus,  excepting 
such  temporary  interruptions  as  come  from  what  Emerson  calh 
"  the  famous  might  that  lurks  in  reaction  recoil."  Thus  we  learn 
the  rationale  of  the  events  transcribed  to  the  historical  page.  Un- 
til science  lifted  the  curtain  on  "  the  eternal  landscape  of  the  past," 
man  knew  little  of  himself  or  of  his  kind.  It  is  only  with  the  en- 
larged vision  that  has  come  to  us  from  the  researdhes  of  the  eth- 
inologist,  biologist,  anthropologist,  sociologist,  that  we  have  begun 
to  learn  what  a  creature  man  really  is ;  to  study  his  inner  nature ; 
to  get  at  the  deeper  meanings  of  the  history  of  the  race. 

Once  the  study  of  history  was  thought  to  be  hardly  more  than 
learning  a  catalogue  of  royal  djmasties ;  tihe  names  of  famous  gen- 
erals and  statesmen :  of  battles  lost  and  won ;  of  court  intrigues ; 
of  the  vicissitudes  of  kingdoms  ;  of  the  prowess  of  pioneers  and 
adventurers ;  of  "  hair-breadth  'scapes  i'  the  imminent  deadly 
breach ;"  of  the  pride,  pomp  and  circumstance  of  glorious  war ! 
Such  incidents  have  not  lost,  and  never  can  lose,  their  interest. 
They  are  an  integral  part  of  the  human  document  and  must  always 
be  studied.  "WThen  draped  with  myth  and  legend  they  minister  to 
"  the  vision  and  faculty  divine  "  of  the  poet ;  they  visualize  the  pos- 
sibilities of  human  courage ;  stimulate  the  affections ;  answer  to 
the  eternal  cravings  of  the  imagination.  But  they  are  only  the 
phenomena  of  the  real  history  of  the  race.  Life  is  broader,  larger, 
deeper,  richer,   fuller,  than  a  mere  transcript  of  happenings — ex- 


136  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

ternals,  results — important  as  they  are.  We  must  get  at  the  causes, 
motives,  inter-relations,  the  hidden  causes  from  which  events  flow, 
before  we  can  unravel  the  web  in  which  they  are  woven,  and  thus 
interpret  them. 

The  core  of  history  is  the  element  which  the  Greeks  called  to- 
anthropeion;  called  by  a  modern  poet  "  the  bases  of  life ;"  called 
by  us  average  folk,  Human  Nature.  It  is  as  constant  a  quality  as 
anything  can  be  in  our  moving  life.  We  may  not  be  able  to  agree 
with  Middleton,  who  says  in  his  life  of  Cicero,  "  Human  nature 
has  ever  been  the  same  in  all  ages  and  nations ;"  but  it  is  probably 
true  that  nothing  has  changed  less  in  primal  qualities  than  the 
bases  of  life.  Empires  have  perished,  civilizations  vanished,  gov- 
ernments have  rotted,  languages,  territorial  lines,  seeming  sit-fast 
institutions,  have  passed  into  nothingness  ;  but  the  human  element 
has  stood  the  sihock  of  ages.  "  The  one  remains ;  the  many  change 
and  pass,"  said  Shelley.  Man-character,  man-life,  is  the  one  ele- 
ment, the  colors  of  which  seem  fast.  It  is,  like  all  other  things, 
subject  to  evolutionary  changes ;  it  may  be  differentiated  into  a 
thousand  forms  ;  but  the  bases  of  life  have  never  shifted. 

Human  history  is  a  great  tragedy  indeed.  But,  like  all  trage- 
dies, it  has  its  spiritualizing,  sanctifying,  ennobling  side.  When 
the  drama  of  the  ages  is  unrolled  we  see  much  to  make  us  weep ; 
but  we  also  see  immeasurably  more  to  make  us  glory  that  we  are 
a  part  of  the  race.  While  its  history  reeks  with  blood,  carnage, 
oppression,  injustice,  cruelty,  in  which  sad  facts  the  pessimist  hears 
''  the  eternal  note  of  sadness,'''  and  unwisely  rushes  into  a  denial 
of  the  moral  order — it  has  its  sun-bright  triumphs  of  rectitude,  and 
the  illuminating  picture  of  the  steady  and  glorious  advance  of 
mankind  from  brutishness  into  an  orderly,  moralized  life. 

Readers  of  Matthew  Arnold — an  author  whose  intellectual  vi- 
sion was  great,  and  whose  style  is  one  of  the  literary  ornaments  of 
the  last  century — will  recall  how  he  was  taken  with  what  he  called 
"  Mr.  Darwin's  famous  proposition "  that  "  our  ancestor  was  a 
hairy  quadruped,  furnisihed  with  a  tail  and  pointed  ears,  probably 
arboreal  in  his  habits."  Mr.  Arnold,  the  apostle  of  culture,  played 
again  and  again  around  this  sonorous  phrase.  Far  be  it  from  me 
to  enter  upon  any  discussion  of  the  Darwinian  hypothesis  of  the 
genesis  of  the  human  race.     On  this  large  theme  the  last  word  has 


THE   DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL.  137 

not  been  said.  Knowledge  must  grow  from  more  to  more  before 
we  can  posit  anything  definite  on  a  subject  veiled  at  present  in 
inscrutable  mystery.  But,  in  its  essence,  the  evolutionary  theory 
has  soaked  into  our  modern  thought.  The  literature  and  the  pro- 
gressive teaching  of  our  latter  day  are  drenched  with  it.  It  cer- 
tainly can  be  said  of  it,  that  it  explains  many  things  which  have 
heretofore  seemed  inexplicable,  and  marks  a  great  advance  in  pop- 
ular intelligence.  But  the  most  ambitious  generalization  is  only 
a  temporary  expedient.  Fact  will  merge  in  fact;  law  will  melt 
into  a  larger  law ;  one  deep  of  knowledge  will  call  unto  another 
deep ;  much  that  the  proudest  scientist  of  our  day  calls  knowledge 
will  vanish  away ;  many  theories  now  popular  will  be  dissected 
and  pruned  and  will  be  found  to  be  "  such  stuflf  as  dreams  are 
made  on,"  before  the  most  enlightened  humanity  of  a  future  age 
catches  any  one  phase  of  nature  in  its  snare  and  compresses  it  into 
rigid  laws. 

Nevertheless,  the  ancestor  of  man  was  brutish,  and  his  descend- 
ants are  where  they  are.  Whether  or  not  primeval  man  was  the 
rather  unpicturesque  creature  described  by  Mr.  Arnold,  he  was  the 
norm  from  v,"hich  has  come  "  t^he  heir  of  all  the  ages." 

From  the  cave-dweller,  the  aboriginal  savage,  have  been  evolved 
Homer,  Plato,  Aristotle,  Shakspeare,  Spinoza,  Milton,  Dante,  New- 
ton, Gladstone,  Pascal,  La  Place,  Lincoln,  Emerson,  Channing, 
Martineau,  Thomas  a  Kempis,  Phillips  Brooks,  Darwin  and  Her- 
bert Spencer,  How  magnificent  the  ascent!  How  glorious  the 
progression ! 

Man,  once  the  companion  of  the 

Dragons  of  the  prime 
That  tare  each  other  in  their  slime, 
ihas   flowered   into   an   intellectual,   reasoning,    moral   being — "  how 
infinite  in  faculty ;  in  form  and  moving  how  express  and  admirable ; 
in  action  how  like  an  angel ;  in  apprehension  how  like  a  god." 

All  this  progress,  however,  has  cost  its  price.  Step  by  step 
has  the  race  advanced  from  primeval  animalism  to  its  present  status. 
It  has  walked  with  bleeding  feet.  The  Divine  economy  works  in 
many  ways.  One  of  its  ways  is  to  educate,  stimulate  and  spirit- 
ualize through  antagonism  and  pain.  All  faculties,  functions  and 
potencies  must  be  worked  in  order  that  they  may  grow.     Atrophy, 


138  NEW  YORK   STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

decay,  death,  are  the  resuhant  of  non-use.  The  sullen  earth  was 
to  be  fertilized  by  man's  sweat  and  blood  before  it  would  yield  any 
increase  beyond  its  spontaneous  productions.  Conflict  with  the 
elements,  conquest  over  the  lower  organisms ;  ages  of  toilsome  ef- 
fort, were  to  come  before  man  was  able  "  to  dress  the  earth  and 
keep  it."  Out  of  the  iron  necessities  of  his  being  came  initial  prog- 
ress ;  and  progress  once  begun  has  never  ceased. 

The  great  factor  in  progress  was  00-operation.  One  man  alone 
can  do  little.  The  moment  human  necessities  were  recognized,  the 
law  of  association  applied.  Man  needed  man.  The  family  group, 
the  clan,  the  tribe,  the  town,  the  city,  the  state,  the  nation,  have 
been  stages  in  the  process  of  closer  and  closer  co-operation. 

Confederation,  association,  combination,  require  adjustment, 
compromise,  regulation.  Hence  the  germ  of  government.  To 
live  together  each  man  must  give  way  in  something  to  the  other. 
Man  is  gregarious ;  he  is  naturally  social ;  instinctively  he  availed 
himself  of  the  companionship  of  other  men.  The  social  status,  the 
foedera  generis  huviani,  were  slowly  evolved  from  the  increasing 
demands  of  man  upon  man ;  they  were  not  the  result  of  bargaining. 
What  a  magnificent  drama ;  the  world  the  theatre ;  all  mankind, 
emerging  from  primitive  ignorance,  the  actors.  How  many  or  how 
long  the  acts  were,  we  know  not ;  but  through  "  that  duration 
which  maketh  pyramids  pillars  of  snow,  and  all  that's  past  a  mo- 
ment," the  wonderful  scenes  moved  on.  Out  of  the  strong  came 
forth  sweetness.  From  brute  selfis'hness,  from  animal  passion, 
came  love.  Slowly  the  central  idea  was  reached,  and,  in  the  sub- 
lime language  of  the  Scripture,  man  became  a  living  soul !  and  his 
body  became  the  temple  of  the  Holy  Spirit ;  his  consciousness  a 
part  of  the  infinite  consciousness ;  his  personality  a  world-copy  of 
a  divine  universe.     Reason,  conscious,  love,  were  his  dower. 

The  curtain  has  not  yet  fallen,  and  will  never  fall,  upon  the  last 
act.  We  live  in  a  world  which  is  always  in  process.  Nature's 
genesis  is  unceasing.  "  Without  haste,  witfhout  rest,"  her  creative 
and  re-creative  processes  are  always  operating. 

When  one  undertakes  to  talk  about  government  he  is  drawn  in- 
stinctively to  some  historic  models.  As  thinking  persons  realized 
in  every  age  the  insufficiency  of  contemporaneous  governments, 
there  has  scarcely  been  a  time  when  the  academic  reformer  was 


THE   DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL,  1 39 

wanting.  Certain  ages  may  have  lacked  poets — ours  is  said  to  be 
unpoetic  and  prosaic,  and  to  await  its  poet-prophet — ^but  the  aca- 
demic idealist  who  could  say,  Go  to,  let  us  build  a  government,  has 
been  generally  at  hand.  The  dreams  of  the  illuminated  ones  who 
have  sought,  by  rule  and  theory,  to  make  the  crooked  straight,  to 
convert  mankind  into  angels  by  legal  enactment,  are  among  the 
most  pleasing,  if  abortive,  works  of  genius.  Some  of  the  noblest 
spirits  of  the  race  have  made  this  illusory  effort. 

Plato,  that  splendid  genius,  in  whose  brain  was  wrapped  the 
subtle  essence  which  gave  to  Hellenic  art  and  literature  their  in- 
comparaible  dharm,  found  a  congenial  theme  in  painting  his  ideal 
Republic.  It  was  a  beautiful  attempt  to  develop  a  state  based  upon 
Socratic  thought.  He  had  sat  at  the  feet  of  the  great  master  of 
dialectic,  and,  with  the  hot  enthusiasm  of  a  reformer,  painted  a 
picture  of  the  idealized  man,  living  in  a  community  where  the  su- 
premacy of  the  intellect  was  to  be  recognized  as  authoritative, 
where  the  individual  and  family  were  to  be  absorbed  in  the  state, 
and  where  a  lofty  communism  was  to  be  established,  and  in  which 
Virtue,  Truth,  Beauty  and  Goodness  were  to  be  sovereign  entities. 
But  the  Platonic  Communism  was  one  where  equality  and  humanity 
were  left  out.  Plato  could  not  escape  the  Time-Spirit.  The  Pla- 
tonic Republic  was  his  Athens  idealized.  "  The  very  age  and  body 
of  the  time  "  gave  to  the  philosopher's  dream  its  form  and  pressure. 
The  actual  Hellenic  Republics  were  not  based  upon  the  rights  of 
man  ;  a  few  ruled  over  a  nation  of  protelariats  and  slaves.  When 
they  came  into  rough  contact  with  the  vigorous  Roman  civilization, 
they  were  shattered  like  iridescent  bubbles.  Even  so  wise-browed 
a  philosopher  as  Plato  failed  to  recognize  sufficiently  the  human 
element.  His  imaginary  republic  was  air-drawn,  fantastic ;  a  phil- 
osophic dream,  with  little  grasp  on  life's  realities.  It  was  not 
broad-based.  It  did  not  recognize  sufficiently  the  law  of  growth. 
It  had  no  place  in  our  work-a-day  world.  It  interests  us  now  chiefly 
from  the  superb  literary  skill  with  which  it  was  constructed ;  a 
prodigy  of  intellect  and  art.     But  it  was  not  the  Democratic  Ideal. 

Aristotle — fhat  other  imperial  Greek  genius,  whom  Dante  called 
"  the  master  of  those  that  know  ;"  who  had  less  imaginative  mys- 
ticism than  Plato,  but  a  stronger  hold  on  realities ;  whose  fertile 
genius    touched    almost    every    subject   that    came    within    ancient 


I40  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

thought — tried  his  hand  also  in  poHtical  science.  As  a  forerunner 
of  modern  science,  as  a  profound  thinker,  he  has  been  a  tremendous 
factor  in  Vhe  intellectual  life  of  the  world.  But  the  Time-Spirit 
held  him  in  its  grasp  even  more  firmly  than  it  did  Plato.  His 
theory  of  the  state  avoided,  indeed,  the  absurdity  of  communism, 
but  recognized  slavery  and  the  subjection  of  women.  Like  many 
of  the  modern  Socialists,  he  denounced  the  taking  of  interest  for 
the  use  of  money.  Such  political  theories  must  needs  be  ineffective. 
They  ignore  the  equitable  basis  of  society  and  indicate  a  s'hort- 
sightedness  that  is  amazing,  in  any  era  when  thrift,  industry  and 
property  rights  are  elements  in  the  life  of  a  state — as  they  were  then 
and  are  now.  Among  the  school-men  of  the  middle  ages.  Aristotle 
was  regnant.  His  hand  has  not  yet  been  lifted  from  our  university 
life.  Vast  literatures  had  their  birth  in  his  philosophic  system. 
His  political  theories  have  become  only  academic.  The  world  had 
no  use  for  them.  He  was  far  from  the  Democratic  Ideal.  No  one 
will  deny  that  Plato  and  Aristotle  are  among  those 
Dead  but  sceptered  sovereigns  who  still  rule 
Our  spirits  from  their  urns. 

Their  sovereignty  does  not  come,  however,  from  their  contri- 
butions  to  political   science 

I  wish  we  might  dwell  longer  on  these  dreams  of  philosophers. 
They  offer  a  field  for  delightful  study.  We  linger  lovingly  with 
them.  How  tenderly  we  read  of  the  pious  dream  of  St.  Augustine 
for  the  Civitas  Dei,  the  City  of  God ;  of  a  new  civic  order  rising  on 
the  crumbling  ruins  of  the  Roman  Empire.  The  advent  of  Chris- 
tianity had  brought  into  the  world  the  auroral  flush  of  a  new  moral 
order,  a  quickened  sense  of  social  duty ;  a  warmth  of  human  brother- 
hood;  a  heightened  conscience.  The  church  was  rising  like  a 
splendid  mausoleum  over  the  sepulchre  pf  its  founder.  The  world 
thrilled  with  an  emotion  never  felt  before.  What  more  natural 
than  that  a  new  social  order  should  arise,  into  which  should  be 
gathered  all  classes  of  men,  glorified,  purified,  ready  for  the  Advent 
of  the  conquering  Galilean,  which  was  then  almost  universally  an- 
ticipated. But  alas,  the  Augustine  City  of  God  has  never  come. 
It  will  never  come,  as  a  political  organization.  Its  home  is  in  the 
human  heart.  It  is  not  Lo  here  or  Lo  there ;  and  cometh  not  with 
observation.     The  City  of  God,  the  City  of  Light,  will  come  when 


THE   DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL.  14I 

ethical  conscience  is  so  quickened  that  law  become  love,  and  love, 
law. 

We  might  go  on  and  say  more  of  the  exalted  dreamers  who 
from  age  to  age  have  attempted  the  impossible  task  of  idealizing  the 
State  by  geometric  rules  or  fantastic  theories.  Perhaps  the  two 
most  notable — at  least  until  the  recent  expansion  of  Socialistic 
propaganda — were  the  "Utopia"  of  Sir  Thomas  More  and  the  "New 
Atlantis  "  of  Lord  Bacon.  We  must  dismiss  them  by  naming  them. 
They  lacked  the  Democratic  Ideal.  Yet,  among  the  many  gems 
which  Lord  Bacon  has  given  to  our  language,  the  short  terse 
phrases,  which  make  him  one  of  the  most  quotable  of  authors,  is 
one  memorable  line  in  his  "  New  Atlantis."  He  said  of  the  Father 
of  Solomon's  house,  "  He  had  an  aspect  as  though  he  pitied  men." 
Benignant  and  blessed  thought. 

One,  however,  of  the  world's  intellectual  sovereigns,  who  lived 
in  the  uplands  of  the  imagination,  who  traversed  the  gamut  of 
human  experience,  and  of  whom  we  may  say,  if  of  any  man,  "  He 
saw  life  steadily  and  saw  it  whole ;"  in  dealing  with  the  relation 
of  man  ro  the  civic  order,  never  indulged  in  illusion — William 
Shakspeare.  It  has  often  been  said  to  his  reproach  that  his  dramas 
are  not  instinct  with  the  spirit  of  liberty ;  that  he  believed  in  the 
right  of  the  strongest  to  rule ;  that  he  deified  strength  and  power ; 
that  he  showed  contempt  for  the  mob  and  "  rabblement."  We  can- 
not go  into  a  discussion  of  this  interesting  matter.  We  must  re- 
member, however — a  fact  that  is  often  overlooked — that  Shak- 
speare was  not  only  most  extraordinary  as  a  poet,  but  that  he  was 
one  of  the  profoundest  moralists  that  the  world  has  known.  His 
genius  was  supremely  sane,  calm,  judicial,  healthy.  He  painted 
men  and  women  as  they  are.  His  nobly  poised  intellect  and  acute 
vision  saw  the  realities  of  life.  He  knew  the  exalted  possibilities 
of  spiritual  excellence  to  which  humanity  can  rise,  and  the  abysmal 
depths  into  which  it  can  sink.  He  recognized  the  fact  that  society 
is  swayed  by  selfish  interests  oftener  than  by  a  devotion  to  high 
ideals.  He  read  history  with  a  microscopic  eye.  Dowden,  one  of 
his  most  acute  interpreters,  says,  "  Shakspeare  studied  and  repre- 
sented in  his  art  the  world  which  lay  before  him.  If  he  prophesied 
the  future  it  was  not  in  the  ordinary  manner  of  prophets,  but  only 
by  completely  embodying  the  present,  in  which  the  future  was  con- 


142  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

cerned."  In  his  day  the  mdb  had  not  learned  self-control,  moral 
dignity,  a  discrimination  between  the  transient  and  permanent  in 
politics.  Has  it  learned  this  lesson  yet?  His  immortal  works  ex- 
hibit no  world-weariness,  no  blase  pessimism.  He  saw  the  eternal 
relations  of  cause  and  effect.  He  admired  the  intellectual  powers 
and  tremendous  personalities  of  great  historical  characters  like 
Julius  Caesar,  Coriolanus  and  Richard  IH,  but  he  also  saw  their 
limitations,  moral  delinquencies  and  weaknesses  which  led  inev- 
itably to  the  snares  into  which  they  fell.  He  had  a  profound  sym- 
pathy with  human  life ;  he  was  a  lover  of  rectitude,  nobility  of 
character,  self-sacrifice,  manliness,  womanliness.  Above  all,  he 
taught  the  everlasting  and  all  embracing  equity  with  which  the 
universe  throbs.  In  the  end,  no  cheat,  no  lie,  no  injustice  prospers. 
The  sinner  is  a  self-punisher.  At  last,  by  action  of  the  inexorable, 
inescapable  moral  order,  "  the  wheel  is  come  full  circle ;"  evil  is 
strangled. 

To  such  an  equitable  intellect,  the  idea  of  a  Platonic  Republic 
or  Bacon's  "New  Atlantis"  would  be  as  impossible  as  impracticable. 
He  knew  too  well  the  plasticity  of  human  adjustments,  the  shifting, 
fleeting,  rising  and  sinking  of  the  social  order,  the  possibilities  of 
disturbance  and  recoil  that  ever  lie  at  the  core  of  a  placid  and  smug 
order  of  things,  to  attempt  any  speculative  panacea  for  the  evils  of 
society.  He  laid  open  the  tap-root  of  a41  institutions  and  happen- 
ings— the  human  heart. 

All  this  is  a  digression,  but  a  strange  fascination  invests  the 
name  of  Shakspeare.  Thackeray  said  of  the  insanity  of  Dean 
Swift,  "  So  great  a  man  he  seems  to  me,  that  thinking  of  him  is 
like  thinking  of  an  empire  falling."  So  when  we  talk  of  Shak- 
speare, it  almost  seems  that  we  are  talking  of  collective  humanity. 
He  was  no  economic  idealist;  he  built  no  systems  of  philosophy  of 
law.  He  understood  humanity.  In  spite  of  all  criticisms,  his  view 
of  life  followed  more  closely  than  the  pretentious  systems  of  closet 
philosophers,  the  gleam  of  the  Democratic  Ideal — progression  and 
growth. 

We  may  consider  government,  or  rather  the  social  organism,  as 
a  working  basis  on  which  men  manage  to  live  together,  receiving 
from  and  giving  to  each  other  protection  for  life  and  property. 
There  is  a  noble  phrase  of  Edmund  Burke — he  was  a  master  of 


THE   DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL.  I43 

noble  phrases — "  moulding  together  the  great  mysterious  incorpora- 
tion of  the  human  race."  In  order  to  have  any  basis  on  which 
human  beings  could  live  together,  there  must  have  been  a  moulding 
together  of  immense  diversities.  Human  nature  and  human  society 
are  tremendously  complex.  No  two  persons  are  just  alike;  and 
each  personality  is  a  bundle  of  contradictory  qualities.  Govern- 
ment rests  upon  two  forces,  sovereignty  and  obedience.  Somebody 
must  command ;  somebody  must  obey.  Each  of  these  forces  is 
powerfully  operative  in  most  men.  The  love  of  authority,  domin- 
ion, power,  the  will  to  make  another  to  do  our  bidding,  is  deeply 
planted  in  the  human  nature.  Nothing  is  more  intoxicating,  more 
enjoyable,  than  power.  On  the  other  hand,  the  principle  of  sub- 
mission, compliance,  obedience,  is  a  stronger  force  than  most  of  us 
imagine. 

We  need  not  analyze  the  genesis  of  the  force  that  has  kept  men 
under  government.  There  are  almost  as  many  theories  as  there  are 
inquirers.  It  has  been  said  to  be  compulsion,  physical  force  by 
one  school  of  writers ;  by  another  school,  agreement,  a  contractual 
relation.  For  many  generations  a  popular  theory  was  that  author- 
ity is  given  to  rulers  by  God,  or  the  eternal  reason ;  this  theory  cost 
King  Charles  I  his  head.  Another  school  contends  that  it  rests  up- 
on some  psychological  principle  inherent  in  human  character.  There 
may  be  a  vast  practical  difference  in  results,  if  some  of  these  theories 
are  puslied  to  the  limit ;  but  that  there  must  be  sovereignty  in  the 
state,  however  derived,  and  obedience  to  such  sovereignty  by  the 
citizen,  is  plain,  if  anarchy  is  to  be  escaped. 

If  we  may  use  the  phrase  which  Herbert  Spencer  coined  and 
popularized,  men  naturally  follow  ''  the  line  of  the  least  resistance ;" 
and  to  obey,  except  where  obedience  is  counter  to  self-interest,  or 
where,  in  the  more  highly  specialized  civilizations,  it  would  violate 
rights,  honor,  duty,  is  generally  the  easy  course.  The  Castle  of 
Indolence  seldom  has  any  vacant  rooms.  The  exceptionally  strong 
will,  the  "  monarch  mind,"  is  rare.  The  principle  of  obedience  to 
authority  is  strongly  developed  in  the  race,  especially  among  na- 
tions where  the  supreme  power  is  supposed  to  rest  upon  some  re- 
ligious sanction,  as  was  the  case  with  European  governments  until 
recent  rears,  and  as  is  the  case  with  most  Oriental  nations  to-day. 
We  live  in  an  age  of  intense  specialization.     A  few  generations 


144  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

ago  we  heard  of  men  of  universal  knowledge.  Not  so  now.  The 
volume  of  knowledge  has  become  so  vast  that  no  man,  even  the 
wisest,  can  do  more  than  to  touch  its  skirts.  In  no  department  of 
study  is  the  trend  of  specialization  more  active  than  in  the  inter- 
pretation of  history.  In  the  hunt  after  the  subtle  causes  that  have 
lurked  in  the  bosom  of  society  and  have  flamed  into  consuming 
fire,  from  time  to  time,  the  patient  historian,  the  student  of  soci- 
ology, has  grouped  tendencies,  impulses,  transitional  waves  of  pop- 
ular feeling,  into  generalizations.  Especially  is  this  statement  true 
of  German  scholars,  with  whom  specialization  has  often  been  re- 
duced to  infinitesmal  analysis.  Thus  one  school  of  writers  dwells 
upon  the  economic  interpretation  of  history.  In  their  view,  most 
popular  upheavals  have  been  synchronous  with  the  poverty  of  the 
masses.  It  is  when  the  people  have  been  ground  into  hunger  by 
excessive  taxation  and  public  extravagance  that  they  have  risen, 
like  the  blind  giant  pulling  down  the  temple  of  Gaza,  and  swept 
away  dynasties  and  royal  pageantry.  Such,  it  is  said,  was  the 
mainspring  of  the  French  Revolution — one  of  the  most  dramatic 
events  in  history.  Undoubtedly  the  economic  problem  has  always 
been,  and  always  will  be,  a  powerful  agent  in  the  genesis  of  history. 

Others  give  us  the  religious  interpretation  of  history.  They 
tell  us  of  those  epochs  when  great  masses  of  men,  impelled  by  a 
wave  of  religious  enthusiasm,  moved  to  fiery  zeal,  their  imaginations 
touched,  their  moral  sense  deeply  stirred,  have  become  knights  of 
the  faith,  missionaries  armed  with  fire  and  sword ;  the  scourges  of 
God.  Such  causes  impelled  the  Saracenic  invasion  of  Africa  and 
Europe,  and  the  Crusades. 

Other  historians  'have  studied  the  great  migratory  movements 
that  have  swept  vast  bodies  of  men  away  from  their  native  environ- 
ments, and  precipitated  new  elements  into  history.  Such  were  the 
migrations  of  the  tribes  of  Northern  Europe,  and  of  the  Asiatic 
hordes,  which  were  a  powerful  element  in  the  overturn  of  the 
Roman  Empire. 

In  late  years  there  has  been  an  increasing  interest  in  the  biog- 
raphies of  the  great  men  who  have  moved  the  world.  'No  view  of 
history  is  more  interesting  than  this  study  of  personalities.  It  has 
sometimes  been  pushed  to  an  absurd  extent,  in  the  attempt  to  re- 
verse historical  verdicts,  to  rehabilitate  tarnished  reputations,  and 


THE   DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL.  145 

in  the  exaggeration  of  hero-worship.  The  relation  of  great  men 
to  their  times  has  been  a  fascinating  theme  for  the  historian  to 
dwell  upon  in  every  age. 

All  these,  and  many  more  inquiries,  are  worthy  of  the  most 
painstaking  study.  We  cannot  know  too  much  about  them.  They 
are  all  a  part  of  "  the  moulding  together  the  great  mysterious  in- 
corporation of  the  human  race."  But  the  moral  lesson  of  history 
is  larger  than  any  exceptional  episodes. 

Whatever  way  governments  began,  they  have  been,  they  are, 
and  they  will  be,  until  human  nature  and  human  needs  undergo  a 
tremendous  transformation.  As  has  been  said,  stable  governments 
have  been  rare.  Some  of  the  forces  of  modern  civilization  may 
make  the  crystallization  of  society  into  localized  governments  pos- 
sibly more  un^tcble  than  ever.  In  favor  of  the  permanence  of  any 
existing  order  however,  there  has  always  been  one  conserving  fac- 
tor— habit.  Prof.  J.  M.  Baldwin  in  his  instructive  work,  "  Mutual 
Development,"  calls  authority  "  that  most  tremendous  thing  in  our 
moral  environment,"  and  obedience  "  that  most  magnificent  thing  in 
our  moral  equipment."  Psychologists  also  tell  us  that  habit,  one 
of  the  phenomena  of  consolidation,  indicates  downward  growth. 
With  the  race,  as  with  the  individual,  habit,  or  what  Bagehot  calls 
"  the  solid  cake  of  custom,"  has  been  one  of  the  impediments  to 
progress.  Yet,  governments  have  progressed  from  generation  to 
generation.  There  has  always  been  enough  of  the  vis  viva  to  leaven 
social  heredity.  Little  by  little,  that  part  of  the  race,  whose  prog- 
ress has  not  been  arrested,  has  outgrown  the  superstition  of  a  di- 
vinity that  "doth  hedge  a  king."  More  and  more  the  functions  once 
held  by  kingcraft  have  been  grasped  by  the  people ;  the  race  steadily 
moving  toward  the  ideal  self-government.  Every  agency  that  made 
for  enlightenment  and  uplift  led  to  this  goal.  The  great  social 
heritage  of  the  past  has  been  the  evolution  of  law  and  order.  There 
has  been  through  the  ages  a  sweep  of  collective  forces  that  has 
taught  men  self-control,  and  has  constantly  raised  the  ethical  stand- 
ard. A  damnosa  hereditas  of  ferocity,  selfishness,  and  brutality, 
has  been  a  part  of  the  heritage ;  but  there  has  been  enough  of  salt 
in  the  general  character  to  rescue  liberty  and  justice  even  in  the 
most  reactionary  times. 

The  Democratic  Ideal  is  based  upon  the  three  great  principles 


146  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATIOX. 

of  libert}-,  equality  of  rights  and  opportunities,  and  justice.  In 
spite  of  indolence,  apathy,  inveterate  conservatism,  superstition, 
ignorance,  out  of  these  principles  has  flashed  the  day-star  which 
the  path  of  civilization  has  followed. 

Liberty  is  no  longer  a  vagrant.  "  The  love  of  liberty  is  simply 
the  instinct  in  man  for  expansion,"  says  ^latthew  Arnold.  That 
instinct  is  always  operative. 

Yet  liberty  is  not  an  entity ;  it  is  only  a  state.  Unregulated,  dis- 
charged from  the  ethical  obligations  which  we  owe  to  each  other, 
liberty  is  lost  in  anarchy,  which  is  only  consummate  egoism. 

"  The  most  aggravated  forms  of  tyranny  and  slavery  arise  out 
of  the  most  extreme  form  of  liberty,"  says  Plato. 

"  If  you  enthrone  it  (liberty)  alone  as  means  and  end,  it  will 
lead  society  first  to  anarchy,  afterward  to  the  despotism  which  you 
fear,"  says  ]\Iazzini,  one  of  the  shining  liberators  of  the  last  cen- 
tury. 

"'  If  every  man  has  all  the  liberty  he  wants,  no  man  has  any  lib- 
erty," says  Goethe. 

In  other  words,  the  rights  of  man  must  be  articulat*»d  with  the 
duties  of  man.  Freedom  cannot  exist  without  order.  They  are 
concentric.  \\'ithout  the  recognition  of  the  sanctity  of  obligation 
to  others,  the  age-long  aspiration  of  the  race  for  libert}-  is  an  im- 
potent endeavor.  It  would  have  plunged  eyeless  through  the  cycles 
in  which  it  has  worked  its  way  into  civilization,  had  it  not  been  that 
reciprocity,  mutual  'help,  is  a  basis  of  its  being.  Mankind  can  never 
be  absolved  from  this  eternal  law. 

We  are  now  told  that  a  reaction  has  set  in  against  democracy ; 
that  the  results  of  the  democratic  ideal,  so  far  as  attained,  are  a 
failure ;  that  the  tyranny  of  the  mob  has  succeeded  to  that  of  the 
single  despot ;  that  in  the  most  liberal  governments  of  the  world, 
even  in  the  United  States  and  England,  where  the  problem  of  self- 
government  has  been  most  thoroughly  worked  out,  the  people  are 
forgetting  their  high  ideals  and  are  using  their  collective  power  for 
base  and  ignoble  purposes ;  that  the  moral  tone  of  the  government 
is  lowered ;  that  an  insane  greed  for  wealth  has  infected  the  nations : 
that  there  is  a  blunting  of  moral  responsibility  and  a  cheapening  of 
national  aims. 


THE    DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL.  1 47 

This  great  indictment  comes  from  intense  lovers  of  liberty  and 
the  truest  friends  of  democracy. 

Herbert  Spencer  put  himself  on  record,  in  his  last  years,  as 
fearing  that  the  insolent  imperialism  of  the  times  and  the  power  of 
reactionary  forces  would  lead  to  the  re-barbarization  of  society. 

John  Stuart  Mill  said,  "  The  natural  tendency  of  representative 
government,  as  of  modern  civilization  generally,  is  towards  col- 
lective mediocrity." 

John  Morley  tells  us  that  "  outside  natural  science  and  the  ma- 
terial arts,  the  lamp  burns  low ;"  he  complains  that  nations  are 
listening  to  "  the  siren  song  of  ambition ;"  that  while  there  is  an 
immense  increase  in  material  prosperity,  there  is  an  immense  de- 
cline of  sincerity  of  spiritual  interest.  He  also  speaks  of  "  the  high 
and  dry  optimism  which  presents  the  existing  order  of  things  as 
the  noblest  possible,  and  the  undisturbed  sway  of  the  majority  as 
the  way  of  salvation." 

If  you  care  to  read  the  summing  up  of  the  tremendous  indict- 
ment against  modern  democracy,  you  will  find  it  in  Hobhouse's 
striking  work,  "  Democracy  and  Reaction."  This  thouglitful  au- 
thor claims  that  the  new  imperialism,  which  has  become  an  obses- 
sion among  the  great  powers  of  the  world  within  a  few  years, 
"  stands  not  for  widened  and  ennobled  sense  of  national  responsi- 
bility, but  for  a  hard  assertion  of  racial  supremacy  and  national 
force ;"  and  pleads  for  "  the  unfolding  of  an  order  of  ideas  by  which 
life  is  stimulated  and  guided,"  and  for  "  a  reasoned  conception  of 
social  justice." 

Unfortunately  there  is  too  much  truth  in  all  these  utterances. 
These  are  not  "  wild  and  whirling  words."  We  need  not  to  be 
told  of  the  evils  of  our  times.  We  hardly  dare  turn  the  searchlight 
upon  our  own  civilization,  for  we  know  how  much  of  shame  it  re- 
veals. We  need  no  candid,  sympathetic,  and  enlightened  critic  like 
James  Br>xe,  to  tell  us  where  our  republic  is  weak,  in  spite  of  our 
Titanic  power,  immense  prosperity,  roaring  trade,  restless  energy, 
chartered  freedom.  We  know  that,  in  many  respects,  "  the  times 
are  out  of  joint."  The  sordid  and  incapable  governments  of  many 
of  our  large  cities ;  the  venality  among  those  to  whom  great  public 
trusts  have  been  committed;  the  recrudescence  of  race  prejudice; 
the  colossal  fortunes  heaped  up  by  shrewd  manipulations  of  laws. 


148  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION, 

which  have  been  twisted  from  their  original  intent,  and  by  un-eth- 
ical  methods ;  mob-violence,  lynch  law,  the  ever-widening  hostility 
between  the  employers  of  labor  and  the  wage-earner ;  so  much  of 
what  Jeremy  Taylor  called  "  prosperous  iniquity ;"  the  blare  of 
jingoism,  the  coarser  and  grosser  forms  which  athletics  have  as- 
sumed, even  among  young  men  who  are  students  at  our  universi- 
ties— in  the  sublime  words  of  Milton,  "  beholding  the  bright  coun- 
tenance of  truth  in  the  quiet  and  still  air  of  delightful  studies ;"  the 
hatred  felt  by  the  poor  towards  the  rich,  and  the  disdain  felt  by  the 
rich  for  the  poor;  all  these  and  many  other  evils,  indeed,  exist. 
Yes,  the  times  are  out  of  joint.  But  they  have  always  been  out  of 
joint. 

These  evils  are  not  the  result  of  popular  government ;  they  are 
incident  to  our  transitional  civilization.  They  have  always  existed, 
probably  in  a  grosser  form  than  to-day.  Would  a  return  to  mon- 
archical government  better  things? 

Possibly  we  have  anticipated  too  much  of  organized  democracy. 
It  is  still  aiming  for  its  ideal.  As  we  have  said  of  liberty,  democ- 
racy is  not  a  finality ;  it  is  only  a  status  by  which  public  opinion  for 
the  time  being  can  be  most  effectively  expressed  in  government. 

The  reaction,  if  there  be  one,  is  moral  and  spirttual,  rather  than 
political.  The  American  people  have  been  densely  absorbed  in  the 
material  development  of  our  wonderful  country.  The  task  has 
been  a  huge  one.  So  far  as  it  has  been  completed,  it  has  been  mag- 
nificently done.  If  we  have  seemed  to  worship  the  Golden  Calf, 
we  may  find  in  due  time  how  unsatisfying  wealth-gathering  is.  If 
at  present  the  consumer  seems  to  be  throttled  by  the  trust-magnate, 
on  one  hand,  and  the  labor-trust  on  the  other,  each  monopoly  work- 
ing to  the  common  purpose  of  keeping  up  prices  to  be  paid  by  the 
consumer,  the  remedy  is  in  his  own  hands.  It  is  not  in  riot,  revolu- 
tion, anarchy,  by  frenzied  declamations  against  those  who  are  doing 
only  what  nine-tenths  of  the  human  kind  would  do  for  themselves, 
if  opportunity  were  aflforded ;  but  by  using  the  power  which  free 
government  gives  to  the  people,  and  correcting  the  evils  by  what 
Gladstone  called  "  the  resources  of  civilization."  Out  of  the  roar 
and  brawl  of  the  times  will  come  a  sharp  examination  into  the  sys- 
tem of  laws  which  permit  the  accumulation  of  stupendous  fortunes 
by  the  "  cornering  "  of  a  commodity  which  human  necessities  re- 


THE    DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL.  1 49 

quire ;  by  shrewd  manipulations  of  tariff,  patent,  corporation  and 
transportation  laws,  and  by  other  anti-social  agencies.  The  people, 
the  consumers,  create  all  the  legislatures,  appoint  all  the  judges, 
execute  all  the  laws.  The  fortunes  of  the  rich  exist  because  the 
people  so  alk)w.  "  A  breath  can  make  them,  and  a  breath  has 
made,"  All  the  creature-comforts,  all  culture-conquests  have  been 
evolved  by  the  people.  It  is  not  by  a  reversion  to  Asiatic  paternal- 
ism, or  by  the  assumption  of  all  industrial  agenices  by  the  State, 
which  is  the  present  aim  of  Socialism,  or  by  a  retreat  into  aborig- 
inal lawlessness  and  intense  selfishness — which  Anarchism  would 
result  in — that  social  relief  will  come. 

The  American  people  will  work  these  problems  out  and  will 
work  them  out  right.  "  The  glory  of  the  sum  of  things  "  does  not 
come  with  a  flash.  There  are  always  remedial  agencies  actively 
at  work.  They  have  saved  civilization  again  and  again,  when  the 
economic  order  seemed  about  to  break  down,  when  eflFete  govern- 
ments have  fallen  in  cataclysms  which  have  almost  wrecked  the 
social  fabric ;  when  mankind  seemed  to  be  wandering  in  a  wilder- 
ness of  ignorance,  doubt  and  despair.  Human  nature  is  a  tough, 
elastic,  expansive  article.  If  common  sense  is  a  product  of  the 
ages,  so  is  what  is  termed  "  the  corporate  morality  "  of  the  race. 
Everything  makes  for  what  Burke  said  he  loved,  "  a  manly,  moral, 
regulated  liberty." 

It  is  hard  for  us  to  learn  the  imperative  lesson  that  everything, 
except  moral  and  spiritual  elements,  is  only  transitional.  We  are 
too  much  inclined  to  think  that  any  existing  status  has  come  to 
stay.  Not  so.  While  evils  do  not  cure  themselves,  evil  is  only  the 
negative  of  the  good.  The  human  agent,  with  his  enormous  plas- 
ticity, constantly  widening  intelligence  and  marvelous  capacity  for 
growth,  is  always  the  instrument,  guided  by  the  unseen  powers, 
that  make  for  rectitude,  to  strike  at  wrong.  There  is  always  more 
good  than  evil ;  otherwise  rociety  could  not  hold  together.  If  prog- 
ress has  been  slow,  it  is  because  it  ought  to  be  slow. 

In  our  economic  order,  the  trust,  the  trade-unions — often  in 
our  day  instruments  of  danger — are  factors  that  in  the  end  will 
tend  to  good.  They  are  a  part  of  the  great  synthetic  movement 
which  is  unifying  the  i-ace.  They  will  lead  to  a  greater  coherency 
in  our  industrial   life.       They  are  educational   in   their   tendency. 


150  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Great  fortunes,  dizzying  wealth,  have  their  evil  side;  they  are  mon- 
strous creations  which  have  been  created  by  a  union  of  constructive 
talent  with  the  mechanical  inventions  of  the  age.  By-and-by,  their 
possessors  may  see  that  they  are  but  ashes ;  intolerable  burdens ; 
gilded  rubbish.  But  in  our  present  stage,  there  is  need  of  wealthy 
men.  They  ihave  important  uses.  Business  has  heretofore  been 
too  largely  directed  to  the  acquisition  of  wealth.  This  grossness 
will  be  succeeded  by  an  era  of  equitable  distribution. 

We  must  remember  that  the  very  idea  of  property  implies  more 
or  less  of  selfishness.  An  ideally  altruistic  man  could  not  acquire 
property  beyond  his  immediate  needs.  What  view  of  it  may  be 
taken  in  remote  future  ages  we  know  not.  At  present,  however, 
it  is  absolutely  necessary.  To  protect  life  and  liberty,  government 
must  protect  property.  Undoubtedly  the  possession  of  enormous 
wealth,  thereby  generating  sharp  distinctions  between  classes,  is 
inimical  to  the  Democratic  Ideal.  Democracy  pre-supposes  a  tol- 
erable measure  of  equality  in  possessions,  and  an  absence  of  class 
privilege.  The  people  must  perhaps  re-cast  much  of  their  legis- 
lation, to  make  sure  that  their  public  franchises  and  natural  monop- 
olies are  not  exploited  by  the  few  at  the  expense  of  the  many.  In 
a  country  where  the  press  is  allowed  unlimited  freedom,  and  where 
every  man  has  a  share  in  the  government,  where  laws  are  flexible 
and  easily  modified,  there  should  be  little  difficulty  in  curbing  the 
pretensions  of  insolent  wealth  and  protecting  the  people  from  law- 
lessness. 

Possibly  in  the  Socialistic  movement,  which  is  now  academic, 
crude  and  unscientific,  and  which,  in  its  present  stage,  oflfers  as 
a  healing  balm  for  industrial  evils  only  the  paralysis  of  state  des- 
potism, there  may  be  a  curative  germ.  Certainly,  at  its  base,  is 
the  principle  of  human  brotherhood,  co-operation  and  a  lofty  altru- 
ism. It  is  now  in  antagonism  with  the  Democratic  Ideal ;  ultimate- 
ly it  may  be  resolved  into  an  auxiliary  in  purging  society  from 
some  of  the  evils  with  which  it  is  infected. 

If  we  live  in  an  era  of  greed  and  graft,  we  also  Hve  in  an  era 
of  enormous  goodness,  unparalleled  philanthropy,  increasing  intelli- 
gence and  advancing  ethical  standards.  Can  there  be  any  doubt 
which  forces  will  win? 

The  Democratic  Ideal,  towards  which  all  nations  are  drifting 


THE   DEMOCRATIC    IDEAL.  151 

by  the  inexorable  sweep  of  ethical  forces,  still  shines  before  the 
American  people.  Whatever  is  rotten,  vulgar,  base,  corrupt,  in 
our  body  politic  will  be  eliminated  by  the  same  law  of  progress, 
moral,  physical,  social,  spiritual,  which  has  brought  the  race  to  its 
present  transitional  status.  Lincoln's  ideal  of  a  government  of  the 
people,  for  the  people,  by  the  people,  will  not  perish  from  the  earth. 
Up  from  the  scum  and  reek  of  corruption — unless  the  ancient  power 
of  conscience  and  intellect  are  dead ;  and  they  are  not  dead,  but 
live  in  deathless  vigor — will  spring  a  new  growth  of  justice,  lib- 
erty, love. 

But  the  nation  must  not  lose  it  vision ;  that  incommunicable 
quality  that  leads  to  the  light.  "  Where  there  is  no  vision,  the 
people  perish." 

The  past  is  behind  us,  with  all  its  solemn  monitions.  The  fu- 
ture beckons  us  to  the  shining  uplands  of  limitless  progress.  The 
ascent  is  not  ea.'v,  but  it  must  and  will  be  made. 


LETTERS  FROM  GEORGE  WASHINGTON. 


Head  Quarters,  West  Point,  July  29th,  1779. 
Dr.  Sir, 

I  have  been  duly  favored  with  your  letter  of  the  loth,  the  con- 
tents of  which  are  of  so  ferious  a  nature,  with  respect  to  the  Quar- 
ter Masters  and  Commifsary's  department,  that  I  though  it  my 
duty  to  communicate  them  to  General  Greene  and  Col.  Wadsworth. 
....  If  there  has  been  neglect  in  either  department,  the  delin- 
quents must  be  responsible  to  the  public  and  these  Gentlemen  ought 

to  be  acquainted  with  what  has  been  alledged 

I  cannot  but  repeat  my  intreaties,  that  you  will  hasten  your 
operation  with  all  pofsible  dispatch ;  and  that  you  will  disencumber 
yourself  of  every  article  of  baggage  and  ftores  which  is  not  necef- 
sary  to  the  expedition.  Not  only  its  fuccefs  but  its  execution  at 
all  depends  on  this.  'Tis  a  kind  of  fervice  in  which  both  officers 
and  men  must  expect  to  dispense  with  conveniences  and  endure 
hardfhips.  . .  .  They  must  not  and  I  trust  will  not  expect  to  carry 
the  fame  appatus  which  is  customary  in  other  operations.  I  am 
persuaded  that  if  you  do  not  lighten  yourfelf  to  the  greatest  pofsi- 
ble degree,  you  will  not  only  iminently  hazard  a  defeat,  but  you 
will  never  be  able  to  penetrate  any  distance  into  the  Indian  Coun- 
try..., The  greater  part  of  your  provisions  will  be  consumed  in 
preparation,  and  the  remainder  in  the  first  ftages  of  a  tedious  and 
laborious  march. 

General  Clinton  in  a  letter  to  the  Governor  of  the  6th  instant 
mentioned  his  arrival  at  the  south  end  of  Otfego  Lake  where  he 

was   waiting  your   orders 

Inclosed  I  transmit  you  extracts  of  two  letters  of  the  7th  and 
27th  instant  from  Major-General  Schuyler  with  interesting  intelli- 
gence. 

I  am  with  great  regard 
Dr.  Sir 

Yr.  Most  Obet.  fervant 
Go.  Washington 


LETTERS   FROM   GEORGE   WASHINGTON.  1 53 

This    will   be   accompanied 
.by  Commissions  for  the  four 
New  York  Regiments  and 
the  4th  Pennsylvania .... 
in  three  packages 

Col.  Broadhead  has  informed  me  that  he  h.  s  a  prospect  of  un- 
dertaking an  expedition  against  the  Mingoes  with  the  aid  of  fome 
of  the  friendly  Indians ;  I  have  encouraged  him  by  all  means  to 
do  it,  if  practicable ;  fhould  it  take  place,  it  will  be  an  useful  diver- 
sion in  your  favor  as  he  will  approach   pretty   near    to    your    left 
flank 


Head   Quarters  West 
Point  August   1st,   1779. 
Dr.  Sir, 

Brandt  at  the  head  of  a  party  of  whites  &  Indians  said  to  have 
amounted  to  eighty  or  ninety  men  has  lately  made  an  incursion  in- 
to the  Minisinks  and  cut  off  a  party  of  fifty  or  sixty  of  our  militia. 
It  is  reported  that  Brandt  himself  was  either  killed  or  wounded  in 
the  action ....  By  a  fellow  belonging  to  this  party,  who  has  fallen 
into  our  hands,  as  he  pretends  voluntarily  (but  is  suspected  to 
have  mistaken  his  way)  I  am  informed  that  the  party  came  from 
Chemung  in  quest  of  provisions  of  which  the  favages  are  in  great 
want.  He  fays  their  deficiency  in  this  respect  is  so  great  that  they 
are  obliged  to  keep  themselves  in  a  desperate  ftate ;  and  when  they 
collect  will  not  be  able  to  remain  long  together.  He  gives  the  fol- 
lowing account  of  their  ftrength,  movements  &  designs ....  That 
the  whole  force  they  will  be  able  ten  afsemble  will  not  exceed  fifteen 
hundred  fighting  men  whites  and  Indians,  which  they  themselves 
conceive  will  be  eqjal  to  double  the  number  of  our  men  in  the 
woods.  . . .  That  Butler  with  a  party  of  both  sorts  was  at  Conofa- 
dago  in  number  3  or  400. . .  .  That  at  Chemung  and  the  adjacent 
town^  were  two  or  three  hundred  warriors ....  That  Chemung 
was  appointed  as  the  place  of  rendezvous  where  or  in  the  neighbor- 
hood the  Indians  intended  to  glv^e  you  battle,  after  which  if  they 
were  unfuccefsful  they  intended  to  retire  towards  Niagara  haraf- 
sing  your  march  as  much  as  possible  with  small  parties  and  by 


154  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

ambuscades....  That  fome  of  the  towns  had  fent  off  their  old 
men  &  women,  others  more  confident  and  discrediting  that  there 
was  an  army  coming  against  them,  had  f  till  kept  them  at  home .... 
That  no  reinforcement  had  yet  come  from  Canada ;  but  that  Brandt 
who  was  lately  arrived  from  thence  afsured  the  Indians  there  was 
one  coming  after  him....  The  principal  ftrength  of  the  Indians 
is  in  the  Genefee  towns.  . .  . 

You  will  give  as  much  credit  to  this  account  as  you  think  proper 
and  in  proportion  to  its  conformity  to  your  other  intelligence.  The 
informant  is  a  deserter  from  Cortlandts  Regiment  who  fays  he  was 
carried  off  by  force  to  the  Indians  and  took  the  present  opportunity 
of  leaving  them....  He  appears  not  to  be  destitute  of  fhrewd- 
ness  and  as  his  apprehensions  were  pretty  strong  I  am  inclined  to 
think  as  far  as  his  knowledge  extended  he  was  sincere.  . .  . 

In  my  last  I  forgot  to  inform  you  that  on  the  15th  instant  at 
night  Brigadier  Gen.  Wayne  with  the  Light  Infantry  took  itony 
point  by  assault.  The  whole  garrison  consisting  of  about  600  men 
with  Col.  Johnson  commanding  officer,  fifteen  pieces  of  cannon  of 
different  fizes  &  quantity  of  ftores  fell  into  our  hands.  Our  lofs 
in  killed  &  wounded  was  lefs  than  an  hundred,  of  which  not  above 
thirty  will  be  finally  lost  to  the  fervice.  . .  General  Wayne  received 
a  wound  in  the  head .  . .  This  affair  does  great  honor  to  our  troops 
who  entered  the  works  at  the  pont  of  the  ba}X)net,  fcarcely  firing 
a  gun.  The  post  you  may  recollect  was  extremely  formidable  by 
nature  and  ftrongly  fortified ....  The  enemy,  it  is  faid,  fupposed 
it  capable  of  defying  our  whole  force.  The  opposite  point  had  it 
not  been  for  fome  unavoidable  accidents  would  probably  also  fallen 
into  our  hands ....  The  enemy  from  these  had  time  to  come  to 
its  relief  and  have  fince  repofsed  ftony  point,  which  we  evacuated 
and  destroyed. 

I  am  with  great  regard 

Dr.  Sr. 
(Duplicate)  Yr.  Obet.  servt 

G  Washington 

ps.  Inclosed  is  a  duplicate  of  mine  of  the  29th  with  its  in- 
closures  lest  there  fhould  be  a  miscarriage. 


LETTERS   FROM   GEORGE   WASHINGTON.  1 55 

Head  Quarters  West  Point  3d  Sept.  1779. 
Dear  Sir 

I  was  made  very  happy  to  find,  by  yours  of  the  2Dth  ulto  that 
your  junction  with  General  CHnton  would  take  place  on  the  next 
day,  and  that  no  opposition  had  been  given  him  on  the  pafsage 
down  the  River.  Colonel  Pauling,  not  having  been  able  to  reach 
Anagarga  at  the  appointed  time,  and  upon  his  arrival  there,  finding 
that  General  Clinton  had  pafsed  by,  has  returned  to  the  Settlements 
with  the  men  under  his  command — who  were  about  200.  But  as 
your  junction  has  been  effected  with  fcarce  any  lofs,  I  hope  this 
fmall  demonstration  of  force  will  not  be  felt  in  your  operations. 

I  yesterday  rec  a  letter  of  the  31st  July  from  Colo.  Broadhead 
at  Fort  Pitt,  from  which  the  inclosed  is  an  extract.  By  this  you 
will  perceive,  that  he  intended  to  begin  his  march  towards  the 
Seneca  Country  on  the  7th  or  8th  of  last  month,  and  will  also  fee 
his  reasons  for  fetting  out  fo  early. 

On  the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the  13th  ulto.  I  immediately  de- 
sired the  Commissary  General  to  form  a  magazine  for  your  future 
supply  at  fome  fafe  and  convenient  place  in  your  Rear,  and  on  re- 
ceiving that  of  the  20th  I  repeated  the  order,  and  directed  him  to 
make  Wyoming  the  place  of  deposit.  By  the  inclosed  extracts  from 
Colo.  Wadsworth  and  Mr.  Blaine  you  will  find  that  matters  are  in 
forwardness  for  that  purpose. 

I  have  the  pleasure  to  inform  you  that  Spain  has  at  length  taken 
a  decisive  part.  In  the  inclosed  paper,  you  will  find  his  Manifesto 
delivered  to  the  Court  of  Great  Britain  on  the  i6th  June  last,  with 
the  message  of  the  King  to  Parliament  thereupon. 

It  is  to  be  hoped  this  formidable  junction  of  the  House  of  Bour- 
bon will  not  fail  of  establishing  the  Independence  of  America  in 
a  short  time .... 

I  am  Dear  Sir 

Your  most  obt.  Sert. 

Go.  Washington 


LETTER  OF  PH.  SCHUYLER. 


Albany,  April  29th,  1779. 
Dear  Sir: — 

Your  Excellancy's  Favor  of  the  24th  Instant,  I  had  the  Honor 
to  receive  on  the  27th. 

Yesterday  I  had  a  conference  with  General  Clinton  and  Greneral 
Ten  Broeck  on  the  subject  matter  of  your  letter.  The  latter  has 
promised  to  make  use  of  every  exertion  to  raise  the  quota  his  Bri- 
gade is  to  furnish.  He  will  advise  you  of  the  difficulties  he  has 
to  encounter  and  I  really  fear  if  he  should  be  able  to  procure  the 
whole  number  at  least  (which  I  have  not  much  reason  to  believe 
he  will)  so  much  time  will  elapse  that  the  troops  now  to  the  North- 
ward, will  be  drawn  away  before  any  part  are  sent  to  take  the 
posts  they  now  occupy,  except  Captain  Stockwell's  Company. 

General  Clinton  proposes  to  send  such  men  of  the  corps  now  in 
this  Quarter,  as  may  be  unfit  for  the  active  service  intended  to  be 
prosecuted,  to  the  Block  House  he  has  built  at  Sacandaga,  and  if 
there  should  be  more  such  men  than  what  are  necessary  for  that 
post,  he  will  order  them  to  the  Northward.  M 

If  General  Washington  prosecutes  the  operations  he  at  present 
meditates  against  the  savages,  the  Western  Frontiers  will  be  in  per- 
fect security.  I  conceive  it  will  therefore  only  be  necessary  to 
employ  what  Force  you  may  have  for  the  Defense  of  the  Northern 
Frontiers  of  this  County  and  that  of  Tryon. 

Part  of  Warner's  Regiment  is  now  at  Rutland.  About  one 
hundred  men  will  be  sufficient  at  Skenesborough ;  twenty-five  men 
at  Fort  Edward  and  the  Remainder  I  should  advise  to  be  stationed 
at  the  Junction  of  the  North  Branch  of  Hudson's  River  with  the 
Western  one  or  a  little  to  the  Westward  of  it,  where  the  Road  cut 
by  the  Tories  in  1776  from  Crown  point  comes  to  the  River.  Those 
would  at  once  cover  the  North  Western  parts  of  this  County  and 
the  Northern  parts  of  Tryon. 

I  shall  direct  Capt.  Stockwell  to  march  to  Skenesborough,  hav- 


LETTER   FROM    PH.    SCHUYLER.  1 57 

ing  a  small  Detachment  at  Fort  Edward.     Copy  of  his  orders  I 
shall  transmit  your  Excellancy  by  a  future  Conveyance. 

Last  night  I  received  a  Resolution  of  Congress  accepting  of  my 
Resignation.  I  feel  myself  happy  in  the  prospect  of  that  Ease  and 
Satisfaction  which  my  Retirement  will  afford  me.  Impressed  how- 
ever with  a  lively  sense  of  the  Duty  I  owe  my  Country,  I  must  en- 
treat you  never  to  hesitate  honoring  me  with  your  Commands  on 
any  occasion  in  which  as  a  private  Citizen  I  may  be  serviceable. 

As  General  Clinton  will  transmit  you  the  Account  of  our  sweep 
against  the  Onondagas,  it  supercedes  the  Necessity  of  my  doing  it. 

I  have  the  Honor  to  be  Dear  Sir  with  great  respect  and  esteem, 
Your  Excellancy's  most  obedient  humble  servant, 

Ph.  Schuyler. 
(To  Geo.  Clinton.) 


LETTER  OF  GOUV.  MORRIS. 


Phila.  26th  Jany.,   1778. 
Sir, 

Permit  me  to  recommend  to  your  Exccrlency's  favorable  atten- 
tion and  thro  you  in  such  manner  as  you  may  think  most  proper 
to  the  Legislature  an  application  of  the  Bearer  of  this  letter.  From 
the  conversation  I  have  had  with  him  on  the  subject  his  design 
appears  to  me  well  calculated  for  the  purpose  of  serving  in  some 
Degree  our  Western  Frontier  and  consequently  enriching  the  in- 
termediate country.  It  hath  also  the  immediate  effect  of  procuring 
a  number  of  good  industrious  subjects.  Perhaps  I  should  not  go 
too  far  in  saying  that  every  man  so  acquired  would  be  worth  two. 
To  state  or  enlarge  on  his  plan  would  be  absurd  as  he  will  person- 
ally have  the  honor  of  conferring  with  you.  I  have  only  to  say 
that  the  honorable  stars  he  gained  at  Bemis'  Heights  will  be  a  bet- 
ter recommendation  than  I  can  give.  As  a  Representative  of  the 
State  of  New  York  I  think  I  do  my  Duty  in  forwarding  the  Views 
of  one  who  is  so  much  its  Friend. 

I  have  the  Honor  to  be  most  respectfully 

Your  Excellency's 
most  obedient 

and 
humble   servant, 

GOUV.  MORRIS. 


LETTER  OF  ROBT.  MORRIS. 


Office  of  Finance,  5  June  1783. 
Sir 

Congress  having  directed  a  very  considerable  part  of  the  Army 
to  be  sent  home  on  Furlough,  I  am  pressed  exceedingly  to  make 
a  payment  of  three  months  wages,  and  I  am  very  desirous  to  ac- 
complish it,  but  the  want  of  money  compells  me  to  an  Anticipation 
on  the  Taxes  by  making  this  payment  in  notes ;  to  render  this  mode 
tolerably  just  or  useful,  the  notes  must  be  punctually  discharged 
when  they  fall  due,  and  my  dependence  must  be  on  the  money  to 
be  received  of  the  several  States,  on  the  Requisitions  for  the  last 
and  present  year.  I  hope  the  urgency  of  the  case  will  produce  the 
desired  exertions  and  finally  enable  me  to  preserve  the  credit  and 
honor  of  the  Federal  Government. 

I  have  the  honor  to 

Remain   Your  Excellency's 
Most  obedient  & 

Very  humble  Servt. 
His  Excellency  Robt.  Morris. 

The  Governor  of  New  York. 


LETTER  OF  JOHN  JAY. 


Paris  loth  May  1783. 
Dear  Sir 

I  think  it  probable  that  ever}'  dutch  Gentleman  who  goes  to 
Philadelphia,  will  also  visit  New  York,  which  was  first  settled  by 
his  own  nation. 

Mr.  Boers,  who  has  been  deputed  by  Holland  to  transact  cer- 
tain affairs  here,  recommends  Mr.  de  Hogendorp  to  me  in  the 
warmest  Terms.  This  gentleman  is  a  Lieutenant  in  the  dutch 
guards,  &  of  a  respectable  family.  He  expects  to  go  to  America 
with  Mr.  Van  Berkel.  The  confidence  I  have  in  the  Recommenda- 
tion of  Mr.  Boers  and  my  Desire  of  rendering  our  Country  agree- 
able to  Mr.  Hogendorp,  leads  me  to  take  the  Liberty  of  introducing 
him  to  your  Excellency  and  to  request  that  in  case  he  should  visit 
New  York,  he  may  be  favored  with  your  friendly  attentions. 
I  have  the  Honor  to  be  with  great  esteem  and  Regard, 
Your  Excellency's 

most  ob't  &  most  hT^le  Servant, 
John  Jay. 
His  Excellency  Geo.  Clinton,  Esq. 
Governor  of  New  York. 


LETTER  OF  JAMES  DUANE. 


Manor  Livingston,  28th  June  1778. 
Sir 

I  returned  from  Albany  the  middle  of  this  month  and  intended 
in  the  course  of  the  present  week  to  pay  a  visit  to  your  Excellency 
principally  to  give  you  a  more  minute  detail  than  can  well  be  done 
by  letter,  of  the  state  of  our  western  frontier  and  the  temper  of  the 
six  nations.  My  intentions  are  frustrated  by  a  summons  to  attend 
the  Commission  of  Indian  Affairs  at  Albany  on  an  agreeable  oc- 
casion. I  firmly  believe  that  if  we  do  not  take  vigorous  and  de- 
cisive measures  with  the  six  nations  they  will  in  the  course  of  this 
summer  drive  in  a  great  part  of  the  inhabitants  and  do  us  injuries 
which  it  will  take  years  to  retrive.  I  have  strongly  inculcated  this 
idea  upon  Congress  in  every  letter  since  I  became  thoroughly  ac- 
quainted with  Indian  Affairs,  and  they  have  now  come  to  suitable 
resolutions  on  the  subject.  God  grant  that  they  may  be  shown 
proper  exertions  and  crowned  with  success. 

The  dispatches  which  accompany  this  render  it  needless  to  be 
particular. 

Mrs.  Duane  joins  me  in  respectful  Compliments  to  Mrs.  Clin- 
ton. She  continues  very  feeble,  tho  I  flatter  myself  the  malady 
has  not  yet  reached  her  vitals  and  that  by  exercise  and  the  course 
of  medicine  she  is  now  in,  her  health  may  yet  be  re-established. 

I  am  with  highest  respect 
Sir, 

Your  Excellency's  most  obed. 
and  very  humble  servant, 

JAMES  DUANE. 
His  Excellency  Governor  Clinton. 


LETTER  OF  ISRAEL  PUTNAM. 


Hartford,  April  8th,  1778. 
Dear  Sir, 

I  herewith  send  you  Mr.  Treland  and  Lieut.  Griffith,  both  in- 
habitants of  your  State,  the  latter  is  an  officer  in  the  new  Levies, 
was  taken  some  time  in  August  last,  and  since  then  has  been  ex- 
ceeding busy,  in  poisoning  the  minds  of  the  inhabitants  where  he 
has  been  stationed.  The  character  of  the  former,  I  dare  say  your 
Excellancy  is  sufficiently  acquainted  with.  I  have  Lieut.  Griffith  in 
consequence  of  a  Resolution  of  Congress,  making  the  Inhabitants 
of  the  States  subject  to  tryal  by  the  Civil  Law  and  for  his  bad  be- 
havior since  he  has  been  Indulged  with  a  Parole. 

I  arrived  here  yesterday  and  to-morrow  proceed  as  to  Gov. 
Trumball. 

I  am.  Dear  Sir, 

Your  most  Obed.  Serv't, 
Israel  Putnam. 
His  Excellency,  Gov.  Clinton. 

P.  S.  The  three  pieces  of  heavy  cannon  which  I  mentioned  to 
your  Excellency  has  arrived  here,  one  of  them  went  on  three  or 
four  Days  since,  the  others  will  go  in  about  two  days. 


Clinton  Papers  Furnished  by  Geo.  Clinton  Andrews,  Esq. 
of  Tarrytown,  N.  Y. 


LETTER  OF  GEORGE  CLINTON. 


Fort  Montgomery,  2d  Mav  1777. 
Sir, 

I  wrote  to  Convention  this  morning  inclosing  the  Proceedings 
of  a  General  Court  Martial  held  at  this  place  for  the  Tryal  of  sun- 
dry prisoners  for  Treason  against  the  States.  Since  which  so 
many  others  have  been  sent  to  this  Post  charged  with  the  same  of- 
fense that  the  Guard  House  can't  contain  them.  I  have  therefore 
thought  it  advisable  to  send  those  already  tried  to  be  confined  in 
Livingston  Goal,  together  with  Cadwallader  Coldon  Esquire,  wiho> 
stands  charged  with  the  like  offense  as  will  appear  by  the  Examina- 
tion of  Jacob  Davis  taken  before  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee 
of  Shawangonk  and  now  transmitted  to  you  by  Lieutenant  Rose, 
who  has  the  care  of  the  Prisoners.  One  of  the  Prisoners  tells  that 
Doctor  Ansson  and  one  Low  was  left  behind  their  party  in  the 
Clove  near  Pysoryck  at  a  little  house  there  on  Account  of  Low's 
being  lame  and  the  Doctor  to  take  care  of  him.  They  ought  in  my 
opinion  to  be  hunted  up  immediately.  The  Prisoners  except  Mr. 
Coldon,  who  are  not  yet  tried,  I  mean  to  keep  confined  at  this  Place 
for  Tryal.  Mr.  Coldon  I  have  thought  best  to  send  forward  as  it 
might  not  be  prudent  to  keep  him  confined  at  this  Post  for  many 
Reasons. 

I  am  your 

Most  Obed.  Serv't, 

GEO.  CLINTON. 
To  the  President  of  the  Convention  of 
the  State  of  New  York, 


LETTER  OF  JAMES  CLINTON. 


Albany,  May  28th,  1779. 
Sir, 

I  have  received  yours  of  the  23rd  Inst.  General  Tenbroeck 
hath  ascertained  the  Quota  which  each  Regiment  is  to  furnish  for 
the  Continental  and  State  Regiments,  and  Issued  Orders  for  them 
to  join  in  one  week  after  the  Orders  were  issued.  I  believe  the 
General  has  endeavored  to  take  every  necessary  step  to  supply  the 
Deficiencies  which  yet  remain,  Tho  from  the  unavoidable  delays 
of  the  officers  of  his  Brigade  he  hath  met  with  much  trouble,  as  I 
have  seen  I  believe,  every  letter  he  has  received  on  the  subject. 

I  have  ordered  Capt.  McKean  to  command  all  the  drafts  of 
Tryon  County,  as  I  knew  it  was  agreeable  to  all  the  Inhabitants 
of  that  part  of  the  Country,  tho  I  did  not  know  at  the  time  I  ap- 
pointed him  for  this  service  that  you  intended  him  to  Command 
those  drafts  out  of  General  Tenbroecks  Brigade.  I  conceived 
Lieut.  Smith  was  to  be  his  Lieutenant. 

I  have  disposed  of  them  in  the  following  manner,  to  wit —  Capt. 
McKean  and  Lieut.  Smith  with  all  the  drafts  from  Colonels  Clock, 
Bellinger  and  Gambles  Regiments  at  Fort  Dayton  and  a  small 
Fort,  eight  miles  higher  up  the  River. 

Lieut.  Vrooman  with  those  from  Colonel  Vesichus'  Regiment 
at  the  Block  House  at  Sacandaga,  where  there  are  a  Captain  and 
and  sixty  men  of  Colonel  Dubois'  Regiment.  Those  Drafts  serve 
as  Pilots. 

The  drafts  from  Colonel  Vrooman's  Regiment  at  Schohary  with 
an  officer  from  the  same  Regiment,  I  have  ordered  to  a  Block 
Hou:se  and  Picqueted  Fort,  which  I  ordered  to  be  built  last  Winter 
at  Cobus  Kill. 

Those  under  Capt.  Stockwell  and  a  certain  Lieut.  Putnam,  ap- 
pointed by  Colonel  McCrea,  are  ordered  to  take  Post  at  Skeenes- 
borough  and  Fort  Edwards. 

I  should  be  glad  to  see  Major  Van  Burnschooten  with  the  drafts 


LETTER  OF  JAMES   CLINTON.  165 

you  mention  at  this  place.  They  might  be  disposed  of  to  great  ad- 
vantage at  Schoharie,  where  they  will  be  much  wanted  when  the 
Continental  troops  are  ordered  to  March. 

Inclosed   I   send   you   a   Copy  of  a  Letter   from  Colonel   Van 
Schaick  which  contains  all  the  news  in  this  quarter, 

I  am  your 

very   humble   servant, 

James  Clinton. 
Gov.  Clinton.       '  , 


THE  WILL  OF  CHARLES  CLINTON. 


IN  THE  NAME  OF  GOD,  AMEN.  I,  CHARLES  CLIN- 
TON, of  Little  Brittain,  in  the  County  of  Ulster  and  Province  of 
New  York  in  America,  being  of  sound  mind  and  memory,  blessed 
be  God,  do  this  twenty-sixth  day  of  March,  in  the  year  of  Our 
Lord  One  thousand  seven  hundred  and  Seventy  one,  make  and 
publish  this  my  last  Will  and  Testament  in  manner  following  (viz) 
First  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  Eldest  son  Charles,  my  Negro 
Boys  Robin  and  Dublin,  and  I  give  and  bequeath  to  him  the  sum 
of  two  hundred  and  Thirty  seven  pounds.  Current  money  of  New 
York,  to  be  paid  to  him  out  of  the  money  I  have  out  at  Interest, 
and  I  hereby  authorize,  impower  and  appoint  my  Executors  here- 
inafter named  to  divide  a  lott  of  land  of  mine.  Containing  five  huiv- 
dred  acres,  lying  on  the  West  side  of  the  Wallkill  (being  part  of 
a  tract  of  land  granted  by  letters  Patent  to  Frederick  Morris  and 
Samuel  Heath)  into  two  or  three  Lotts,  as  it  may  suit  best  for 
Sale,  and  to  sell  the  same  and  give  a  good  Sufficient  deed  for  it, 
and  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  son  Charles,  four  hundred  and 
thirty-three  pounds  New  York  Currency  of  the  money  arising  by 
the  sale  of  the  said  land  and  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  Son  George 
the  sum  of  two  hundred  pounds,  and  to  my  son  James  the  sum  of 
Seventy  pounds  of  the  Price  of  the  said  lands  and  if  it  shall  or  can 
be  sold  for  any  more,  it  is  my  Will  niy  son  George  shall  have  the 
over  surplus  it  brings.  Also  I  give  and  Devise  to  my  son  James,  his 
heirs  and  assigns  forever,  my  farm  whereon  I  now  dwell  in  Little 
Brittain  in  Ulster  County,  Containing  two  hundred  and  fifteen  acres, 
being  part  of  a  tract  of  two  thousand  acres  Granted  by  letters 
patent  to  Andrew  Johnson,  l3''ing  in  the  Southwesterly  Corner 
thereof.  To  have  and  to  hold  the  said  farm  with  all  and  singular 
the  Rights,  members  and  appurtenances  thereof  to  my  said  Son 
Tames,  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  which  farm  I  valued  only  at 
Seven  hundred  pounds,  to  him,  and  I  give  to  my  said  Son,  my  Ne- 
gro boys  David  and  Isaac.  And  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  Son 
George  the  sum  of  five  hundred  and  Seventy  pounds  of  the  money  I 
have  at  Interest  and  whatever  monev  there  shall  be  due  to  me  at  the 


WILL  OF   CHARLES   CLINTON.  167 

time  of  my  decease,  either  Interest  or  principle,  more  than  the  Leg- 
acies above  mentioned  and  what  will  pay  the  quit  Rent  due  for  my 
Lands  and  my  Just  debts,  I  order  it  to  be  Equally  Divided  between 
my  said  three  sons  and  I  give  my  Son  George,  my  Negro  boys  Wil- 
liam and  Samuel,  my  Negro  Wench  Lettice,  I  Intended  to  give  to 
my  Daughter  Catherine  but  she  being  then  very  Sickly  and  having 
no  Ghildren,  she  Desired  if  she  died  before  me,  I  s'hould  Leave 
her  free  which  I  promised  to  do  and  a  promise  made  at  the  Request 
of  so  dutiful  &  affectionate  a  Child,  who  is  now  dead  and  Cannot 
Release  me  from  it,  I  think  my  Self  sacredly  obliged  to  perform. 
Therefore  it  is  my  Will  She  shall  be  free  and  I  hereby  manumit 
her  &  make  her  free  from  Slavery  but  so  as  to  Exclude  and  utterly 
to  Debar  all  and  every  person  and  persons  whatsoever  from  making 
any  Covenant  Bargain  or  agreement  with  her  to  enslave  or  bind 
her  for  life  or  for  any  Number  of  years  or  to  use  any  other  way  or 
means  to  prevent  or  Defraud  her  of  her  time,  liberty  or  wages  that 
she  may  honestly  earn  for  her  maintainance  and  support.  And  I 
give  and  bequeath  to  my  said  three  sons,  Charles,  James  and  George, 
all  my  Stock  of  Cows,  Sheep,  Oxen  and  horses,  my  negro  Peter 
and  my  Wench  Pegg  or  Margaret,  and  all  my  Crop  of  Grain  on 
my  farm  and  all  my  Books  and  household  furniture,  except  the 
furniture  hereafter  mentioned,  which  I  give  to  my  Wife  for  her 
Room,  and  I  leave  my  farming  utensils  on  my  farm  for  my  son 
James,  to  whom  I  have  Given  my  farm  and  it  is  my  Will  that  my 
Said  three  Sons,  Charles,  James  and  George,  their  Executors  & 
administrators.  Shall  out  of  my  Estate  hereby  Given  to  them  at 
their  Equal  Expense  Decently  Cloath,  keep,  maintain  and  find  fit 
attendance  for  my  Wife  Elizabeth,  according  to  her  Rank  and  Sta- 
tion in  life,  and  I  leave  her  a  good  bed  Curtains,  bed-cloaths, 
Sheets.  Pillows  and  one  of  my  small  looking  glasses,  teatable  and 
Some  Chairs  for  her  Room,  as  she  is  now  about  Seventy  four  years 
of  age  and  is  or  Soon  will  be  uncapable  to  take  Care  of  her  Self, 
therefore  It  is  my  Earnest  Request  that  her  sons  may  behave  as 
they  have  always  done  in  a  kind  and  dutiful  and  affectionate  man- 
ner to  her  While  She  lives.  I  give  to  my  Grandson  Charles  Clin- 
ton Junior,  my  plate  handled  sword  and  I  give  my  Grandson  Alex- 
ander Clinton  my  fusee  or  small  gun  I  carried  when  I  was  in  the 
army,  and  I  give  to  my  Grandaughter  Catherine  Clinton,  (my  Son 


l68  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

George's  daughter)  my,  Largest  kx)king  glass.  I  give  to  my  son 
James  all  my  mathematical  Instruments.  I  give  to  my  son  James, 
my  Clock  and  I  give  to  my  son  George,  ray  watch,  and  I  give 
to  my  Son  Charles,  my  Long  Gun  and  my  Desk  as  I  have  Given 
to  each  of  my  sons  James  and  George  one  hundred  pounds  by  this 
will  more  than  I  have  to  my  Son  Charles  *  *  *  *  It  is  not 
done  out  of  Partiality  but  for  the  following  Reasons — When  his 
Brother  Alexander  died  he  was  Seized  in  fee  of  a  Good  Improved 
farm.  Containing  two  hundred  Acres ;  as  he  died  Intestate,  having 
no  issue,  It  fell  to  my  Son  Charles,  he  being  his  Eldest  Brother 
and  my  Son  Charles'  Education  being  more  Expensive  to  me  I 
thought  it  but  Justice  to  Make  that  Small  amendment  To  their 
portions,  which  is  far  from  making  them  Elqual  to  their  Brother 
Charles.  It  is  my  Will  I  be  buryed  in  the  Graveyard  in  my  own 
farm,  beside  my  Daughter  Catherine  and  it  is  my  Will  the  said 
Graveyard  be  made  four  Rods  Square  and  An  open  free  Road  to 
it  at  all  times,  when  it  Shall  be  necessary  and  I  nominate  and  ap- 
point my  said  three  sons  Charles,  James  and  George,  Executors  of 
this  my  last  will,  to  see  the  same  Executed  accordingly  and  I  order 
that  my  said  Executors-  procure  a  suitable  stone  to  lay  over  my 
Grave,  whereon  I  would  have  the  time  of  my  death,  my  age  and 
Coat  of  Arms  cut.  I  hope  they  will  Indulge  in  this  Last  piece  of 
vanity. 

Signed,  Sealed,  Published  and 

Declared  in  the  presence  of  us,  by 

the  said  Charles  Clinton,  the  tes- 
tator and  for  his  last  will,  who 

were  present  at  the  Signing  and 

Sealing  there  of. 

(The  words  "  George  the  sum  of      CHAS.  CLINTON  (L.  S.) 

two  hundred  pounds  and  to  my  son  " 

being  first  Interlined,  the 

words  "  Devise  to  my  Son  James 

his  heirs  "  being  wrote  on  an 

erasure  and  a  small  erasure 

made  between  the  words  "  Charles  " 

and  "It".) 
SAM'L   SANDS.    JEREMIAH   WHITE.    ARTHUR   SMITH. 


MEMORIAL  MARKER  AT  HALFWAY  BROOK, 
QUEENSBURY,  N.  Y. 


THE  HALF-WAY  BROOK  IN  HISTORY. 


By  James  Austin  Holden,  A.  B. 


In  choosing  as  its  first  subject  for  a  memorial  marker  "  The 
Half-Way  Brook,"  the  New  York  State  Historical  Association 
has  made  a  dignified  and  wise  selection,  for  it  may  be  truly  said 
that  no  stream  in  the  Adirondack  Wilderness  is  more  noted  in  his- 
tory and  the  Annals  of  the  Border,  than  this,  whose  appellation 
"  Half- Way  "  comes  from  the  fact  that  it  was  nearly  equidistant 
from  Fort  Edward  on  the  south  and  Fort  William  Henry  on  the 
north.  Rising  in  the  branch  of  the  Palmertown  range  known  as 
the  Luzerne  Mountains,  west  of  Glens  Falls,  running  a  crooked 
but  generally  easterly  and  northerly  course,  now  expanding  into 
small  lakes  or  basins,  now  receiving  the  waters  of  numerous  small 
tributaries,  ponds  and  rivulets,  it  divides  the  town  of  Queensbury 
into  two  parts,  passes  the  Kingsbury  line,  turns  in  a  northerly  di- 
rection, and  empties  into  Wood  Creek  at  a  point  about  three-quar- 
ters of  a  mile  south  from  Battle  Hill,  at  Fort  Ann,  in  Washington 
County. 

In  the  days  before  American  history  began,  the  region  traversed 
by  this  stream  was  a  favorite  hunting  ground  for  the  Red  Man, 
and  this  water  course,  even  to-day  famous  for  its  speckled  trout, 
was  one  of  his  chosen  pleasuring  places. 

For  more  than  two  hundred  years  the  great  deep-worn  war- 
paths or  traveling  trails  of  the  Indian  Nations  ran  to  and  from  its 
banks.  And  whether  the  fleet,  moccasined  warriors  went  west- 
ward over  the  Sacandaga  trail  to  the  big  bend  of  the  Hudson  and 
so  on  to  the  Iroquois  strongholds,  or  w^hether  they  came  to  the 
"  Great  Carrying  Place,"  at  what  is  now  Fort  Edward,  through 
Lake  Champlain  and  Wood  Creek,  or  chose  the  trip  through  Lake 
St.  Sacrament  past  the  site  of  the  future  Glens  Falls,  down  to 
Albany,  or  the  west,  all  must  cross  this  stream,  which  thus  became 
as  familiar  to  the  Adirondack  and  Iroquois  Confederacies,  as  the 


17°  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

alphabet  to  us  of  to-day.  This  knowledge  so  gained  was  made 
ample  use  of  in  later  times  in  many  a  bloody  ambush,  surprise  or 
savage  foray.  After  the  defeat  of  Dieskau  in  1755,  and  the  build- 
ing of  Fort  William  Henry  at  Lake  George  and  Fort  Edward  at 
the  "  Great  Carrying  Place/'  the  "  Half-Way  Brook "  became  a 
point  of  strategic  importance,  and  as  a  halting  place  and  rendez- 
vous for  the  passing  troops,  and  the  convoys  of  supplies  between 
the  two  forts,  it  was  noted  throughout  the  northern  colonies,  as 
long  as  the  French  and  Indian  war  lasted. 

It  was  variously  denominated  by  the  military  authorities  dur- 
ing that  time.  On  an  old  manuscript  map  without  date  in  the 
New  York  State  Library,  it  is  noted  as  "  Sdhoone  Creek,"  while 
the  Earl  of  Louden's  map  in  1757  has  it  marked  as  "  Fork's 
Creek."  ^  Rogers,  the  famious  scout  and  ranger,  called  it  "  Bloody 
Brook."  In  Col.  James  Montresor's  Journals,  in  1757,  it  is  styled 
"  Half- Way  Run."  On  the  Robert  Harpur  map,  in  the  Secretary 
of  State's  office  at  Albany,  it  is  called  "  Scoune  Creek,"^  while 
Knox's  Military  Journal  designated  it  as  "  Seven  Mile  Creek," 
because  it  was  seven  miles  from  the  head  of  the  lake.  In  Wilson's 
Orderly  Book  of  Amherst's  Expedition,  in  1759,  it  is  laid  down 
as  "  Shone  Creek."  ^ 

On  a  "  powder  'horn  map "  made  by  one  John  Taylor  of 
*'  Swago  "  in  1765,  there  is  a  block  house  clearly  defined  at  "  Helf 
Br  "  between  Forts  Edward  and  George.*  On  later  maps  such  as 
the  Sauthier  map,  published  about  1778,  and  reproduced  in  the 
Seventh   Volume  of  the   Governor   Clinton   Papers,"   it   bears  the 

^  The  name  of  "  Fork  Creek  "  was  probably  derived  from  the  name  given 
it  by  Major  General  Fitz  John  Winthrop,  who  headed  an  unsuccessful  ex- 
pedition against  the  Canadians  and  their  Indian  allies  in  the  summer  of  1690. 
On  August  6th,  he  states  that  "  he  encamped  at  a  branch  of  Wood  Creak, 
called  the  fork."  This  is  the  place  where  the  "  Half- Way  "  enters  Wood 
Creek  near  Fort  Ann.  Here,  while  his  command  was  in  camp,  smallpox 
broke  out,  and  a  Lieut.  Hubbell  died  from  this  disease  and  was  buried  at 
that  spot.  Our  Secretary,  R.  O.  Bascom,  in  his  "  Fort  Edward  Book,"  p.  15, 
states  "  this  was  the  first  recorded  burial  in  the  country." 

^  Possibly  a  corruption  of  "  Skene,"  from  the  founder  of  Skenesborough. 

^  The  New  York  World  of  February  2d,  1896,  had  a  sketch  of  this  powder 
horn,  which,  at  that  time,  was  in  the  museum  of  Major  Frank  A.  Betts. 
Washington,  D.  C.  This  rudely  engraved  map  shows  the  various  forts  and 
settlements  along  the  Mohawk  and  Hudson  valleys,  and  depicts  the  trails 
to  Lakes  George  and  Champlain  on  the  one  side  and  to  Lake  Ontario  on  the 
other. 

*  Letter  Hdti.  Hugh  Hastings,  State  Historian. 


THE    HALF-WAY    BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  17 1 

popular  name  of  "  Half-Way  Brook,"  bestowed  upon  it  we  know 
not  by  whom  nor  when,  but  which  appearing  in  contemporary  di- 
aries, documents,  letters  and  official  despatches  of  "  The  Seven 
Years  War,"  has  ever  since  clung  to  it,  and  will  while  its  waters 
run  to  the  sea/ 

It  will  be  remembered  that  in  the  Campaign  of  1755,  Sir  Wil- 
liam Joiinson  had  constructed  a  corduroy  road  from  Fort  Edward 
to  Lake  George,  following  substantially  the  present  highway  be- 
tween the  two  points.  'Cut  through  the  dark  and  gloomy  virgin 
forest,  with  its  overhang  of  interlaced  pine  and  evergreen  boughs, 
its  thickets  of  dense  underbrush,  the  road  led  through  swamps, 
over  rivulets,  over  sandy  knolls,  and  primal  rocky  hills  to  the  head 
of  the  lake.  On  every  side  was  leafy  covert  or  rugged  eminence, 
suitable  for  ambuscade  or  hiding-place  of  savage  foe,  or  hardly 
less  savage  Canadian  or  French  regular.  Every  rod  of  ground  on 
this  road  is  stained  with  the  blood  of  the  English,  the  Colonists, 
and  their  Indian  allies,  or  that  of  their  fierce,  implacable  enemies. 
Hardly  a  mile  but  what  has  its  story  of  massacre,  surprise,  mur- 
der, deeds  of  daring  and  heroism,  or  of  duty  performed  under 
horrible  and  heartrending  circumstances. 

In  order  to  protect  the  road,  as  well  as  afford  a  resting  place  for 
soldiers  and  teamsters,  and  to  supply  a  needed  depot  for  military 
stores  and  provisions,  the  late  Dr.  A.  W.  Holden*  in  his  History 
of  Queensbury,  says :  "  At  an  early  period  in  the  French  War,  a 
block  house  and  stockaded  enclosure,  in  which  were  also  several 
store  houses,  had  been  erected  at  the  Half- Way  Brook.  The  date 
of  its  construction  would  seem  to  have  been  in  1755,  ior  in  that 
year  the  French  scouts  and  runners,  reported  to  their  chief  that 
the  English  had  erected  posts  every  two  leagues  from  the  head 
of  Lake  George  to  Albany.  It  wias  situated  on  the  north  side  of 
the  brook,  and  to  the  west  of  the  plank  road  leading  to  the  head  of 
Lake  George.  The  old  military  road  led  across  the  brook  about 
four  rods  above  the  present  crossing.       A  part  of  the  old  abut- 

'C.  Johnson's  History  of  Washington  County  (pub.  Phila.,  1878)  states 
that  the  "  Half-Way  Brook "  was  also  known  as  "  Clear  River " — p.  301. 
The  U.  S.  Geological  Survey,  in  its  map  of  this  section  of  New  York  State, 
published  about  1895,  has  labeled  the  brook  as  "  Half- Way  Creek,"  which, 
while  it  may  be  technically  correct,  will  never  be  recognized  in  local  usage 
or  by  faithful   historians. 

"The  Historian  of  the  Town  of  Queensbury,  N.  Y. 


172  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

merits,  timbers  and  causeway  were  visible  up  to  the  late  seventies. 
It  was  capable  of  accommodating  upwards  of  eight  hundred  men, 
and  was  protected  by  redoubts,  rifle  pits,  earthworks,  and  a  pali- 
sade of  hewn  timbers." 

The  walls  of  the  fort  were  pierced  for  cannon  as  well  as  for 
rifles,  or  muskets.  In  passing  it  may  be  said  that  from  time  to 
time,  this,  like  all  similar  frontier  forts  of  the  time,  was  enlarged, 
strengthened,  abandoned,  destroyed,  rebuilt,  as  the  exigencies  of 
military  service  made  it  necessary,  but  the  site  remained  tihe  same. 
This  was  near  the  rear,  and  to  the  westward  of  the  brick  residence 
now  occupied  by  William  H.  Parker.     Continuing  Dr.  Holden  says : 

"  During  the  summer  of  1756,  a  force  of  six  hundred  Cana- 
dians and  Indians  attacked  a  baggage  and  provision  train  at  the 
Half- Way  Brook,  while  on  its  way  from  Fort  Edward  to  the  gar- 
rison at  Fort  William  Henry. 

"  The  oxen  were  slaughtered,  the  convoy  mostly  killed  and 
scalped,  and  the  wagons  plundered  of  their  goods  and  stores. 
Heavily  laden  with  booty,  the  marauding  party  commenced  its 
retreat  towards  South  Bay  on  Lake  Champlain.  jEmbarking  in 
batteaux  they  were  proceeding  leisurely  down  the  lake  when  they 
were  overtaken  by  a  party  of  one  hundred  rangers  under  the  com- 
mand of  Captains  Putnam  and  Rogers.  These  latter  had  with 
them  two  small  pieces  of  artillery,  and  two  blunderbusses,  and  at 
the  narrows,  albout  eight  miles  north  of  Whitehall,  they  crossed 
over  from  Lake  George,  and  succeeded  in  sinking  several  of  the 
enemy's  boats,  and  killing  several  of  the  oarsmen.  A  heavy  south 
wind  favored  the  escape  of  the  remainder."  ^ 

During  this  summer  several  bloody  affrays  took  place  between 
Fort  Edward  and  Lake  George,  and  the  French  accounts  are  full 
of  successful  raids  and  surprises. 

In  1757  Col.  James  Montresor*  was  sent  to  America  as  head 
of  the  Engineer  corps  of  His  Majesty's  forces.  He  drew  the 
plans  for  and  constructed  several  fortifications  in  New  York  Prov- 
ince. In  his  journal  under  date  of  Monday,  July  25th,  he  says: 
"  Set  out  from  Ft.  Edward  at  6  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  ar- 
rived in  the  afternoon.     Stop't  at  the  Half  Way  Run,  agreed  on 


'Wm.  Cutter's  Life  of  Israel  Putnam,  p.  60;  Dr.  Asa  Fitch  in  Trans  N. 
Y.  S.  Agri.  Soc'y,  1848,  pp.  916-917;  Spark's  Am.  Biog.,  Vol.  8,  p.  119. 


THE    HALF-WAY    BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  1 73 

a  post  there  on  the  south  side  of  the  Run  on  the  east  of  the  Road 
about  50  Yards."  Under  date  of  Friday,  July  29th,  he  writes : 
''  Set  out  for  Fort  Wm.  Henry  at  12  o'clock  with  Gen'l  Webb  &c, 
arrived  at  the  Half-Way  at  3,  met  the  carpenter  going  up  that  I 
had  sent  for,  to  carry  on  the  work  there."  It  does  not  appear, 
however,  that  anything  was  done  with  this  fortification  on  account 
■of  Montcalm's  victory  a  few  weeks  later. 

The  Campaign  of  1757  teemed  with  scenes  of  bloodshed  along 
the  frontier,  and  the  history  of  the  Fort  Edward  and  Lake  George 
trail  abounds  with  sad  tales  of  atrocity  and  savagery,  culminating 
in  the  successful  attack  of  Montcalm  on  Fort  William  Henry,  and 
followed  by  the  terrible  massacre  which,  whether  rightfully  or 
wrongfully,  tarnished  forever  the  reputation  of  that  noted  and  able 
commander.  Of  the  few  who  escaped  it  is  on  record  that  Col. 
(afterwards  General)  Jacob  Bay  ley  of  New  Hampshire,  ran  the 
gauntlet  and  escaped  by  fleeing  bare-footed  for  seven  miles  through 
the  woods  to  the  "  Half- Way  Brook." 

"  Six  days  afterwards,"  Dr.  Holden  says,  "  Captain  de  Poul- 
haries  of  the  Royal  Rousillon  regiment,  with  an  escort  of  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  soldiers,  accompanied  the  survivors  of  the  massacre, 
upwards  of  four  hundred,  with  the  one  piece  of  cannon,  a  six 
pounder,  granted  by  the  ninth  article  of  capitulation,  as  a  token 
of  the  Marquis  de  Montcalm's  esteem  for  Lieutenant  Coflonel 
Monro  and  his  garrison,  on  account  of  their  honorable  defense,  to 
the  post  at  the  Half-Way  Brook,  where  they  met  a  like  detach- 
ment from  the  garrison  at  Fort  Edward,  sent  by  General  Webb 
to  receive  them." 

From  records  kept  by  officers  and  other  documents,  we  learn 
that  the  "  Half-Way  "  °  was  usually  designated  Lhrough  this  war 
as  the  meeting  place  for  white  flag  parties  and  exchange  of  pris- 
oners. 

After  the  fall  of  Fort  William  Henry,  the  northern  outposts 
of  the  British  were  abandoned,  and  the  frontier  left  open  to  the 
ravages  and  raids  of  the  savages  and  the  Canadians. 

March    loth,    1758,   Major  Robert   Rogers,    the   Ranger,   with 

'Col.    Montresor,   who   served  in  America   from    1757  until   1760,   makes 
several  allusions  to  the  "Half-Way"  in  his  Journals  covering  that  period. 
'This  is  the  generally  accepted  local  usage  of  the  name. 


174  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

about  one  hundred  and  eighty  rangers,  officers  and  privates,  camped 
at  the  "  Half-Way,"  the  first  considerable  body  of  men  to  occupy 
it  in  the  campaign  of  that  year.  From  here  he  proceeded  down 
Lake  George,  meeting  with  disaster  and  defeat  at  the  hands  of 
seven  hundred  of  the  enemy,  three  days  afterward. 

June  8th,  1758,  Lord  Howe,  the  pride  and  idol  of  the  army 
and  his  nation,  a  nobleman  by  birth  and  nature,  took  command  of 
the  forces,  which  for  weeks  'had  been  gathering  at  Ford  Edward. 
On  June  20th  we  find  him  at  the  "  Half- Way  Brook  "  with  three 
thousand  men.  It  is  supposed  that  this  body  of  soldiers  camped 
on  what  is  still  known  as  the  "  Garrison  Grounds,"  situated  on  the 
south  bank  of  the  "  Half- Way  Brook,"  and  about  midway  between 
the  old  Champlin  place  and  DeLong's  brickyard.  A  branch  road 
led  from  the  "  Garris'on  Grounds  "  to  the  block  house  (back  of 
the  Parker  residence)  and  crossed  the  brook  a  little  way  below 
the  present  highway  bridge.  This  was  the  spot  selected  for  a 
"  post "  by  Col.  Montresor  the  year  before,  and  partially  laid  out 
at  that  time.  Here  for  two  days  Lord  Howe  remained,  until  he 
received  reports  from  Major  Rogers  and  his  scouts  of  the  disposi- 
tion of  the  enemy's  forces.  We  can  imagine  him  as  usual  engaged 
in  the  rough  frontier  sports  of  wrestling,  jumping,  shooting  at  a 
mark,  and  the  like ;  instructing  the  regulars  in  ranger  and  New 
World  tactics,  and  proving  himself  in  every  way  the  leading  spirit 
and  good  genius  of  the  camp.  Here  no  doubt  he  met  Stark,  Put- 
nam and  other  Colonials  who  later  were  to  be  leaders  in  the  war  for 
liberty.  On  the  22nd  this  part  of  the  army  moved  to  the  lake,  and 
was  shortly  joined  by  General  Abercrombie  and  the  rest  of  the 
troops,  making  a  grand  army  of  fifteen  thousand,  which  was  soon 
to  go  to  disaster  and  defeat  before  the  rude  earth  breastworks  and 
felled  trees  at  Ticonderoga,  Abercrombie's  defeat  occurred  July 
8th,  1758,  and  he  quickly  returned  to  the  head  of  the  lake  and 
strongly  entrenched  his  forces  for  the  balance  of  the  season, 

A  number  of  diaries  and  journals  of  the  New  Englanders"  in 
the  Campaign  have  been  preserved  and  published,  and  from  these, 
although  brief  and  illiterate  in  form,  we  gain  an  excellent  idea  of 
the  events  of  that  period.  The  Colonial  soldiery,  looked  down 
upon  by  the  British  officers,  were  forced  to  perform  the  drudgery 
and  manual  labor  necessary  in  building  and  fortifying  the  camp,. 


THE    HALF-WAY    BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  1 75 

constructing  its  ditches  and  breastworks,  and  throwing  up  its  de- 
fenses. Incidentally  it  may  be  said,  it  was  the  contemptuous  treat- 
ment accorded  the  New  England  troops  in  this  and  succeeding 
campaigns,  which  made  the  people  of  that  section  so  ready  to  throw 
off  the  British  yoke  later  on.  When  not  doing  this  work  they 
were  compelled  to  act  as  wagoners,  drivers,  carpenters,  road  mak- 
ers, and  the  like.  These  various  diaries  speak  in  many  places  of 
work  of  this  menial  character  (for  which  these  men  had  not  en- 
listed, and  apparently  did  not  care  for),  at  and  about  "  Half- Way 
Brook."  General  Putnam  in  his  Journal  says,  "  During  our  stay 
at  the  lake,  after  our  return  from  Ticonderoga,  we  were  employed 
in  almost  everything."  The  Journal  of  an  unknown  Provincial 
Officer  (see  note),  says,  under  date  of  July  15th,  "  Nothing  worth 
notice  this  day  but  working  and  duty  came  on  harder  by  orders  from 
head-quarters."  Both  these  journals  mention  a  "  Sunday  off  "  from 
work  as  a  great  treat  and  a  rarity. 

From  the  25th  of  May  until  the  22nd  of  October,  when  the 
fortifications  were  dismantled  and  abandoned  by  General  Aber- 
crombie  at  the  head  of  the  lake,  Lieut.  Thompson,  according  to 
his  diary,  was  on  constant  duty,  either  ait  the  "  Half- Way  Brook  " 
with  a  picquet  guard,  or  at  the  lake.  The  daily  life  and  work  of 
the  soldiers  is  given  in  his  diary  in  detail.  It  also  gives  the  names 
of  a  number  of  people  who  died  from  disease  and  were  buried  at 
the  "  Half -Way  Brook."  He  describes  the  leturn  of  the  English 
and  Colonials  from  Ticonderoga,  and  under  date  of  July  8th,  be- 
ing at  the  head  of  the  lake  that  day,  there  is  the  following  entry 
in  his  book : 

"  Saturday,  Post  came  from  the  Narrows ;  and  they  broug'ht 
Lord  How  to  ye  Fort,  who  was  slain  at  their  landing;  and  in  ye 
afternoon  there  came  in  100  and  odd  men,  French  prisoners  into 
the  Fort."  These  were  Langy's  men  captured  at  the  fatal  Trout 
Brook  skirmish. 

This  testimony  by  an  eye  witness  would  go  far  to  disprove  the 

"Among  these  may  be  mentioned  the  Journals  of  Rufus  Putnam,  cousin 
of  Israel  Putnam,  and  afterwards  a  Revolutionary  General ;  the  "  Diary  of 
Lieut.  Samuel  Thompson,  of  Woburn,  Mass."  (for  which  I  am  indebted  to 
Dr.  Sherman  Williams,  of  Glens  Falls)  ;  the  Journal  of  an  Unknown  Pro- 
vincial Officer  in  Col.  Preble's  Regiment  of  Massachusetts;  "The  Memoirs 
of  John   Stark,"   and   "  Rogers'   Journals." 


176  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

theory  of  recent  times,  that  Lord  Howe's  remains  had  been  discov- 
ered at  Trout  Brook ;  and  it  tends  to  confirm  the  statements  of  old- 
er historians,  that  his  remains  were  probably  taken  to  Aibany  fof 
burial. 

On  July  20th  occurred  one  of  the  many  skirmishes  for  which 
the  "  Half-Way  Brook "  is  noted.  One  of  the  several  scouting 
parties  sent  out  by  Montcalm  to  attack  and  harass  the  soldiers  and 
convoys  on  the  "  Lidius  "  (Fort  Edward)  road  and  to  take  scalps 
and  provisions,  made  one  of  their  usual  hawk-like  descents,  falling 
upon  Col.  Nichol's  regiment,  then  quartered  at  the  "  Half-Way 
Brook  "  block  house.  Pouchet  says,  the  detachment,  five  hundred 
in  number,  was  made  up  of  Canadians  and  Indians,  commanded  by 
M.  de  Courte-Manche,  and  that  it  succeeded  in  taking  twenty-four 
scalps  and  making  ten  prisoners.  Only  the  Indians'  impatience 
prevented  a  complete  massacre  of  the  troops  in  the  block  house. 
Regarding  this  affray  I  quote  the  following  in  full  from  the  Thomp- 
son Diary,  as  it  gives  the  names  of  the  officers  and  men  killed  in 
this  skirmish. 

"  20 — Thursday,  in  the  morning,  10  men  in  a  scout  waylaid  by 
the  Indians  and  shot  at  and  larmed  the  Fort,  and  a  number  of  our 
men  went  out  to  assist  them,  and  the  enemy  followed  our  men  down 
to  our  Fort,  and  in  their  retreat,  Capt.  Jones  and  Lieut.  Godfrey 
were  killed,  and  Capt.  Lawrence  and  Capt.  Dakin,  and  Lieut,  Cur- 
tis and  Ensn  Davis,  and  two  or  three  non-commissioned  officers 
and  privates,  to  the  number  of  fourteen  men,  who  were  brought 
into  the  Fort,  all  scalped  but  Ensn  Davis,  who  was  killed  within 
20  or  30  rods  from  the  Fort ;  and  there  was  one  grave  dug,  and  all 
of  them  were  buried  together,  the  officers  by  themselves  at  one 
end,  and  the  rest  at  the  other  end  of  the  grave ;  and  Mr.  Morrill 
made  a  prayer  at  the  grave,  and  it  was  a  solemn  funeral ;  and  Nath 
Eaton  died  in  the  Fort  and  was  buried ;  and  we  kept  a  very  strong 
guard  that  night  of  100  men.  Haggit  (and)  William  Coggin 
wounded. 

A  list  of  Men's  Names  that  were  killed  in  this  fight: 

Capt.  Ebenezer  Jones  of  Washington    (of  diarist's  company). 

Capt.    (Samuell)    Dakin  of  Sudbury. 

Lieut.   Samuel  Curtice  of  Ditto    (Curtis). 

Private    (William)    Grout  of   do. 

Lieut.   Simon  Godfrey  of  Billerica    (of  diarists  Company). 


THE    HALF-WAY    BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  ^']^ 

Capt.    (Thomas)   Lawrence  of  Groton. 

Corp.  Gould  of  Groton  Gore. 

Private  Abel  Satle   (Sawtell)   of  Groton. 

Private  Eleazer  Eames  of  Groton. 

Do  Stephen  Foster  Do. 

Serg.  Oliver  Wright,  Westford. 

Private  Simon  Wheeler       Do. 

Ensn.  Davis  of  Metheun. 

Sergt.  Russell  of  Concord. 

Private  Abraham   Harden    (Harnden?)    of   Pembroke. 

Private  Pay  son,  of  Rowley. 

Private  (Jonathan)  Patterson,  of  Sudbury. 

We  have  also  an  account  that  there  are  seven  of  our  men  car- 
ried into  Ticonderoga,  which  make  up  the  number  of  those  that 
were   missing." 

"21 — Friday,  in  ye  afternoon,  a  party  of  about  150  went  out 
to  find  more  men  that  were  missing,  and  we  found  4  men  who 
were  scalped,  and  we  buried  them,  and  so  returned ;  and  at  prayer 
this  evening  we  were  laromed  by  a  false  outcry.  Nicholas  Brown 
died  and  was  hurried ;  and  Moses  Haggit  died." 

This  account  thus  corroborates  in  detail  the  French  official  dis- 
patches and  Pouchet's  description  of  the  attack. 

Under  date  of  Friday,  July  28th,  Lieut.  Thompson,  who  that 
day  had  been  down  towards  the  Narrows,  "  to  peal  bark  for  to 
make  camp,"  returned  to  Lake  George  and  says :  "  In  the  evening 
there  came  news  that  the  Indians  had  killed  a  number  of  teams  and 
their  guard  below  ye  Halfway  Brook,  and  there  was  a  scout  fitting 
to  go  after  them." 

As  this  massacre  to  which  the  Thompson  Diary  so  briefly  re- 
fers, is  probably  the  most  important  event  which  took  place  at  the 
"Half-Way  Brook,"  we  quote  fully  from  Holden's  History  of 
Queensbury,  concerning  it: 

"  On  Thursday  the  twenty-seventh  of  July,  a  detachment  of 
four  hundred  men,  consisting  of  Canadians  and  Indians,  under  the 
command  of  M.  St.  de  Luc  la  Corne,  a  French-Colonial  officer, 
attacked  an  English  force  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  consisting 
of  teamsters  and  an  escort  of  soldiers,  while  on  their  way  from  the 
station  at  the  Half-Way  Brook,  to  the  Camp  at  the  head  of  the 
lake.  The  account  here  given  is  as  nearly  as  can  be  remembered 
in  the  language  of  a  Mr.  Jones  of  Connecticut,  who  was  a  member 
of  Putnam's  company  which  arrived  on  the  ground  soon  after  the 
afiFrav  took  place.      in  the  year  1822  he  related  the  circumstances 


17^  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

as  here  recorded,  to  the  late  Herman  Peck  of  Glens  Falls,  while 
on  a  visit  to  Connecticut.  It  is  from  Mr.  Peck  that  I  obtained  the 
narrative,  which  corresponds  so  completely  with  the  French  ver- 
sion of  the  affair  that  there  can  be  no  question  whatever  as  to  its 
general  accuracy  and  reliability, 

"  A  baggage  train  of  sixty  carts,  loaded  with  flour,  pork,  wine, 
rum,  etc.,  each  cart  drawn  by  two  to  three  yoke  of  oxen,  accom- 
panied by  an  unusually  large  escort  of  troops,  was  despatched  from 
Fort  Edward  to  the  head  of  Lake  George  to  supply  the  troops  of 
General  Abercrombie,  who  lay  encamped  at  that  point.  This 
party  halted  for  the  night  at  the  stockade  post  at  the  Half-Way 
Brook.  As  they  resumed  their  march  in  the  morning,  and  before 
the  escort  had  fairly  cleared  the  picketed  enclosure,  they  were  sud- 
denly attacked  by  a  large  party  of  French  and  Indians  which  laid 
concealed  in  the  thick  bushes  and  reeds  that  bordered  the  stream, 
and  lined  the  road  on  both  sides,  along  the  low  lands  between  the 
block  house  and  the  Blind  rock. 

"  The  night  previously  to  this  ambuscade  and  slaughter,  Put- 
nam's Company  of  rangers  having  been  to  the  lake  to  secure  sup- 
plies, encamped  at  the  flats  near  the  southern  spur  of  the  French 
mountain.  In  the  early  morning  they  were  aroused  from  their 
slumbers  by  the  sound  of  heavy  firing  in  a  southerly  direction,  and 
rolling  up  their  blankets  they  sprang  to  their  arms  and  hastened 
rapidly  forward  to  the  scene  of  action,  a  distance  of  about  four 
miles.  They  arrived  only  in  time  to  find  the  slaughtered  car- 
casses of  some  two  hundred  and  fifty  oxen,  the  mangled  remains 
of  the  soldiers,  women  and  teainsters,  and  the  broken  fragments 
of  the  two  wheeled  carts,  which  constituted  in  that  primitive  age 
the  sole  mode  of  inland  transportation. 

"  The  provisions  and  stores  had  been  plundered  and  destroyed. 
Among  the  supplies  was  a  large  number  of  boxes  of  chocolate 
which  had  been  broken  open  and  their  contents  strewed  upon  the 
ground,  which  dissolving  in  the  fervid  heat  of  the  summer  sun, 
mingled  with  the  pools  and  rivulets  of  blood  forming  a  sickening 
and  revolting  spectacle.  The  convoy  had  been  ambushed  and  at- 
tacked immediately  after  leaving  the  protection  of  the  stockade 
post,  and  the  massacre  took  place  upon  the  flats,  between  the  Half- 


THE    HALF-WAY    BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  I79 

Way  Brook,  and  the  Blind  rock,  or  what  is  more  commonly  known 
at  the  present  day  as  the  Miller  place. 

"  Putnam  with  his  command,  took  the  trail  of  the  marauders, 
which  soon  became  strewed  with  fragments  of  plunder  dropped  by 
the  rapidly  retreating  savages,  who  succeeded  in  making  their  es- 
cape, with  but  little  loss  of  life.  The  Provincials  unable  to  catch 
up  with  the  savages,  returned  immediately  to  the  scene  of  the 
butchery,  where  they  found  a  company  from  Fort  Edward  en- 
gaged in  preparing  a  trench  for  the  interment  of  the  dead. 

"  Over  one  hundred  of  the  soldiers  composing  the  escort  were 
slain,  many  of  whom  were  recognized  as  officers,  from  their  uni- 
forms, consisting  in  part  of  red  velvet  breeches.  The  corpses  of 
twelve  females  were  mingled  with  the  dead  bodies  of  the  soldiery. 
All  the  teamsters  were  supposed  to  have  been  killed.  While  the 
work  of  burial  was  going  forward  the  rangers  occupied  themselves 
in  searching  the  trails  leading  through  the  dense  underbrush  and 
tangled  briars  which  covered  the  swampy  plains.  Several  of  the 
dead  were  by  this  means  added  to  the  already  large  number  of  the 
slain.  On  the  Siide  of  one  of  these  trails,  the  narrator  of  these 
events  found  the  corpse  of  a  woman  which  had  been  exposed  to 
the  most  barbarous  indignities  and  mutilations,  and  fastened  in  an 
upright  position  to  a  sapling  which  had  been  bent  over  for  the 
purpose.  All  of  the  bodies  had  been  scalped,  and  most  of  them 
mangled  in  a  horrible  manner. 

"  One  of  the  oxen  had  no  other  injury,  than  to  have  one  of  its 
horns  cut  off.  This  they  were  obliged  to  kill.  Another  ox  had 
been  regularly  scalped.  This  animal  was  afterwards  driven  to  the 
lake,  where  it  immediately  became  an  object  of  sympathy  and  at- 
tention of  the  whole  army.  By  careful  attendance  and  nursing,  the 
wound  healed  in  the  course  of  the  season.  In  the  fall  the  animal 
was  driven  down  to  the  farm  of  Col.  Schuyler,  near  Albany,  and 
the  following  year  was  shipped  to  England  as  a  curiosit)'.  Far 
and  wide  it  was  known  as  '  the  scalped  ox.'  The  bodies  of  the 
dead  were  buried  in  a  trench  near  the  scene  of  the  massacre,  a  few 
rods  east  of  the  picketed  enclosure. 

"  The  French  version  of  the  affair,  states  the  oxen  were  killed, 
the  carts  burned,  the  property  pillaged  by  the  Indians,  the  barrels 
of  liquor  destroyed,  one  hundred  and  ten  scalps  secured,  and  eighty- 


l8o  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

four  prisoners  taken ;  of  these  twelve  were  women  and  girls.  The 
escort  which  was  defeated  consisted  of  forty  men  commanded  by 
a  lieutenant  who  was  taken.  The  remainder  of  the  men  who  were 
killed  or  taken  prisoners  consisted  of  wagoners,  sutlers,  traders, 
women  and  children." 

The  loss  of  this  convoy  was  keenly  felt  by  the  English.  Gen- 
eral Abercrombie  lost  some  baggage  and  effects,  and,  according  to 
the  French  reports,  his  music  as  well.  He,  as  soon  as  possible, 
sent  Rogers  and  his  body  of  Rangers  across  country  to  try  and 
intercept  the  marauders  before  they  reached  Lake  Champlain. 
Rogers  was  too  late  to  accomplish  his  purpose,  and  on  his  way 
back  he  fell  into  an  ambush  near  Fort  Ann,  about  a  mile  from 
"Clear  River"  (or  the  Half-Way),  on  August  8th,  and  was  badly 
defeated  by  M.  Marin  and  his  force  of  three  hundred  Regulars, 
Canadians  and  Indians.  In  this  fight,  Israel  Putnam  was  taken 
prisoner,  but  was  later  released  from  captivity  through  the  inter- 
cession of  Col.  Schuyler." 

This  massacre  was  the  cause  of  a  permanent  guard  of  about 
eight  hundred  men  being  stationed  at  'the  "  Half-Wiay  Brook," 
which  is  referred  to  in  the  Thompson  Diary  under  date  of  August 
1st,  he  being  one  of  the  eighty  out  of  Col.  Nichol's  regiment  who 
were  ordered  on  duty  at  that  spot.  And  from  that  time  until  the 
close  of  the  campaign  late  in  the  fall,  the  road  between  Lake  George 
and  the  "  Half-Way  Brook,"  and  Fort  Edward  and  the  same  point, 
was  constantly  patrolled  by  detachments  from  the  two  forts,  prac- 
tically putting  an  end  to  further  assaults  and  surprises. 

The  diaries  of  those  days  show  that,  as  yet,  the  temperance 
idea  half  a  century  or  so  afterward  to  arise  in  this  locality,  had  no 
place  among  the  hard  drinking,  hard  swearing,  and  hard  fighting 
men  of  that  period,  as  these  extracts  from  the  Thompson  Journal 
prove : 

''August  28,  Monday :  Certified  that  Cape  Breton  was  taken,  and 
63  cannon  shot  at  Fort  Edward  and  small  arms.     In  joy  we  made 

"^  For  other  and  corroboratory  original  accounts  of  the  attacks  of  July 
20th  and  27th  see  French  despatches  in  Col.  Doc.  N.  Y.,  Vol.  X,  pp.  750,816, 
817,849,850,  and  English  reports  in  Watson's  Essex,  pp.  96,  97;  Pouchot's 
Memoirs,  Vol.  i,  p.  123;  Rogers'  Journals,  p.  117;  Putnam's  Journals,  pp.  72- 
7:i;  Sewall's  Wobum,  Mass.,  pp.  550,  551,  552,  553;  Dawson's  Hist.  Mag, 
Aug.,  1871,  pp.  117,  irS;  Cutter's  Putnam,  pp.  96,  97;  Stark's  Memoirs,  pp. 
26,  436.     These  accounts  differ  some  in  details  but  are  alike  in  essentials. 


THE    HALF-WAY    BROOK    IN    HISTORY,  l8l 

a  great  fire,  and  every  soldier  had  a  jill  of  Rum  at  the  Half  Way 
Brook;  and  it  was  a  very  rainy  night. 

"  August  29,  Tuesday :  140  of  us  went  and  made  a  breastwork ; 
and  we  had  a  jill  of  rum;  and  we  had  a  remarkable  drink  of  flip 
this  evening;  a  very  cold  night. 

"Sept.  5,  Tuesday:  I  on  guard;  and  we  earned  half  a  jill  of 
rum  by  making  great  many  bonfires." 

This  diary  tells  of  one  more  attack,  which  seems  to  have  escaped 
the  notice  of  other  historians,  and  is  therefore  inserted  at  this  point. 
Under  date  of  Sept.  9th,  it  says : 

"  Saturday :  the  picquet  guard  went  to  meet  the  teams ;  a  Sar- 
geant  and  four  men  went  forward  to  tell  Half  W^v  Brook  guard 
that  the  picquet  was  coming;  and  the  Indians  shot  the  Sergeant 
and  scalped  him  before  one  man  got  to  him ;  and  then  the  Indians 
ran  away."  "' 

With  the  close  of  the  Abercrombie  Campaign,  and  the  abandon- 
ment of  headquarters  at  Lake  George,  Fort  Edward  became  once 
more  the  northern  outpost  of  Colonial  civilization." 

In  1759,  Sir  Geoffrey  Amherst  was  made  Commander-in-Chief 
of  the  English  forces  in  America.  He  was  a  brave,  able,  but  per- 
haps over-conservative  general,  since  after  his  easy  victory  ovei 
Montcalm's  forces,  he  occupied  himself  more  in  fort  building  than 
in  active  operations  of  warfare,  and  in  following  up  advantages 
gained.  During  this  campaign  the  "  Half-Way  Brook  "  post  was 
first  occupied  in  March,  1759,  by  Rogers,  the  Ranger  (with  his 
scouting  party  of  three  hundred  and  fifty-eight  men,  including  of- 
ficers), who  was  starting  out  to  go  down  Lake  George  on  the  ice 
on  one  of  his  usual  disastrous  spying  expeditions.  In  the  month 
of  May,  troops  and  new  levies  were  beginning  to  assemble  at  Al- 
bany,  under   General   Amherst's   supervision.       While   they   were 

"  In  passing  we  may  say  that  Lieut.  Thompson  returned  home  safely, 
served  at  Concord  and  Lexington,  and,  his  biographer  says,  finally  "became 
one  of  the  most  useful  men  in  the  Town  of  Woburn."  To  him  is  attributed 
the  discovery  of  the  "  Baldwin  Apple,"  and  a  monument  commemorating  this 
gift  to  mankind,  has  been  erected  to  his  memory,  making  applicable  in  pecu- 
liar fashion  Milton's  lines,  "  Peace  hath  her  victories  no  less  renowned  than 
war." 

"  General  Abercrombie,  according  to  documents  in  William  L.  Stone's 
possession,  also  spelled  his  name  "  Abercromby."  Montresor  spells  it  with 
a  "  y,"  but  leading  American  historians  use  the  termination  "  ie." 


1 82  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

being  drilled,  detachments  of  the  regular  forces  were  being  sent 
forward  to  Fort  Edward.  Meanwhile,  Colonel  James  Montresor, 
Engineer-in-Chief,  had  been  charged  with  the  duty  of  drawing  up 
plans  for  fortifications  at  Lake  George,  and  along  the  line  of  march. 
Accordingly  Major  West,  of  his  Majesty's  troops,  with  laborers 
and  mechanics,  was  sent  forward  to  construct  an  intermediate  post 
between  Fort  Edward  and  the  lake.  A  site  was  chosen  near  the 
iormer  "  Garrison  Grounds,"  on  the  south  bank  of  the  "  Half  Way," 
and  a  few  rods  east  of  the  old  military  road.  A  stockaded  fortress 
was  erected,  surrounded  on  three  of  its  sides  by  a  ditch  and  coun- 
terscarp ;  while  the  rear  was  protected  by  an  impassable  swamp 
(now  covered  by  the  Brick  Kiln  Pond),  which  at  that  period  ex- 
isted at  that  point.  This  fortification  was  given  the  name  of  Fort 
Amherst,  in  honor  of  the  then  Commander. 

Major  West  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  small  garrison,  and  the 
post  was  equipped  with  artillery  and  the  necessary  supplies  and 
ammunition.  A  number  of  huts,  barracks  and  log  structures  were 
also  built  here  at  this  time  (whose  sites  were  easily  traceable  in  the 
early  thirties),  some  of  which  were  in  existence  at  the  beginning 
of  the  Revolutionary  War,  and  were  used  by  the  pioneers  of  Queens- 
bury,  as  well  as  the  American  forces  later  on. 

Local  tradition  also  has  it  that  the  block  house  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  brook,  was  then  rebuilt,  enlarged  and  strengthened.  On 
some  old  maps  Fort  Amherst  is  laid  down  as  on  the  site  of  the  old 
block  house,  but  this  is  incorrect. 

In  passing  the  writer  wishes  to  state  that  the  committee  in  charge 
of  the  erection  of  the  memorial  tablets,  have  chosen  to  give  the 
block  house,  back  of  the  Parker  residence,  the  name  of  "  The  Seven 
Mile  Post,"  applied  to  it  in  Knox's  Military  Journal  under  date 
of  June  28,  1759,  and  to  the  fort  on  the  "  brickyard  road,"  now 
called  Glenwood  Avenue,  the  name  of  "  Fort  Amherst."  The  re- 
mains of  the  ditches  on  this  road  were  in  evidence  up  to  the  early 
seventies,  but  in  building  up  and  remaking  the  highway  at  that 
point,  they  were  covered  over  and  no  vestiges  of  them  now  remain. 

General  Rufus  Putnam,  ^at  that  time  orderly  sergeant,  during 
the  month  of  June,  1759,  describes  in  his  Journal  the  forwarding 
of  the  troops  and  supplies  from  Albany,  as  far  as  Fort  Edward, 
where  he  encamped  until  the  i8th,  when  the  regiment  with  which 


THE    HALF-WAY   BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  183 

he  was  connected,  was  marched  to  the  "  Half- Way  Brook,"  where 
they  were  occupied  in  making  roads  and  keeping  the  highway  se- 
cure for  the  passage  of  troops  and  supphes.  Under  the  dates  of  July 
1st  and  4th  he  writes  the  following,  which  is  an  epitome  of  the  events 
going  on  at  that  time : 

"  From  the  time  that  we  came  to  this  place  till  now,  nothing  re- 
markable ;  but  bateaux,  cannon  and  all  kinds  of  stores  carrying  up, 
forces  marching  daily  to  the  Lake  and  duty  exceeding  hard." 

"  The  Artillery  was  carried  from  Fort  Edward  to  Lake  George 
and  was  guarded  by  Col.  Willard's  Regiment  of  the  Massachu- 
setts. There  was  carried  up  1062  barrels  of  powder.  Col.  Mont- 
gomery's Regiment  marched  up  as  a  guard  for  the  Artillery." 

Towards  the  close  of  June  the  army,  amounting  to  six  thou- 
sand men,  came  up  to  the  "  Half-Way,"  and  headed  by  Rogers' 
Rangers,  marched  northward,  "  formed  in  two  columns,"  to  the 
head  of  Lake  George,  where  they  pitched  their  camp,  near  the 
ground  occupied  by  Abercrombie  the  year  before.  The  captures 
of  Forts  Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point,  late  in  July,  and  the  sub- 
sequent surrender  of  Quebec,  brought  in  a  great  degree,  a  peace, 
quiet  and  safety  to  the  northern  frontier  to  which  it  had  long  been 
a  stranger," 

Some  time  between  1759  and  1762,  at  the  period  following  the 
conquest  of  Canada,  General  Amherst  granted  a  permit  to  ona 
Geofifrey  "  Cooper,"  or  Cowper,  as  his  name  is  spelled  in  Colonel 
Montresor's  Journal,  to  whom  he  was  a  sort  of  messenger  or  ser- 
vant, to  occupy  the  small  post  at  "  Half-Way  Brook,"  between 
Fort  Edward  and  Lake  George,  for  the  preservation  of  the  bar- 
racks, etc.,  that  had  been  erected  there,  and  for  the  convenience 
of  travelers.  General  Amherst,  according  to  his  despatches, 
deemed  it  unnecessary  after  the  reduction  of  Canada,  to  leave  a 
garrison  at  that  post.  This  Cowper  was  probably  the  first  white 
inhabitant  of  the  town  of  Queensbury.  According  to  tradition,  he 
was  originally  a  seafaring  man.  He  resided  here  several  years, 
and,  in  the  town  records,  his  name  appears  as  having  been  elected 
to  the  office  of  Assessor  at  the  first  town  meeting  held  1766. 

"According  to  the  Montresor  Journals,  the  "Half-Way  Post  was  occu- 
pied by  small  detachments  of  guards  as  late  as  November,  1759,  when  the 
various  northern  outposts  were  abandoned  as  usual,  and  troops  withdrawn 
for  the  winter." 


184  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

Hardly  had  the  sounds  of  warfare  died  away,  than  the  pioneer's 
ax  and  saw  were  heard  resounding  among  the  yellow  pines  in  this 
vicinity,  as  clearings  were  made  and  homesteads  started. 

In  September,  1759,  James  DeLancey,  Governor  of  the  Colony 
of  New  York,  issued  a  proclamation  calling  attention  to  the  avail- 
ability for  settlers  of  "  three  Several  Spotts  of  cleared  Ground, 
two  of  them  capable  of  containing  half  a  dozen  Families  each  and 
the  other  not  less  than  twelve."  These  clearings  were  located  on 
the  site  of  the  picket  forts  at  Green's  Bridge,  where  the  Imperial 
Wall  Paper  Mill  now  stands,  at  the  "  Half-Way  Brook,"  which 
was  the  largest  one,  and  near  the  Half- Way  House,  French  Moun- 
tain  (site  of  old  Fort  Williams). 

In  response  to  this  invitation  to  settle  in  the  northern  wilder- 
ness, on  May  20,  1762,  the  Patent  of  Queensbury  was  granted 
to  Daniel  Prindle  and  others,  consisting  of  a  township  of  twenty- 
three  thousand  acres  of  land  lying  on  the  Hudson  River  and  tak- 
ing in  the  three  clearings  heretofore  mentioned.  Part  of  this 
property  was  acquired  by  certain  Quakers  or  Friends,  living  at 
the  Oblong,  in  Dutchess  County,  New  York. 

On  August  28,  1762,  Abraham  Wing,  the  founder  of  the  town 
of  Queensbury,  accompanied  by  a  surveyor,  Zaccheus  Towner, 
made  his  first  visit  to  the  place  which  was  thereafter  to  become 
the  scene  of  his  life  work.  He  stopped  at  the  "  Half-Way  Brook  " 
post  with  Jeffrey  Cowper.  At  this  time  "  The  Town  Plot,"  in 
the  center  of  which  the  memorial  marker  now  stands,  was  sur- 
veyed and  laid  out.  This  consisted  of  a  plot  of  forty-four  ten 
acre  lots,  six  lots  deep  from  north  to  south,  and  eight  lots  deep 
from  east  to  west,  forming  an  oblong  square,  intersected  by  cen- 
tral highways  and  necessary  roads.  The  center  lots  being  re- 
served for  public  buildings.  Here,  the  village  was  to  have  been 
located,  but  it  had  been  ordained  otherwise.  ',The  settlement  was 
made  at  "  The  Falls,"  and  nothing  but  the  name  in  legal  papers  now 
survives  to  show  that  this  was  once  intended  to  be  the  center  of  local 
population. 

In  1763  the  first  attempt  was  made  towards  the  permanent  set- 
tlement of  the  Town  of  Queensbury ;  later  on  the  first  religious, 
structure  in  the  town,  the  original  Friends'  church,  was  erected 
of  logs  on  the  lot  standing  on  the  southwesterly  side  of  the  "  Half- 


i 


THE    HALF-WAY   BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  1 85 

Way  Brook,"  on  the  Bay  road,  and  here,  also,  was  located  the  first 
burial  place  in  Queensbury.  iHere  the  founders  and  earliest  set- 
tlers of  the  town  were  laid  to  rest,  their  place  of  sepulture  being 
to-day  unmarked  and  unknown. 

During  the  Revolution  the  name  of  the  "  Half-Way  Brook " 
appears  in  the  lime-light  of  history  but  a  few  time^,  although  the 
buildings  still  standing  there  were  doubtless  used  by  the  troops 
passing  to  and  fro  between  Lake  George  and  Fort  Edward,  till  the 
time  of  the  Burgo>Tie  Ckmipaign.  There,  too,  was  located  a  ford 
for  watering  horses  and  cattle,  which  was  in  use  up  to  the  present 
century. 

According  to  William  L.  Stone,  the  well-known  historical 
writer  and  authority,  General  Burgoyne  detached  Baron  Riedesel 
with  three  battaHons  to  *'  John's  Farm  between  Forts  George  and 
Edward,"  in  order  to  keep  open  the  roadway  between  the  two 
places,  and  also  to  look  after  and  progress  the  provisions,  stores 
and  supplies  from  Lake  George  to  Fort  Edward,  preparatory  to 
Burgoyne's  advance  south.  In  Baron  Riedesel's  Memoirs,  he 
states  that  "  in  that  place  he  was  completely  cut  off  from  the  army, 
so  he  entrenched  himself  in  a  strongly  fortified  camp  so  that  he 
might  be  able  to  defend  himself  to  the  last  man." 

The  place  of  his  encampment  has  been  quite  definitely  fixed  by 
Dr.  Holden,  Mr.  Stone  and  the  late  Judge  William  Hay,  one  of 
the  best  of  authorities  on  local  matters,  as  having  been  on  the  site 
of  the  old  "  Half- Way  "  block  house,  heretofore  spoken  of,  on  the 
north  of  the  brook  and  the  fortified  camp  at  the  "  Garrison 
Grounds  "  on  the  opposite  or  south  side  of  the  stream.  Here  they 
remained  until  the  nth  of  September,  when  the  camp  was  broken 
up  and  the  march  southward  begun. 

After  the  seizure  of  Fort  Edward  by  General  Stark  and  his 
command,  a  fortified  camp  commanding  the  Lake  George  road 
was  constructed  by  the  Americans  in  the  vicinity  of  Glens  Falls, 
cutting  off  the  possibility  of  a  retreat  by  Burgoyne  to  the  north- 
ward. William  L.  Stone,  in  his  "  Burgoyne's  Campaign,"  says : 
"  This  was  located  on  the  site  of  Fort  Amherst."  The  Marquis 
de  Chastelleux  in  his  travels  also  speaks  of  this  camp  as  follows: 
"  On  leaving  the  valley  and  pursuing  the  road  to  Lake  George  is 
a  tolerable  military  position  which  was  occupied  in  the  war  before 


1 86  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

last.  It  is  a  sort  of  an  entrenched  camp,  adapted  to  abatis,  guard- 
ing the  passage  from  the  woods  and  commanding  the  valleys."  ^ 

Assuming  that  this  was  the  spot  in  question,  the  "  Half- Way 
Brook  "  post  was  a  factor  in  bringing  on  the  surrender  at  Saratoga, 
for  Burgoyne's  Council  of  War,  held  Oct.  13,  1777,  on  being  in- 
formed "  that  the  enemy  was  entrenched  at  the  fords  of  Fort  Ed- 
ward and  likewise  occupied  the  strong  position  on  the  Pine  Plains 
between  Fort  George  and  Fort  Edward,"  decided  a  retreat  was  im- 
possible and  an  honorable  capitulation  should  be  considered. 

According  to  Art.  IX  of  the  Saratoga  "  Convention,"  "  All  Ca- 
nadians and  persons  connected  with  the  Canadian  Establishment," 
"Independent  Companies"  (which  included  the  Tories)  and  mis- 
cellaneous followers  of  the  army  were  to  be  conducted  by  the  short- 
est route  to  the  first  British  post  on  Lake  George,  under  the  same 
conditions  of  surrender  as  the  regular  troops.  Pursuant  to  this 
agreement,  soon  after  the  capitulation  on  the  morning  of  October 
17th,  the  defeated  Royalists,  under  escort  of  a  guard  of  American 
soldiers,  were  marched  to  the  "  Half-Way  Brook  "  on  their  way  to 
Canada,  and  from  there  allowed  to  pursue  their  journey  to  their 
homes  unmolested." 

During  1780,  the  old  military  road  was  infested  with  roving 
bands  of  Tories  and  Indians.  The  last  massacre  of  which  history 
has  record  occurred  in  June  or  July  of  this  year,  when  a  man  by 
the  name  of  Koon,  from  Kingsbury,  and  three  laborers,  on  their 
w^ay  to  Fort  George,  were  found  dead  and  scalped  on  the  highway 
near  the  "  Half-Way  Brook."  " 

In  the  fall  of  1780,  Major  Christopher  Carleton  of  the  29fch 
Regiment,  with  about  twelve  hundred  men,  regulars,  Tories  and 
Indians,  made  his  historic  raid  through  Kingsbury  and  Queens- 
bury,  capturing  Fort  Ann  on  the  loth  of  October,  and  Fort  George 
on  the  following  day.  At  this  time,  all  the  buildings  and  struc- 
tures in  Kingsbury  and  Oueensbury,  in  the  path  of  the  raid,  were 
destroyed  by  fire  by  the  enemy,  causing  1780  to  go  down  in  local 
annals  as  "  the  year  of  the  great  burning." 

In  order  to  speedily  reach   Fort  George,   Major   Carleton  led 

"  Stone's  Burgoyne,  pp.  92,  343,  344. 

"  Public  Papers  Gov.  George  Clinton,  Vol.  IX,  pp.  421,  422. 

"  Holden's  Queensbury,  p.  477. 


THE    HALF-WAY   BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  1 87 

his  forces  from  Kingsbury  Street  directly  across  country,  through 
the  then  existing  road'"  entering  the  Lake  George  highway  near 
the  "  Half- Way  Brook  "  post.  Thus  intimately  connecting  this 
spot  once  more  with  the  stirring  events  of  that  time, 

Holden's  History  of  Queensbury  states  that  lohabod  Merritt, 
son-in-law  of  Abraham  Wing,  the  founder,  and  father  of  Joseph, 
the  first  white  child  born  in'  this  town,  erected  the  first  frame  house 
in  Queensbury,  on  one  of  the  sections  of  the  Town  Plot,  near  the 
*■  Half-Way  Brook,"  which  was  burned  at  this  time. 

Connected  in  a  way  with  Che  history  of  the  "  Half- Way  Brook," 
is  the  battle  which  took  place  at  Fort  Ann  July  8,  1777,  between 
the  Americans  under  Colonel  Long  and  the  9th  British  Regiment 
of  Burgoyne's  army.  The  scene  of  this  affair  is  located  only 
three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  point  where  the  "  Half-Way 
Brook  "  enters  Wood  Creek  at  Fort  Ann  village,  and  the  semi-suc- 
cessful fight  put  up  by  Long's  forces,  was  one  of  the  first  serious 
interferences  which  Burgoyne  received  in  his  plan  of  campaign." 

After  this  period  the  name  of  the  "  Half-Way  Brook "  prac- 
tically disappears  from  the  domain  of  national  history  and  enters 
the  field  occupied  by  the  local  historian.'"     In  August,  1783,  while 

"  See  Gov.  Tryon's  Map  Vol.  ,  Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  also  Holden's  Hist. 
Queensbury,  page  479. 

"  One  of  the  Trustees  of  this  Association,  E.  J.  West,  informs  me  that 
in  1858  William  Welles  erected  a  marble  monument  on  the  south  end  of 
Battle  Hill  to  commemorate  this  battle.  This  was  destroyed  by  an  act  of 
vandalism  about  1870.  Lately  the  Fort  Ann  "Grange"  has  set  on  foot  a 
project  to  erect  another  monument  in  place  of  the  former  marker.  It  would 
seem  to  be  proper  and  fitting  for  this  Association  to  encourage  and  forward 
this  movement  in  every  possible  way. 

'"Topographically,  the  "Half-Way  Brook"  in  any  State  but  New  York, 
with  its  abundant  streams  and  superior  water  power,  would  be  entitled  to 
and  receive  the  name  of  river.  Owing  to  its  size  and  the  large  territory 
which  it  traverses,  it  was  in  the  early  days  of  the  country,  of  great  service 
commercially  in  building  up  this  section  of  the  State.  Among  the  more  im- 
portant of  the  older  enterprises  on  its  banks  was  Forbes  and  Johnson's  Forge 
in  181 1,  for  making  plough-shares,  situated  on  the  Forge  Pond,  an  expansion 
of  the  "Half-Way,"  one  and  a  half  miles  west  of  Glens  Falls;  Jeremiah 
Briggs'  Grist  and  Saw  ]\Iills,  at  what  is  now  the  Brickyard,  frequented  from 
far  and  near,  in  the  early  part  of  the  century ;  Champlm's  Tannery  near  the 
south  bank  on  the  Lake  George  road,  and  various  saw  mills,  a  woolen  mill, 
and  other  manufacturies  which  were  scattered  all  along  the  course  of  the 
"brook  and  its  tributaries,  viz.,  Rocky  Brook,  the  Meadow  Run,  what  was 
then  called  "the  Outlet"  to  the  "Big  Pond"  (now  Glen  Lake),  etc.  It  was 
of  even  greater  commercial  importance  in  the  towns  of  Kingsbury  and  tort 
Ann,  Washington  Countv,  than  in  Warren  County.  Here,  sixty  years  ago, 
were  located  at  Patten's  Mills,  grist  and  saw  mills ;  at  Tripoli,  grist  and  saw 


IO»  NEW    YORK    STATE    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

on  a  journey  of  inspection  of  the  northern  battlefields  and  fortifica- 
tions at  Saratoga,  Fort  Edward,  Lake  George,  Ticonderoga  and 
Crown  Point,^^  General  Washington,  accompanied  by  Governor  Clin- 
ton, General  Alexander  Hamilton,  Colonels  Humphreys  and  Fish, 
halted  for  rest  and  refreshment  at  the  "  Butler  Brook,"  one  of  the 
branches  of  the  "  Half-Way,"  near  the  entrance  to  Crandall  Park, 
and  were  waited  on  by  one  Briggs  at  w'ork  in  a  neighboring  field, 
who  brought  a  cup  and  pail  and  supplied  water  from  the  brook  to 
satisfy  their  thirst.  Two  other  future  Presidents  of  our  country, 
Jefferson  and  Madison,  likewise  passed  through  the  town  in  1791 
to  visit  the  many  scenes  of  historic  interest  at  the  north. 

And  so  we  leave  this  famous  brook,  connected  with  which  are 
the  names  of  many  of  those  brave  men  who  afterward  became  cele- 
brated in  national  fields  of  glory ;  and  bid  adieu  to  the  places  made 
noted  by  the  exploits  of  the  two  Putnams,  Stark,  Schuyler,  Warner, 
Stevens,  Waterbury,  and  a  host  of  lesser  military  Colonial  officers, 
whose  experience,  beginning  on  the  shores  of  this  inland  stream, 
was  to  serve  their  country  in  good  stead  in  the  days  which  were 
to  save  our  land  from  British  thralldom.  To-day,  no  longer  red- 
dened by  the  life-blood   of  English  and  Colonial  of  French  and 

mills,  a  carding  machine  and  trip  hammer  for  making  anchors  and  sleigh 
shoes ;  and  at  Kanes  Falls,  near  Fort  Ann,  with  a  descent  of  seventy-five  feet, 
saw  and  grist  mills,  a  machine  shop  and  carding  machine.  On  the  Podunk 
branch  of  the  "  Half- Way  "  was  located  Anchorville,  where  there  was  a  saw 
mill,  plaster  mill,  clover  seed  mill,  some  carding  machines,  a  large  tannery, 
three  forges  and  anchor  shops.  In  later  times  there  was  situated  at  Kanes 
Falls  a  silex  mill,  also  a  woolen  mill.  The  abundant  water  power  at  this 
place  has  in  these  latter  days,  been  made  use  of  by  the  Kanes  Falls  Pulp 
Company,  for  the  manufacture  of  that  commodity.  At  the  present  time  the 
principal  business  enterprises  on  the  "  Half- Way "  in  Warren  County,  are 
extensive  brickyards,  about  a  mile  from  the  site  of  the  old  fort,  three  saw 
mills  and  two  cider  mills.  In  Washington  County  at  Patten's  Mills,  there 
is  a  grist  mill,  and  at  Griswold's  Mills,  a  saw  mill  and  a  grist  mill.  On  the 
"  branch  "  at  West  Fort  Ann,  is  located  a  planer  and  cider  mills.  Owing 
to  its  width  and  the  overflow  of  its  banks  in  spring  and  fall,  it  is  necessary 
that  the  brook  be' spanned  by  substantial  bridges.  In  both  Warren  and 
Washington  Counties  strong  iron  structures  have  replaced  the  old-fashioned 
wooden  bridges,  which  were  so  common  in  road-making  but  a  few  years 
ago.  In  Washington  County,  there  is  a  bridge  about  seventy  feet  long  near 
Kanes  Falls,  and  at  Fort  Ann  one  in  the  neighborhood  of  fifty  feet  long. 
(Acknowledgments  are  due  to  Geo.  M.  Mead,  Glens  Falls,  for  information 
contained  in  this  note.  See  Trans.  N.  Y.  S.  Agri.  Socy.  1849,  p.  942,  for 
further  facts.) 

"W.  L.  Stone's  Reminiscences  of  Saratoga,  p.  14;  Irving's  Washington, 
Holly  Ed.,  pp.   17,  18. 


THE    HALF-WAY    BROOK    IN    HISTORY.  1 09 

Indian,  the  "  Half-Way  "  runs  a  clear  and  peaceful  stream  through 
copse  and  thicket,  field  and  meadow,  swamp  and  swale ;  turning, 
as  it  goes,  the  wheels  of  industrial  progress  in  many  a  village  and 
hamlet,  and  doing  its  appointed  work  in  the  upbuilding  of  our 
national  prosperity.  At  last,  merged  in  the  yellow  waters  of  Wood 
Creek,  it  flows  into  the  green  depths  of  Lake  Champlain,  and  then 
into  the  broad  reaches  of  the  St.  Lawrence ;  but  before  losing  its 
identity  in  the  surging  waters  of  the  North  Atlantic,  it  laves  the 
frowning  cliflfs  of  Quebec,  thus  forming  a  shimmering  and  living 
band,  which  unites  for  all  time  the  valley  of  the  Holy  Lake  and 
the  Plains  of  Abraham ;  those  two  eventful  spots  where  the  French 
dominion  received  its  first  check  and  final  overthrow,  thus  placing, 
in  the  end,  the  North  American  Continent  forever  under  the  pro- 
gressive control  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  race. 


REPORT  OF  COMMITTEE  ON  MARKING 
HISTORICAL  SPOTS. 


To  the  Members  of  the  New  York  State  Historical  Association : 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Committee  on  Marking  Historical  Spots, 
held  September  9th,  1904,  Dr.  Williams  was  made  Chairman  and 
Mr,  Holden  Secretary  of  the  Committee.  After  discussion  of  the 
matter,  it  was  voted  to  mark  during  1905,  or  as  soon  as  possible 
thereafter,  the  following  spots  of  the  greatest  historical  interest, 
viz.,  "  Half- Way  Brook,  including  Fort  Amherst,"  "  Bloody 
Pond,"  "  the  Burgoyne  Headquarters  at  Sandy  Hill,"  and  the  "  Old 
Fort  at  Fort  Edward."  Judge  Ingalsbe  was  made  a  committee  on 
the  old  "  Burgoyne  House,"  Mr.  Wing  a  committee  on  old  "  Fort 
Edward,"  and  the  matter  of  providing  suitable  inscriptions  for 
"  Half-Way  Brook  "  and  "  Bloody  Pond  "  was  left  to  Dr.  Williams 
and  Mr.  Holden  with  power. 

A  site  for  the  marker  at  Half-Way  Brook  having  been  decided 
on  at  the  intersection  of  Glen  Street  and  Glenw'ood  Avenue,  on 
the  road  to  Lake  George,  a  glacial  bowlder  as  a  base  for  the  tablet 
was  placed  in  position  there  through  the  kindness  and  generosity 
of  Henry  Crandall,  Glens  Falls.  A  legal  title  to  the  spot  was  ob- 
tained, and  the  tablet  ordered  from  W.  J.  Scales,  Glens  Falls.  In 
October,  1905,  the  tablet  was  erected.  It  consists  of  a  dull,  nat- 
ural finish  plate  of  bronze,  and  bears  the  following  inscription : 

HALF-WAY  BROOK. 

So  called  b  ecause  midway  between  Forts  Edward  and 
William  Henry.  From  1755  to  1780  it  was  the  scene  of  many 
bloody  skirmishes,  surprises  and  ambushes.  Here  the  French 
and  Indians  inflicted  two  horrible  massacres  upon  the  English 
and  Colonials.  One  in  the  summer  of  1756  and  the  other  in 
July,  1758. 

FORT  AMHERST. 

A  noted  military  post,  was  midway  between  this  marker  and 
the  brickyard.  Its  site  was  known  locally  as  '  The  Garrison 
Grounds."  The  location  was  used  as  a  fortified  camp  in  1757-58. 
The  fort  was  erected  in  1759.  It  was  occupied  by  the  forces  of 
Baron  Riedesel  in  the  Burgoyne  Campaign  of  1777.  It  was 
burned  in  1780  in  the  Carleton  Raid  at  the  time  of  the  "Northern 
Invasion." 


REPORT    OF    COMMITTEE    ON    MARKING    HISTORICAL    SPOTS.  I9I 

THE  SEVEN  MILE  POST. 

Was  a  block  house  with  a  stockaded  enclosure  which  occu- 
pied the  rise  of  ground  north  of  the  brook  and  west  of  the  road, 
near  the  residence  of  W.  H.  Parker,  from  1755  to  Revolutionary 
times.  During  that  period  it  was  one  of  the  most  important 
halting  places   in   north   America. 

— Erected  1905  By — 
NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION. 

In  this  connection  it  is  only  proper  to  add  to  this  report  that 
a  tablet  for  Bloody  Pond  is  under  way  and  will  be  erected  during 
the  coming  year.  The  expense  of  providing  for  these  tablets  was 
taken  care  of  by  the  following  subscriptions : 

The  Contributors  to  the  Fund  for  Marking  Historic  Spots. 

Henry  Crandall,  F.  B.  Richards, 

William  McEchron,  B.  B.  Fowler, 

Jonathan  Coolidge,  M.  Ames, 

R.  A.  Little,  W.  M.  Haskell, 

J.  L.  Cunningham,  S.  B.  Goodman, 

E.  W.  West,  A.  W.  Sherman, 

Wm.  H.  Robbins,  George  F.  Bayle, 

Sherman  Williams,  S.  T.  Birdsall, 

Samuel  Pruyn,  W.  K.  Bixby. 
J.  A.  Holden, 

At  the  annual  meeting  of  this  Association,  held  in  August,  1905, 
J.  A.  Holden  was  selected  to  prepare  a  historical  sketch  concerning 
Half-Way  Brook,  which  is  herewith  appended. 

For  the  Committee, 

SHERMAN  WILLIAMS,  Chairman. 
J.  A.  HOLDEN,  Secretary. 


PUBLICATIONS  RECEIVED. 


Tourists'  Handbook. 

Rept.  of  Trustees,  Pa.  Soldiers'  &  Sailors'  Home. 

Rept.  of  the  Gettysburg  National  Park  Oommission. 

Regulations  for  the  Government  of  the  Gettysburg  National  Park. 

Officers  of  the  State  Society  of  Cincinnati  of  Georgia,  1790. 

Celebration  Address  of  the  25th  Anniversary  of  the  Loyal  Legion. 

Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Legion. 

Experience  Table  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows. 

Odd  Fellowship,  an  Oration,  40th  Anniversary  of  L  O.  of  O.  F. 

40th  Anniversary  of  Opening  of  Present  Union  League  House. 

Report  of  Valley  Forge  Park  Commission. 

Commandery  of  the  State  of  Penn. 

Rutherford  Birchard  Hayes. 

Gregg's  Cavalry  Fight  at  Gettysburg. 

The  Story  of  '65. 

Brown  University  Catalogue,  1904  and  1905. 

The  Century  Association  Report,  1901. 

Bulletin  of  Brown  University,  1904  and  1905. 

The  Connecticut  Magazine — No.  2. 

Annual  Report  of  the  Connecticut  Historical  Society,  1905. 

Proceedings  of  the  New  Hampshire  Historical  Society,  Part  3,  Vol. 

4. 

A  History  of  Battery  A,  of  St.  Louis — Missouri  Historical  Society. 

Personal  Recollections  of  Gen.  Grant — Missouri  Historical  Society. 

The  Public  Archives  of  New  Jersey,  January  31st,  1905. 

Annual  Report  of  Vineland  Historical  Society. 

The  New  Haven  Historical  Society,  Nov.  1904. 

Chicago  Historical  Society,   1904  and  1905. 

99th  Anniversary  Celebration,  New  England  Society,  1904. 

The  West  Virginia  Historical  Magazine,  Vol.  5,  No.  2. 

Transactions  of  Huguenot  Society  of  South  Carolina,  No.  12. 

Third  Series,  Vol.  VH,  No.  i.  Annals  of  Iowa. 

Third  Series,  Vol.  VII,  No.  2,  Annals  of  Iowa. 


I 


PUBLICATIONS    RECEIVED.  1 93 

The  Essex  Institute  Historical  Collection,  1905.     (Two  Numbers.) 
Ohio  Archaeological  &  Historical  Quarterly,  Vol.  XIV,  Jan.  1905, 

No.  I. 
Ohio  Archaeological  &  Historical  Quarterly,  Vol.  XIV,  Apr.  1905, 

No.  2. 
The  Iowa  Journal  of  History  and  Politics,  Vol.  3,  July,  1905,  No.  2. 
Public  Papers  of  George  Clinton,  ist  Governor  of  New  York,  Vols. 

7  and  8. 
Massachusetts  Soldiers  &  Sailors  of  Revolutionary  War,  Vols,   i 

&2. 

1st,  3d,  7th,  8th,  9th,  loth,  nth,  I2th,  13th,  14th  Biennial  Reports 

of  Kansas  State  Historical  Society. 
Membership  List  Chicago  Historical  So.,  1905  &  1906. 
Proceedings  of  Vermont  Historical  So.,  1903  &  1904. 
Essex    Institute  Historical  Collections,  October,  1905. 
Want    List  1905,  Library  of  Congress. 
History  20th   Kansas   Regiment. 
Directory  Kansas   Historical  Exhibit. 
Kansas  Souvenir. 
Annals  of  Iowa. 

Pennsylvania  Society  Year  Book,  1905. 
99th  Anniversary  New  England  Society. 
Report  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  1905. 


INSIGNIA  OF  THE  NEW  YORK  STATE 
HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION. 


The  Insignia  of  the  Association  consists  of  a  badge,  the  pendant 
of  which  is  circular  in  form,  one  and  three-sixteenths  inches  in 
diameter. 

Obverse :  In  the  centre  is  represented  the  discovery  of  the  Hud- 
son River ;  the  "  Half-Moon  "  is  surrounded  by  Indian  Canoes, 
and  in  the  distance  is  shown  the  Palisades.  At  the  top  is  the  coat- 
of-arms  of  New  Amsterdam  and  a  tomahawk,  arrow  and  Dutch 
sword.  At  the  bottom  is  shown  the  seal  of  New  York  State.  Up- 
on a  ribbon,  surrounding  the  centre  medallion,  is  the  legend :  New 
York  State  Historical  Association,  and  the  dates  1609  and  1899; 
the  former  being  the  date  of  the  discovery  of  New  York,  and  the 
latter  the  date  of  the  founding  of  the  Historical  Association. 

Reverse:    The  Seal  of  the  Association. 

The  badges  are  made  of  14k  gold,  sterling  silver  and  bronze, 
and  will  be  sold  to  members  of  the  Association  at  the  following 
prices : 

14k  Gold,  complete  with  bar  and  ribbon $11.00 

Sterling  Silver,  complete   with  bar   and   ribbon 5.00 

Bronze,   complete   with  bar  and  ribbon 4.00 

Applications  for  badges  should  be  made  to  the  Secretary  of  the 
Association,  Robert  O.  Bascom,  Fort  Edward,  N.  Y.,  who  will 
issue  permit,  authorizing  the  member  to  make  the  purchase  from 
the  official  Jewelers,  J.  E.  Caldwell  &  Co.,  902  Chestnut  Street, 
Philadelphia. 


ARTICLES  OF  INCORPORATION. 


We,  Daniel  C.  Farr,  James  A.  Holden,  and  Elmer  J.  West,  of  Glens 
Falls;  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe,  of  Sandy  Hill,  and  Morris  P.  Ferris,  of  Dobbs 
Ferry,  all  in  the  State  of  New  York,  and  all  of  us  citizens  of  the  United 
States,  have  associated  ourselves  together  in  a  membership  corporation,  and 
do  hereby  make  this  our  certificate  under  the  laws  of  the  State  of  New 
York. 

The  name  of  such  corporation  is  the  "  New  York  State  Historical  Asso- 
ciation." 

The  principal  objects  for  which  said  corporation  is  formed  are: 

First.     To  promote  and  encourage  original  historical  research. 

Second.  To  disseminate  a  greater  knowledge  of  the  early  history  of  the 
State,  by  means  of  lectures,  and  the  publication  and  distribution  of  literature 
on  historical   subjects. 

Third.  To  gather  books,  manuscripts,  pictures,  and  relics  relating  to  the 
early  history  of  the  State,  and  to  establish  a  museum  at  Caldwell,  Lake 
George,  for  their  preservation. 

Fourth.     To   suitably  mark  places  of  historic   interest. 

Fifth.  7"o  acquire  by  purchase,  gift,  devise,  or  otherwise,  the  title  to,  or 
custody  and  control  of,  historic  spots  and  places. 

The  territory  in  which  the  operations  of  this  corporation  are  to  be  prin- 
cipally conducted  is  Warren,  Washington,  Essex,  Clinton,  Saratoga,  and 
Hamilton  counties,  in  the   State  of   Aew  York. 

The  principal  office  of  said  corporation  is  to  be  located  at  Caldwell,  on 
Lake  George,  county  of  Warren,  in  the  State  of  New  York. 

The  number  of  directors  of  said  corporation,  to  be  known  as  the  Board 
of  Trustees,  is  twenty-five. 

The  names  and  residences  of  the  directors  of  said  corporation,  to  hold 
office  until  the  first  annual  meeting,  and  who  shall  be  known  as  the  Board 
C'f  Trustees,  are : 

James   A.    Roberts,  Bufifalo. 

Timothy   L.   Woodrufif,  Brooklyn. 

Daniel  C.   Farr,  Glens   Falls, 

Everett   R.    Sawyer,  Sandy    Hill. 

James  A.   Holden,  Glens   Falls. 

Robert   O.    Bascom,  Fort   Edward. 

Morris    Patterson    Ferris,  Dobbs  Ferry. 

Elwyn    Seelye,  Lake   George. 

Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe,  Sandy   Hill. 


J  96 


NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


Frederick  B.  Richards, 

Anson  Judd  Upson, 
Asahel   R.    Wing, 
William  O.  Stearns, 
Robert  C.   Alexander, 
Elmer  J.   West, 
Hugh    Hastings, 
Pliny     T.    Sexton, 
William  S.  Ostrander, 
Sherman    Williams, 
William   L.    Stone, 
Henry   E.   Tremain, 
William  H.  Tippetts, 
John   Boulton    Simpson, 
Harry  W.  \vatrous, 
Abraham    B.    Valentine, 


Ticonderoga. 
Glens  Falls. 
Fort  Edward. 
Glens   Falls. 
New  York. 
Glens  Falls. 
Albany. 
Palmyra, 
bchuylerville. 
Glens  Falls. 
Mt.  Vernon. 
New  York. 
Lake  George. 
Bolton. 
Hague. 
New   York. 


The  first  meeting  of  the  corporation,  for  the  purpose  of  organization, 
will  be  held  on  the  21st  day  of  March,  1899. 

The  time  for  holding  the  annual  meeting  of  the  said  corporation  will  be 
the  last  Tuesday  in  July  of  each  year. 

In  Witness  Whereof,  We  have  hereunto  severally  subscribed  our  names 
and  affixed  our  seals  this  21st  day  of  March,  in  the  year  one  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  ninetv-nine. 

DANIEL  C.   FARR,  (l.  s.) 

JAMES   A.   HOLDEN,  (l.  s.) 

ELMER  J.   WEbf,  (l.  s.) 

GRENVILLE    M.    INGALSBE,     (l.  s.) 
MORRIS  P.  FERRIS.  (l.  s.) 

State  of  New  York. 
County  of  Warren. 

On  this  2ist  day  of  March,  in  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
ninety-nine,  before  me  personally  appeared  Daniel  C.  Farr,  James  A.  Holden, 
Elmer  J.  West,  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe,  and  Morris  Patterson  Ferris,  to  me 
known  to  be  the  individuals  described  in  and  who  executed  the  foregoing 
articles  of  incorporation,  and  they  duly  severally  acknowledged  to  me  that 
they   executed  the    same. 

E.    T.   JOHNSON, 

[seal.]  Notary  Public. 


CHARTER  OF  NEW  YORK  STATE 
HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION. 


Whereas,  A  petition  for  incorporation  by  the  University  has  been  duly 
received,  containing  satisfactory  statements  made  under  oath  as  to  the  ob- 
jects and  plans  of  the  proposed  corporation,  and  as  to  the  provision  made 
for  needed  buildings,   furniture,   equipment,   and  for  maintenance. 

Therefore,  Being  satisfied  that  all  requirements  prescribed  by  law  or 
University  ordinance  for  such  an  association  have  been  fully  met,  and  that 
public  interests  justify  such  action,  the  Regents  by  virtue  of  the  authority 
conferred  on  them  by  law,  hereby  incorporate  James  A.  Roberts,  Daniel  C. 
Farr,  James  A.  Holden,  Morris  Patterson  Ferris,  Grenville  M.  Ingalsbe, 
Anson  Judd  Upson,  Robert  C.  Alexander,  Hugh  Hastings,  William  S. 
Ostrander,  William  L.  Stone,  William  H.  Tippetts,  Harry  W.  Watrous, 
William  O.  Stearns.  Timothy  L.  Woodruff,  Everett  R.  Sawyer,  Robert  O. 
Bascom.  Elwyn  Seelye,  Frederick  B.  Richards,  Asahel  R.  Wing,  Elmer  J. 
West,  Pliny  T.  Sexton,  Sherman  Williams,  Henry  E.  Tremain,  John  Boul- 
ton  Simpson,  Abraham  B.  Valentine,  and  their  successors  in  office  under  the 
corporate  name  of 

NEW   YORK    STATE   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

Th's  corporation  shall  be  located  at  Caldwell,  Warren  county,  New 
York. 

Its  first  trustees  shall  be  the  twenty-five  above-named  incorporators. 

Its  object  shall  be  to  promote  historical  research,  to  disseminate  knowl- 
edge of  the  history  of  the  State  by  lectures  and  publications,  to  establish  a 
library  and  museum  at  Caldwell,  to  mark  places  of  historic  interest,  and  to 
acquire  custody  or  control  of  historic  places. 

In  Witness  Whereof,  The  Regents  grant  this  charter,  No.   1,245, 
under  seal  of  the  University,  at  the  Capitol  at  Albany,  April  24, 
[seal.]  1899. 

ANSON  JUDD  UPSON.  Chancellor. 
Melvil   Dewey,  Secretary. 


CONSTITUTION. 


ARTICLE   I. 

Name. 

This  Society  shall  be  known  as  "  New  York  State  Historical  Asso- 
ciation." 

ARTICLE   II. 

Objects. 
Its    objects   shall    be: 

First.     To  promote  and  encourage  original  historical  research. 

Second.  To  disseminte  a  greater  knowledge  of  the  early  history  of  the 
State,  by  means  of  lectures  and  the  publication  and  distribution  of  literature 
on  historical  subjects. 

Third.  To  gather  books,  manuscripts,  pictures,  and  relics  relating  to  the 
early  history  of  the  State,  and  to  establish  a  museum  at  Caldwell,  Lake 
George,   for   their  preservation. 

Fourth.     To  suitably  mark  places  of  historic  interest. 

Fifth.  To  acquire  by  purchase,  gift,  devise,  or  otherwise,  the  title  to,  or 
custody  and  control  of,  historic  spots  and  places. 

ARTICLE  in. 

Members., 

Section  i.  Members  shall  be  of  three  classes — Active,  Corresponding, 
and  Honorary.  Active  members  only  shall  have  a  voice  in  the  manage- 
ment of  the  Society. 

Section  2.  All  persons  interested  in  American  history  shall  be  eligible 
for  Active  membership. 

Section  3.  Persons  residing  outside  the  State  of  New  York,  interested 
in  historical   investigation,  may  be  made   Corresponding  members. 

Section  4.  Persons  who  have  attained  distinguished  eminence  as  his- 
torians may  be  made   Honorary  members. 

ARTICLE  IV. 
Management. 
Section  i.     The  property  of  the  Association  shall  be  vested  in,  and  the 
affairs  of  the  Association  conducted  by,  a      Board  of  Trustees  to  be  elected 


CONSTITUTION.  199 

by  the  Association.  Vacancies  in  the  Board  of  Trustees  shall  be  filled  by 
the  remaining  members  of  the  Board,  the  appointee  to  hold  office  until  the 
next  annual  meeting  of  the  Association. 

Section  2.  ihe  Board  of  Trustees  shall  have  power  to  suspend  or  expel 
members  of  the  Association  for  cause,  and  to  restore  them  to  membership 
after  a  suspension  or  expulsion.  No  member  shall  be  suspended  or  ex- 
pelled without  first  having  been  given  ample  opportunity  to  be  heard  in  his 
or  her  own  defense. 

Section  3.  The  first  Board  of  Trustees  shall  consist  of  those  designated 
in  the  Articles  of  Incorporation,  who  shall  meet  as  soon  as  may  be  after 
the  adoption  of  this  Constitution  and  divide  themselves  into  three  classes 
of,  as  nearly  as  may  be,  eight  members  each,  such  classes  to  serve  respect- 
ively, one  until  the  first  annual  meeting,  another  until  the  second  annual 
meeting,  and  the  third  until  the  third  annual  meeting  of  the  Association. 
At  each  annual  meeting  the  Association  shall  elect  eight  or  nine  members 
(as  the  case  may  be)  to  serve  as  Trustees  for  the  ensuing  three  years,  to 
fill  the  places  of  the  class  whose  term  then  expires. 

Section  4.     The    Board   of   Trustees    shall    have   no  power   to   bind   the 

Association   to   any   expenditure    of   money   beyond   the  actual    resources   of 

the  Association  except  by  the  consent  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  expressed 
in  writing  and  signed  by  every  member  thereof. 

ARTICLE  V. 
Officers. 
Section  i.  The  officers  of  the  Association  shall  be  a  President,  three 
Vice-Presidents,  a  Treasurer,  a  Secretary,  and  an  Assistant  Secretary,  all 
of  whom  shall  be  elected  by  the  Board  of  Trustees  from  its  own  number, 
at  its  first  meeting  after  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Association,  and  shall 
hold  office  for  one  year,  or  until  their  successors  are  chosen.  Temporary 
officers  shall  be  chosen  by  the  Incorporators  to  act  until  an  election  as  afore- 
said, by  the  Board  of  Trustees. 

Section  2.  The  Board  of  Trustees  may  appoint  such  other  officers,  com- 
mittees, or  agents,  and  delegate  to  them  such  powers  as  it  sees  fit,  for  the 
prosecution   of   its   work. 

Section  3.  Vacancies  in  any  office  or  committee  may  be  filled  by  the 
Board  of  Trustees. 

ARTICLE  VI. 
Fees  and  Dues. 
Section  i.     Each    person   on   being   elected   to   Active    Membership    shall 
pay  into  the  Treasury  of  the  Association  the  sum  of  two  dollars,  and  there- 
after on  the  first  day  of  January  in  each  year  a  like  sum,  for  his  or  her 
annual  dues. 


200  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

Section  2.  Anj'  member  of  the  Association  may  commute  his  or  her 
annual  dues  by  the  payment  of  twenty-five  dollars  at  one  time,  and  thereby 
become  a  life  member  exempt  from  further  payments. 

Section  3.  Any  member  may  secure  membership  which  shall  descend  to 
a  member  of  his  or  her  family  qualified  under  the  Constitution  and  By-Laws 
of  the  Association  for  membership  therein,  in  perpetuity,  by  the  payment 
at  one  time  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars.  The  person  to  hold  the  mem- 
bership may  be  designated  in  writing  by  the  creator  of  such  membership,  or 
by  the  subsequent  holder  thereof  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Board  of 
Trustees. 

Section  4.  All  receipts  from  life  and  perpetual  memberships  shall  be 
set  aside  and  invested  as  a  special  fund,  the  incom.e  only  to  be  used  for 
current   expenses. 

Section  5.  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Members  and  persons  who 
hold  perpetual  memberships  shall  be  exempt  from  the  payment  of  dues. 

Section  6.  The  Board  of  Trustees  shall  have  power  to  excuse  the  non- 
payment of  dues,  and  to  suspend  or  expel  members  for  non-payment  when 
their  dues  remain  unpaid  for  more  than  six  months. 

ARTICLE  Vn. 

Meetings. 

Section  i.  The  annual  meeting  of  the  Association  shall  be  held  on  the 
last  Tuesday  of  July  'in  each  year.  Notice  thereof  shall  be  sent  to  each 
member  at  least  ten  days  prior  thereto. 

Section  2.  Special  meetings  of  the  Association  may  be  called  at  any 
time  by  the  Board  of  Trustees,  and  must  be  called  upon  the  written  request 
of  ten  members.  The  notice  of  such  meeting  shall  specify  the  object  there- 
of, and  no  business  shall  be  transacted  thereat  excepting  that  designated  in 
the   notice. 

Section  3.  Ten  members  shall  constitute  a  quorum  at  any  meeting  of 
the  Association. 

Section  4.  The  Board  of  Trustees  shall  arrange  for  the  holding  of  a 
series  of  meetings  at  Lake  George  during  the  summer  months,  for  the  read- 
ings of  original  papers  on  history  and  kindred  subjects,  and  for  social  inter- 
course between  the  members  and  their  guests. 

ARTICLE  VIII. 

Seal. 

The  seal  of  the  Association  shall  be  a  group  of  statuary  representing 
the  Mohawk  Chief,  King  Hendrick,  in  the  act  of  proving  to  Gen.  William 
Johnson  the  unwisdom  of  dividing  his  forces  on  the  eve  of  the  battle  of 


I 


CONSTITUTION.  20I 

Lake  George.    Around  this  a  circular  band  bearing  the  legend,  New  York 
State  Historical  Association,   1899. 

ARTICLE  IX. 

Amendments. 

Amendments  to  the  Constitution  may  be  made  at  any  annual  meeting,  or 
at  a  special  meeting  called  for  that  purpose.  Notice  of  a  proposed  amend- 
ment with  a  copy  thereof  must  have  been  mailed  to  each  member  at  least 
thirty  days  before  the  day  upon  which  action  is  taken  thereon. 

The  adoption  of  an  amendment  shall  require  the  favorable  vote  of  two- 
thirds  of  those  present  at  a  duly-constituted  meeting  of  the  Association. 


BY-LAWS. 


ARTICLE   I. 

Members. 

Candidates  for  membership  in  the  Association  shall  be  proposed  by  one 
member  and  seconded  by  another,  and  shall  be  elected  by  the  Board  of  Trus- 
tees.    Three   adverse  votes   shall   defeat  an  election. 

ARTICLE   IL 

Board  of  Trustees. 

Section  i.  The  Board  of  Trustees  may  make  such  rules  for  its  own 
government  as  it  may  deem  wise,  and  which  shall  not  be  inconsistent  with 
the  Constitution  and  By-Laws  of  the  Association.  Five  members  of  the 
Board  shall  constitute  a  quorum  for  the  transaction  of  business. 

Section  2.  The  Board  of  Trustees  shall  elect  one  of  their  own  number 
to  preside  at  the  meetings  of  the  Board  in  the  absence  of  the  President. 

Section  3.  The  Board  of  Trustees  shall  at  each  annual  meeting  of  the 
Association  render  a  full  report  of  its  proceedings  during  the  year  last  past. 

Section  4.  The  Board  of  Trustees  shall  hold  at  least  four  meetings  in 
each  year.  At  each  of  such  meetings  it  shall  consider  and  act  upon  the 
names  of  candidates  proposed  for  membership. 

Section  5.  The  Board  of  Managers  shall  each  year  appoint  committees 
to  take  charge  of  the  annual  gathering  of  the  Association  at  Lake  George. 

ARTICLE  IIL 

President. 
The  President  shall  preside  at  all  meetings  of  the  Association  and  of  the 
Board  of  Trustees,  and  perform  such  other  duties  as  may  be  delegated  to 
him  by  the  Association  or  the  Board  of  Trustees.     He  shall  be  ex-officio  a 
member  of  all  committees. 

ARTICLE  IV. 

Vice-Presidents. 

The  Vice-Presidents  shall  be  denominated  First,  Second,  and  Third 
Vice-Presidents.  In  the  absence  of  the  President  his  duties  shall  devolve 
upon  the  senior  Vice-President  present. 


BY-LAWS.  203 

ARTICLE  V. 

Treasurer. 

Section  i.  The  Treasurer  shall  have  charge  of  all  the  funds  of  the 
Association.  He  shall  keep  accurate  books  of  account,  which  shall  at  all 
times  be  open  to  the  inspection  of  the  Board  of  Trustees.  He  shall  present 
a  full  and  comprehensive  statement  of  the  Association's  financial  condition, 
its  receipts  and  expenditures,  at  each  annual  meeting,  and  shall  present  a 
brief  statement  to  the  Board  of  Trustees  at  each  meeting.  He  shall  pay 
out  money  only  on  the  approval  of  the  majority  of  the  Executive  Commit- 
tee, or  on  the  resolution  of  the  Board  of  Trustees. 

Section  2.  Before  assuming  the  duties  of  his  office,  the  Treasurer-elect 
shall  with  a  surety  to  be  approved  by  the  Board  execute  to  the  Association 
his  bond  m  the  sum  of  one  thousand  dollars,  conditioned  for  the  faithful 
performance  of  his  duties   as   Treasurer. 

Section  3.  The  President  shall,  thirty  days  prior  to  the  annual  meeting 
of  the  Association,  appoint  two  members  of  the  Association  who  shall  ex- 
amine the  books  and  vouchers  of  the  Treasurer  and  audit  his  accounts,  and 
present  their  report  to  the  Association  at  its  annual  meeting. 

ARTICLE  VI. 
Secretary. 
The  Secretary  shall  preserve  accurate  minutes  of  the  transactions  of  the 
Association  and  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  and  shall  conduct  the  correspon- 
dence of  the  Association.  He  shall  notify  the  members  of  meetings,  and 
perform  such  other  duties  as  he  may  be  directed  to  perform  by  the  Asso- 
ciation or  by  the  Board  of  Trustees.  He  may  delegate  any  portion  of  his 
duties  to  the  Assistant   Secretary. 

ARTICLE  VII. 
Executive  Committee. 
The  officers  of  the  Association  shall  constitute  an  Executive  Committee. 
Such  Committee  shall  direct  the  business  of  the  Association  between  meet- 
ings of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  but  shall  have  no  power  to  establish  or 
declare  a  policy  for  the  Association,  or  to  bind  it  in  any  way  except  in  rela- 
tion to  routine  work.  The  Committee  shall  have  no  power  to  direct  a 
greater  expenditure  than  fifty  dollars  without  the  authority  of  the  Board  of 
Trustees. 

ARTICLE  VIII. 
Procedure. 
Section  i.     The  following,  except  when  otherwise  ordered  by  the  Asso- 
ciation,   shall    be    the    order    of    business    at    the    annual    meetings    of    the 
Association : 


204  NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

Call  to  order. 

Reading  of  minutes  of  previous  annual,  and  of  any  special  meeting,  and 
acting  thereon. 

Reports  of  Officers  and  Board  of  Trustees. 

Reports  of  Standing  Committees. 

Reports   of   Special   Committees. 

Unfinished   business. 

Election. 

New  business. 

Adjournment. 

Section  2.  The  procedure  at  all  meetings  of  the  Association  and  of  the 
Board  of  Trustees,  where  not  provided  for  in  this  Constitution  and  By- 
Laws,  shall  be  governed  by  Roberts'  Rules  of  Order. 

Section  3.  The  previous  question  shall  not  be  put  to  vote  at  any  meet- 
ing unless  seconded  by  at  least  three  members. 

Section  4.  All  elections  shall  be  by  ballot,  except  where  only  one  can- 
didate is  nominated  for  an  office. 

Section  5.  All  notices  shall  be  sent  personally  or  by  mail  to  the  address 
designated  in  writing  by  the  member  to  the  Secretary. 

ARTICLE  IX. 
Nominating  Committee. 
A  committee  of  three  shall  be  chosen  by  the  Association  at  its  annual 
meeting,  to  nominate  Trustees  to  be  voted  for  at  the  next  annual  meeting. 
Such  Committee  shall  file  its  report  with  the  Secretary  of  this  Association  - 
at  least  thirty  days  prior  to  the  next  annual  meeting.  The  Secretary  shall 
mail  a  copy  of  such  report  to  every  member  of  the  Association  with  the 
notice  of  the  annual  meeting  at  which  the  report  is  to  be  acted  upon.  The 
action  of  such  Committee  shall,  however,  in  no  wise  interfere  with  the  power 
of  the  Association  to  make  its  own  nominations,  but  all  such  independent 
nominations  shall  be  sent  to  the  Secretary  at  least  twenty  days  prior  to  the 
annual  meeting.  A  copy  thereof  shall  be  sent  to  each  member  by  the  Secre- 
tary with  the  notice  of  meeting,  and  shall  be  headed  "  Independent  Nomina- 
tions." If  the  Nominating  Committee  fails  for  any  reason  to  make  its  report 
so  that  it  may  be  sent  out  with  the  notice  of  the  annual  meeting,  the  Society 
may  make  its  own  nominations  at  such  annual  meeting. 

ARTICLE  X. 

Amendments. 
These  By-Laws  may  be  amended  at  any  duly-constituted  meeting  of  the 
Association  by  a  two-thirds  vote  of  the  members  present.  Notice  of  the 
proposed  amendment  with  a  copy  thereof  must  have  been  mailed  to  each 
member  at  least  twenty  days  before  the  day  upon  which  action  thereon  is 
taken. 


MEMBERS    NEW    YORK    STATE 
HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION. 


HONORARY  MEMBERS. 

*Dr.  Edward  Eggleston,  Joshua's  Rock,  N.  Y. 

E.  M.  Ruttenber,  Newburgh,  N.  Y. 


CORRESPONDING  MEMBER. 

Berthold   Fernow,  Trenton,  N.  J, 


LIFE  MEMBERS. 


W.  K.  Bixby,  Bolton,  N.  Y. 

Mrs.  Marcellus  Hartley,  2^2  Madison  Ave.,  N.  Y.  City. 

Mrs.  Oliver  Livingston  Jones,  116  W.  72d  St.,  N.  Y.  City. 

Mrs.  Horace  See,  50  W.  9th  St.,  N.  Y.  City. 

Gen.  Henry  E.  Tremain,  105  E.  i8th  St.,  N.  Y.  City. 

Dr.  W.  Seward  Webb,  51  E.  44th  St.,  N.  Y.  City. 

*SamueI  P.  Avery,  4  E.  38th  St.,  N.  Y.  City. 

F.  D.  Howland,  Sandy  Hill,  N.  Y. 

Frank  S.  Witherbee,  Port  Henry,  N.  Y. 

Cortland  de  Peyster  Field,  Peekskill,  N.  Y. 
*DeceasecI. 


MEMBERS. 


Abbott,  Rev.  Dr.  Lyman  "  The  Outlook,"  287  Fourth  Ave., 

I         New  York. 

Abrams,  A.  W.  Illion. 

Alexander,  Hon.  D.  S.  Buffalo. 

Allen,  Hiram  Sandy   Hill. 

Ames,  Edgar   M.  Fort 'Edward. 

Applegat€,  Rev.  Dr.  Octavius  Newburgh. 

Arnold,  Hon.  Alvaro  D.  Sandy  Hill. 

Arthur,  Miss  L.  Louise  Woodside. 

Atkins,  Hon.  T.  Astley,  73  Nassau  St.,  N.  Y. 


2o6 


NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


Backus,  Dr.  Truman  J. 
Baker,   Frederick   I. 
Ballard,  W.  J. 
Banker,  Dr.  Silas  J. 
Bascom,  Robert  O. 
Bassinger,  George  t±. 
Batcheller,   George   Clinton, 
Benedict,   George    Grenville 
Benjamin,  Rev.  Dr.  Wm.  H. 
Bishop,  Charles  F. 
Blake,  Rev.  Chas.  W. 
Bloodgood,  Clarence  E. 
Brackett,   Hon.   Edgar  Truman 
Brandow,  Rev.  John  H. 
Brown,  Ernest  C. 
Brook,  James  B. 
Broughton,  H.  L. 
Bullard,  Dr.  T.  E. 
Bunten,  Roland 
Burdge,   Franklin 
Burnham,    George, 

Bushnell,  Nathan  Piatt 

Cady,   S.  Rider 

Carter,  Robert  C. 

Cheney,  Dr.  Francis  L. 

Clark,'  Walter  A. 

Clark,  Rev.  Joseph  B. 

Clowe,  Chas.  Waldron 

Cole,  Norman 

Conway.  John  B. 

Cook,  Dr.  Joseph  Tottenham 

Cook,  Joseph  Mrs. 

Cook,  J.  Hervey 

Cooke,  Rev.  Jere  K. 

Cooley,  Dr.  James  S. 

Coolidge,  Thomas  S. 

Coon,  Hon.  Stephen  Mortimer 

Cornell,  S.  Douglas 

Cunningham,    Col.   J.   L. 

Columbia  University  Library, 

Davis,   William   Gilbert 
Davis,  Dr.  Booth  C. 
Day,   Benjamin 


Packer   Institute,    Brooklyn. 

Fort  Ann. 

Jamaica. 

Fort  Edward. 

Fort  Edward. 

Glens  Falls. 

237  W.  72d  St.,  N.  Y. 

Burlington,  Vt. 

Irvington-on-Hudson. 

67  Wall  St.,  N.  Y. 

Lake   George. 

Catskill. 

Saratoga  Springs. 

Schoharie. 

280    Broadway,    N.    Y. 

1013  East  Adams  St.,  Syracuse. 

Sandy  Hill. 

Schuylerville. 

Garden  City. 

325  W.  57th  St.  N.  Y. 

3401   Powelton  Ave.,  Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
Peekskill. 

Hudson. 

Glens  Falls. 

Cortland. 

755  Main  St.,  Geneva. 

4th  Ave.  and  22nd  St.,  N.  Y. 

280  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

Glens   Falls. 

Argyle. 

636  Delaware  Ave.,  Buffalo. 

Ticonderoga. 

Fishkill-on-Hudson. 

Hempstead. 

Glen  Cove. 

Glens  Falls. 

Oswego. 

Cobourg,  Ont. 

Glens  Falls. 

1 1 6th  St.,  New  York. 

T,2  Nassau  St.,  N.  Y. 

Alfred. 

Hague. 


MEMBERS. 


207 


DeLong,  C.  J. 
Demuth,  William 
Denham,  Edward 
Denton,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  B. 
de  Peyster,  Mrs.  Beekman 

Derby,   Hon.  John  H. 
Derby,  Archibald  Stewart 
Digney,  John  M. 
Doane,  Rt.  Rev.  C.  W. 
Doolittle,  C.   M. 
Draper,  Hon.  A.   S. 
Dunnell,  Rev.  Dr.  Wm.  Nichols 
Durkee,   James   H. 
Dwyer,  Major  John 

Elting,  PhiliD 

Eveleth,  Dr.  George  S. 


Glens  Falls. 

507   Broadway,   N.   Y. 

New  Bedford,  Mass. 

Sandy  Hill. 

2345    Broadway,    N.   Y.    (winter), 

Johnstown   (  summer) . 
Sandv  Hill. 
Sandy  Hill. 
White  Plains. 
Albany. 
Schuylerville. 
Albany. 

292  Henry  St.,  N.  Y. 
Sandv  Hi'll. 
Sandy  Hill. 

278  Wall  St.,  Kingston. 
Little  Falls. 


Fairley,  William 
F-^rree,  Barr 
Ferris,  Morris  Patterson 
Fowler,  Albert  N.  C. 

Gillespie,  Nelson 
Gilman,  Hon.  Theodore  P. 
Green,  James 
Griffith,  Prof.  E.  W. 
Gunnison,  Hon.  Royal  A. 

Hatch,  Hon.  Edward  W. 
Haight.   Hon.   Albert 
Hall,  Fred  J. 
Halsey,   Frances   W. 
Hastings,  Hon.  Hugh 
Hatch,  Rev.  W.  H.  P. 
Hatfield,  Addie  E. 
Hawkins,  George  H. 
Hayden,  Henry  W. 
Hewitt,  Fred  W. 
Higgins,  Hon.  Frank  W. 
Hill,  E.  B. 
Holden,  Mrs.  J.  A. 
Holden,  James  A. 
Hopson,  Rev.  Dr.  George  B. 


195  Kingston  Ave.,  Brooklyn. 
7  Warren  Street,  N.  Y. 
676  West  End  Ave.,  N.  Y. 
Glens  Falls. 

Hoosick  Falls. 

425  West  End  Ave.,  N.  Y. 

Lake  George. 

Glens  Falls. 

Juneau,  Alaska. 

Appellate  Division,  New  York. 

Albany  (Court  of  Appeals). 

Tarrytown. 

146  W.  119th  St.,  N.  Y. 

Albany. 

South  Hartford. 

17  Lin  wood  Place,  Utica. 

Plattsburgh. 

120  Broadway,  N.  Y 

Granville. 

Olean. 

49  Wall  St.,  N.  Y. 

Glens  Falls. 

Glens  Falls. 

Annandale. 


2o8 


NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


Horton,  Mrs.  John  Miller 
Horton,  Dr.  Everest  T. 
Horton,  Dr.  Claude  A. 
Howard,  Hon.  Harry  A. 
Hull,  Frank  S. 
Hull,  Philip  M. 
Heilner,  Samuel 

Imrie,  Daniel  F. 
Ingalsbe,  Miss  Myra  L. 
Ingalsbe,  Grenville  H. 
Ingalsbe,  Franc  Groesbeck 
Ingalsbe,  Hon.  Grenville  M. 
Ingalls,  George  A. 
Ingraham,  Dr.  Charles  A. 

James,  D.  Willis 
Jackson,  Rev.  Dr.  T.  G. 
Jessup,  Morris  K. 
Jessup,  Rev.  Charles  A. 
Joline,  Dr.  Adrien  H. 
Jordan,  Warren  S. 

Kellogg,  Rev.  Dr.  Charks  D. 

Kellogg,  J.  Augustus 

King,  Rev.  Dr.  Joseph  E. 

King,  Charles  T. 

Kirb-    Dr.  R.  M. 

Knapp,  George  P. 

Kniel,  T.  R. 

Krotel,  Rev.  Dr.  G.  F. 

Ladd,  Neil  M. 
Lansing,  Mrs.  Abraham 
Lange,  Gustave  ' 

Lapham,  Byron 
Law,  Robert  R. 
Leary,  Russell  W. 
Lefferts,  Marshall  C. 
Lewis,  George  C. 
Little,  Dr.  George  W. 
Little,  Russell  A. 
Lyttle,   Dr.   E.  W. 

Mace,  Dr.  William  H. 
Mann,  William  D. 


736  Main  St.,  Buffalo. 

Whitehall. 

Glens  Falls. 

Glens  Falls. 

Newburgh. 

Clinton. 

Broad  and  Chestnut  St.,  Phila.  Pa. 

Lake  George. 
Hartford. 
Sandy  Hill. 
Sandy  Hill. 
Sandy  Hill. 
Sandy  Hill. 
Cambridge. 

40  East  39th  St.,  N.  Y. 

68  St.   Paul's  Place,  Brooklyn. 

195   Madison  Ave.,  N.  Y. 

Greenport. 

54  Wall  St.,  N.  Y. 

984  Main  St.,  Peekskill. 

Sandy  Hill. 

Glens  Falls. 

Fort  Edward. 

Glens  Falls. 

Potsdam. 

Lake  George. 

Saratoga  Springs. 

65  Convent  Ave.,  N.  Y. 

646  Fulton  St.,  Brooklyn. 

115  Washmgton  Ave.,  Albany. 

257  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

Glens  Falls. 

Cambridge. 

147  W.  91st  St.,  N.  Y. 

30  Washington  Place,  N.  Y. 

Albany. 

Glens  Falls. 

Glens  Falls. 

Albany. 

127  College  Place,  Syracuse. 
Hague. 


MEMBERS. 


209 


Marsh.  Wallace  T. 
Martin,  John 
Martine,  Dr.  G.  R. 
Matthews,  George  E. 
McAneny,  George 
McCarthy,   James 
McLean.' Mrs.  Donald 
Meredith,   Mrs.   Louise  Harden- 

burg-h 
Messer,  L.  FrankHn 
Michael.  Edv>rard 
Mills,  D.  O. 

Mills,  Col.  Stephen  C.  (U.  S.  A.) 
Moore.  Commodore  John  W. 
Morgan.  Rev.  Dr.  D.  Parker 
Morton.  Hon.  Levi  Parsons 
Mott.  Dr.  O.  H. 
Munger,  Rev.  Dr.  R.  D. 

Near,  Irwin  W. 
Nelson.  Venerable  Dr.  Geo.   F. 
Newcomb,  Alvah  S. 
Nottingham,  William 


Glens  Falls. 

Plattsburgh. 

Glens  Falls. 

Buffalo. 

19  E.  47th  St.,  N.  Y. 

Sandv   Hill. 

186  Lenox  Ave.,  N.  Y. 

San  Luis  Obispo,  Cal. 

403  Main  St.,  Buffalo. 

741  Delaware  Ave.,  Buffalo. 

634  Fifth  Ave.,  N.  Y. 

Governor's   Island,   N.  Y.   Harbor. 

Bolton  Landing. 

3  E.  45th  St.,  N.  Y. 

681  Fifth  Ave.,  N.  Y. 

Fort   Edward. 

105   Delaware   St.,   Syracuse. 

Hornellsville. 

29  Lafayette  Place,  N.  Y. 

33  Washington  Ave.,  Albany. 

701   W^alnut   St.,  Syracuse. 


O'Brien,   M.   J.  195  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

Olmstead,  Rt.  Rev.  Chas.  Tyler     159  Park  Ave.,  Utica. 


Paige,  Edward  Winslow 

Parry,  Mrs.  J.  E. 

Payne,   Silas   H. 

Peabody,  George   Foster 

Peck,  Gen.  T.  S. 

Peck,   Reuben   N. 

Pell,  Howland 

Prince,  Rev  .Dr.  Walter  Franklin 

Potter,   Delcour   S. 

Pryer,  Charles 

Ransom,  Frank  H. 
Ransom,  Hon.  Rastus  S. 
Ravm.ond,  Rev.  Dr.  A.  V.  V. 
Reid,  W.  Max 
Reid,   Hon.   Whitelaw 
Rhoades.  W.  C.   P. 
Richards,  Frederick  B. 


44  Cedar  St.,  N.  Y. 

Glens  Falls. 

Silver  Bay. 

54  William  St.,  New  York. 

Burlington,  Vt. 

Glens  Falls. 

7  Pine  St.,  N.  Y. 

16  S.  Elliott  Place,  Brooklyn. 

Glens  Falls. 

New  Rochelle. 

137  Main  St.,  Buffalo. 

128  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

Schenectady. 

Amsterdam. 

New  York. 

400  Putnam  Ave.,  Brooklyn. 

Ticonderoga. 


2IO 


NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


Richardson,  Rev.  George  L. 
Richards,  A.   N. 
Roberts,  Joseph  Banks 
Roberts,  Mrs.  James  A. 
Roberts,   Hon.   James  A. 
Rogers,  Howard  J. 
Rowell,  George  C. 

Si^mson,  William  H. 
Sanford,  Clarence  T. 
Sawyer,  W,  L. 
Sawyer,  Dr.  Edward  R.     . 
Schuyler,  Miss  Fanny 


Glens  Falls. 

Sandy  Hill. 

141   Broadway,  N.  Y. 

256  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

256  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

Education  Dept,  Albany. 

81   Ohapel  St.,  Albany. 

420  Oxford  St.,  Rochester. 
Lake  George. 
Sandy  Hill. 
Sandy  Hill. 
New  Roohelle. 


Schuyler,  Rev.  Dr.Livingston  Rowei7  Lexington  Ave.,  N.  Y. 


Schell,  F.  Robert 
Seabury,  Rev.  Dr.  Wm.  Jones 
Sebring,  William  C. 
Seelye,  E1w>ti 
Sexton,  Mrs.  Pliny  T. 
Sexton,  Hon.  Pliny  T. 
Sidway,  Mrs.  Frank  St.  John 
Sills,  Dr.  Charles  Morton 
Sill,  Dr.  Frederick  S. 
Silver,  Dr.  John  Archer 
Simpson,  John  Boulton 
Sims,   Charles  N. 
Shedden,  Hon.  Lucian  L. 
Shephard,  Dr.  Edward  M. 
Sheer,  Rev.  Thomas  R. 
Smith,  Wm.  Alex. 
Smith,  T.  Guilford 
Smith,  James  F. 
Spencer,  Dr.   Ohas.  W. 
Stackpole,  George  F. 
State  Normal  and  Training  School 
Stearns,  Rev.  W.  O. 
Steele,  Mrs.   Esther  B. 
Stevens,  Rev.  Dr.  C.  Ellis, 
Stevens,  Benjamin  F. 
Stieglitz,  Edward 
Stilwell,  Giles  H. 
Stillman,  Dr.  William  OHn 
Stone,  Col.  William  L. 

Teflft,  Richard  C. 
Temple,  Truman  R. 


280  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

8  Chelsea  Sq.,  N.  Y. 

Kingston,  N.  Y. 

Lake  George. 

Palmyra. 

Palmyra, 

37  Oakland  Place,  Buffalo. 

Geneva. 

169  M'ohawk  St.,  Cohoes. 

Geneva. 

1170  Broadway,  N.  Y. 

Liberty,  Indiana. 

Plattsburgh. 

Lake  George. 

New  York  City. 

412  Madison  Ave.,  N.  Y. 

Buffalo. 

South  Hartford. 

Princeton,  N.  J. 

Riverhead. 

Plattsburgh. 

Glens  Falls. 

352  W.  Clinton  St.,  Elmira. 

Ill  Montague  St.,  Brooklyn. 

Bbston,  Mass. 

Bolton. 

1906  W.  Genesee  St.,  Syracuse. 

287  State  St.,  Albany. 

Mt.   Vernon. 

Sandy  Hill. 
Granville. 


MEMBERS. 


Upson,  Mrs.  Lvdia  F. 

Vanderveer,  Dr.  A. 
Van  Hee,  Daniel  L. 
Vann,  Hon.  Irving  G. 
Van  Wormer,  Rodney 
Vynne,  Mrs.  Emma  M. 

Wait,   William 
Wakeman,   Abram 
Wallander,  A.  W. 
Waller,  Rev.  Henry  D. 
Warren,  E.  Burgess 
Watrous,  Harry  W. 
Watrous,  Mrs.  Harry  W. 

Watson,  Col.  James  T. 
Webster,  Dr.  W.  B. 
Welch,   Miss  J.   M. 
West,   Chandler  A. 
West,  Elmer  J. 
Westover,  Myron  N. 
Wetmore,  Edmond 
Wicker,  Miss  Julia  Frances 
Willey,  Rev.  John  H. 
Williams,  Dr.  Sherman 
Williams,  Charles  H. 
Willis,  James  D. 
Wilson.  Henry  Applegate 
Wing,  Asahel  R. 
Wright,   Miss  Abbie  A. 
Woodruff,  Hon.  Timothy  L. 
Woodard,  Hon.  John 
Worden,  Edwin  J. 
Wvckoff,  Alice  Brooks 


Glens  Falls. 

28  Eagle  St.,  Albany. 

Rochester. 

Syracuse. 

Argyle. 

Hague. 

Kinderhook. 
136  Front  St.,  N.  Y. 
Mt.  Vernon. 
Flushing. 
Lake  George, 
Hague. 

Hague  and  352  Lexington  Ave- 
nue, N.  Y. 
Clinton. 
Schuylerville. 

76  Johnson   Park,   Buffalo. 
Lake  George. 
Glens  Falls. 
Schenectady. 
34  Pine  St.,  N.  Y. 
Ticonderoga. 

466  East  i8th  St.,  Brooklyn. 
Glens  Falls. 

690  Delaware  Ave.,  Buffalo. 
40  East  39th  St.,  N.  Y. 
574  Madison  St.,  Brooklyn. 
Fort  Edward. 
Sandy  Hill. 

8th  Ave.  and  iSth  St.,  Brooklyn. 
Appellate  Division,  Brooklyn. 
Lake  George, 
Elmira. 


The  Secretary  will  thank  members  for  corrections  to  this  list. 


» 


FOOTPRINTS  OF  THE  RED  MEN. 


Indian  Geographical  Names 

IN   THE   VALLEY    OF    HUDSON'S    RIVER, 
THE  VALLEY  OF  THE  MOHAWK, 
AND  ON  THE  DELAWARE: 
THEIR  LOCATION  AND  THE  PROBABLE 

MEANING  OF  SOME  OF  THEM. 


BY 

E.    M.    RUTTENBER, 

Author  of  "  History  of  the  Indian  Tribes  of  Hudson'' s  River." 


*'  Indian  place-names  are  not  proper  names,  that  is  unmeaning  words, 
but  significant  appellatives  each  conveying  a  description  of  the  locality  to 
which  it  \it\ow%,%.''^—Trumbtill. 


PUBLISHED    UNDER    THE    AUSPICES 

OF    THE 

IRew  IPcrft  State  t)i6toiicaI  Besociation. 


Copyrighted  by  the 

NEW  YORK  STATE  HISTORICAL  ASSOCIATION. 

1906. 


Primary    Explanations. 


The  locatives  of  the  Indian  geographical  names  which  have  been 
handed  down  as  tlie  names  of  boundmarks  or  of  places  or  tribes,  are 
properly  a  subject  of  study  on  the  part  of  all  who  would  be  familiar 
with  the  aboriginal  geography  of  a  district  or  a  state.  In  many 
cases  these  names  were  quite  as  designative  of  geographical  cen- 
ters as  are  the  names  of  the  towns,  villages  and  cities  which  have 
been  substituted  for  them.  In  some  cases  tbey  have  been  wisely 
retained,  while  the  specific  places  to  which  they  belonged  have  been 
lost.  In  this  work  special  effort  has  been  made,  first,  to  ascertain 
the  places  to  which  the  names  belonged  as  given  in  official  records, 
to  ascertain  the  physical  features  of  those  places,  and  carry  back  the 
thought  to  the  poetic  period  of  our  territorial  history,  "  when  the 
original  drapery  in  which  nature  was  enveloped  under  the  dominion 
of  the  laws  of  vegetation,  spread  out  in  one  vast,  continuous  interm- 
inable forest,"  broken  here  and  there  by  the  opened  patches  of  corn- 
lands  and  the  wigwams  and  villages  of  the  redmen ;  secondly,  to 
ascertain  the  meanings  of  the  aboriginal  names,  recognizing  fully 
that,  as  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote,  "  They  were  not  proper  names  or  mere 
unmeaning  marks,  but  significant  appellatives  conveying  a  descrip- 
tion of  the  locatives  to  which  they  were  given."  Coming  down  to 
us  in  the  crude  orthographies  of  traders  and  unlettered  men,  they 
are  not  readily  recognized  in  the  orthographies  of  the  educated  mis- 
sionaries, and  especially  are  they  disguised  by  the  varying  powers 
of  the  German,  the  French,  and  the  English  alphabets  in  which  they 
were  written  by  educated  as  well  as  by  uneducated  scribes,  and  by 
traders  who  were  certainly  not  very  familiar  with  the  science  of 
representing  spoken  sounds  by  letters.  In  one  instance  the  same 
name  appears  in  forty-nine  forms  by  different  writers.  Many 
names,  however,  'have  been  recognized  under  miss'ionary  standards 
and  their  meanings  satisfactorily  ascertained,  aided  by  the  features 
of  the  localities  to  which  they  were  applied ;  the  latter,  indeed,  con- 


4  INDIAN    GEOGUArillCAL    NAMES. 

tributing  very  largely  to  their  interpretation.  Probably  the  reader 
will  find  geographical  descriptions  that  do  not  apply  to  the  places 
where  the  name  is  now  met.  The  early  settlers  made  many 
transfers  as  well  as  extensions  of  names  from  a  specific  place  to  a 
large  district  of  country.  It  must  be  remembered  that  original  ap- 
plications were  specific  to  the  places  which  they  described  even 
though  they  were  generic  and  applicable  to  any  place  where  the 
same  features  were  referred  to.  The  locatives  in  Indian  deeds  and 
m  original  patents  are  the  only  guide  to  places  of  original  applica- 
tion, coupled  with  descriptive  features  where  they  are  know;i. 

No  vocabularies  of  the  dialects  spoken  in  the  lower  valley  of  the 
Hudson  having  been  preserved,  the  vocabularies  of  the  Upper- 
Unami  and  the  M'insi-Lenape,  or  Delaware  tongues  on  the  south  and 
west,  and  the  Natick,  or  Massachusetts,  on  the  north  and  east,  have 
been  consulted  for  explanations  by  comparative  inductive  methods, 
and  also  orthographies  in  other  places,  the  interpretations  of  which 
have  been  establis;hed  by  competent  linguists.  In  all  cases  where 
the  meaning  of  terms  has  been  particularly  questioned,  the  best 
expert  authority  has  been  consulted.  While  positive  accuracy  is 
not  asserted  in  any  case,  it  is  believed  that  in  most  cases  the  inter- 
pretations which  have  been  given  may  be  accepted  as  substantially 
correct.  There  is  no  poetry  in  them — no  "  glittering  waterfalls, ' 
no  "  beautiful  rivers,"  no  "  smile  of  the  Great  Spirit,"  no  "  Holy 
place  of  sacred  feasts  and  dances,"  but  plain  terms  th^t  have  their 
equivalents  in  our  own  language  for  a  small  hill,  a  hig^h  hill,  a  moun- 
tain, a  brook,  a  creek,  a  kill,  a  river,  a  pond,  a  lake,  a  swamp,  a  large 
stone,  a  place  of  small  stones,  a  split  rock,  a  meadow,  or  whatever 
the  objective  feature  may  have  been  as  recognized  by  the  Indian. 
Many  of  them  were  particular  names  in  the  form  of  verbals  indi- 
cating a  place  where  the  action  of  the  verb  was  performed  ;  occasion- 
ally the  name  of  a  sachem  is  given  as  that  of  his  place  of  residence 
or  the  stream  on  whidh  he  resided,  but  all  are  from  generic  roots. 

To  the  Algonquian  dialects  spoken  in  the  valley  of  Hudson's 
River  at  the  time  of  the  discovery,  was  added  later  the  Mohawk- 
Troquorian,  to  some  extent,  more  particularly  on  the  north,  where 
it  appears  about  162 1-6,  as  indicated  in  the  blanket  deed  given  by 
the  Five  Nations  to  King  George  in  1726.  Territorially,  in  the 
primary  era   of   European   invasion,   the   Eastern   Algonquian   prcr 


PRIMARY    EXPLANATIONS.  5 

vailed,  in  varying  idioms,  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  from  a  northern 
point  to  the  Katskills,  and  from  thence  south  to  the  Highlands  a 
type  of  the  Unami-AIinsi-Lenape  or  Delaware.  That  spoken  around 
New  York  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  was  classed  by  the  early  Dutch 
writers  as  Manhattan,  as  distinguished  from  dialects  in  the  High- 
lands and  from  the  Savano  or  dialects  of  the  East  New  England 
coast.  North  of  the  Highlands  on  both  sides  of  the  river,  they 
classed  the  dialect  as  Wapping,  and  from  the  Katskills  north  as 
Mahican  or  Alohegan,  preserved  in  part  in  what  is  known  a^s  the 
Stockbridge.  Presumably  the  dialects  were  more  or  less  mixed  and 
formed  as  a  whole  \Vhat  may  be  termed  "  The  Hudson's  River  Dia- 
lect," radically  Lenape  or  Delaware,  as  noted  by  Governor  Tryon 
in  1774.  In  local  names  we  seem  to  meet  the  Upper-Unami  and 
the  Minsi  of  New  Jersey,  and  the  Mohegan  and  the  Natick  of  the 
north  and  east,  the  Ouiripi  of  the  Sound,  and  the  dialect  of  the 
Connecticut  Valley.  In  the  belt  of  country  south  of  the  Katskills 
they  were  soft  and  vocalic,  the  lingual  mute  t  frequently  appearing 
and  r  taking  the  place  O'f  the  Eastern  /  and  n.  In  the  Minsi  (Del.) 
Zeisberger  wrote  /  invariably,  as  distinguished  from  r,  which  ap- 
pears in  the  earliest  local  names  in  the  valley  of  the  Hudson.  Other 
dialectic  peculiarities  seem  to  appear  in  the  exchange  of  the  sonant 
g  for  the  hard  sound  of  the  surd  mute  k,  and  of  p  for  g,  s  for  g, 
and  t  for  d,  st  for  gk,  etc.  Initials  are  badly  mixed,  presumably 
due  in  part  at  least,  to  the  habit  of  Indian  speakers  in  throwing  the 
sound  of  the  word  forward  to  the  penult ;  in  some  cases  to  the  lack 
of  an  "  Indian  ear  "  on  the  part  of  the  hearer. 

In  structure  all  Algonquian  dialects  are  Polysynthetic,  i.  e.,  words 
composed  wholly  or  in  part  oFother  words  or  generic  roots.  Pro- 
nunciations and  inflections  dififer  as  do  the  words  in  meaning  in 
many  cases.  In  all  dialects  tbe  most  simple  combina;tions  appear  in 
geographical  names,  w'hidh  the  late  Dr.  J.  H.  Trumbull  resolved 
into  three  classes,  viz. :  "  I.  Those  formed  by  the  union  of  two 
elements,  which  we  will  call  adjectival  and  substantival,  or  ground- 
word,  with  or  without  a  locative  suffix,  or  post-position  word  mean- 
ing 'at,'  'in,'  'on,'  'near/  etc.  [I  use  the  terms  'adjectival'  and 
'  substantival,'  because  no  true  adjectives  or  substantives  enter  into 
the  composition  of  Algonquian  names.  The  adjectival  may  be  an 
adverb  or  a  preposition ;  the  substantival  element  is  often  a  verbal, 


O  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

which  serves  in  composition  as  a  generic  name,  but  whidli  cannot 
be  used  as  an  independent  word — the  synthesis  always  retains  the 
verbal  form.]  H.  Those  which  have  a  single  element,  the  substan- 
tival, or  ground-word,  with  locative  suffix.  III.  Those  formed 
from  verbs  as  participials  or  verbal  nouns,  denoting  a  place  where 
the  action  of  the  verb  is  performed.  Most  of  these  latter,  however," 
he  adds,  "  may  be  shown  by  strict  ana'iysis  to  belong  to  one  of  the 
two  preceding  classes,  which  compri.se  at  least  nine-tenths  of  all 
Algonquian  local  names  which  have  been  preserved."  For  example, 
in  Class  I,  Wapan-aki  is  a  combination  of  Wapan,  "  the  Orient," 
"  the  East,"  and  aki,  "  Land,  place  or  country,"  unlimited;  with 
locative  suffix  {-ng,  Del.,  -it,  Mass.),  "In  the  East  Land  or  Coun- 
try." JCif-ann-ing,  Del.,  is  a  composition  from  Kitschi,  "  Chief, 
principal,  greatest,"  hanne,  "  river,"  and  ing  locative,  and  reads,  "  A 
place  at  or  on  the  largest  river."  The  suffix  -aki,  -acki,  -hacki,  Del., 
meaning  "  Land,  place,  or  country,  unlimited,''  in  Eastern  orthog- 
raphies -ohke,  -auke  -ague,  -ke,  -ki,  etc.,  is  changed  to  -karnik,  or 
-kamike,  Del.,  -kamuk  or  -komuk,  Mass.,  in  describing  "  Land  or 
place  limited,"  or  enclosed,  a  particular  place,  as  a  field,  garden, 
and  also  used  for  house,  thicket,  etc.  The  Eastern  post-position 
locatives  are  -it,  -et,  -at,  -uf;  the  Delaware,  -ng,  -nk,  with  connecting 
vowel  -ing  -ink,  -ong,  -onk,  -ung,  -unk,  etc.  The  meaning  of  this 
class  of  suffixes  is  the  same ;  they  locate  a  place  or  object  that  is  at, 
in,  or  on  some  other  place  or  object,  the  name  of  Which  is  prefixed, 
as  in  Delaware  Hitgunk,  "  On  or  to  a  tree ;"  Utenink,  "  In  the 
town ;"  Wachtschunk,  "  On  the  mountain."  In  some  cases  the  loca- 
tive takes  the  verbal  form  indicating  place  or  country,  Williams 
wrote  "  Sachimaiionck,  a  Kingdom  or  Monarchy."  Dr.  School- 
craft wrote:  "From  Ojibwai  (Chippeway)  is  formed  Ojib-wain- 
ong,  '  Place  of  the  Chippeways ;  Monominikaun-ing'  '  In  the  place 
of  wild  rice,' "  Dr.  Brinton  wrote  "  IValum-ink,  '  The  place  of 
paint.'  "  The  letter  s,  preceding  the  locative,  changes  the  meaning 
of  the  latter  to  near,  or  something  less  than  at  or  on.  The  suffixes 
-is,  -it,  -OS,  -es  mean  "  Small,"  as  in  Menates  or  Menatit,  "  Small 
island."  The  locative  affix  cannot  be  applied  to  an  animal  in  the 
sense  of  at,  in,  on,  to.  There  are  many  formative  inflections  and 
suffixes  indicating  the  plural,  etc. 

Mohawk  or  Iroquoian  names,  while  polysynthetic,  differ  from 


I 


PRIMARY    EXPLANATIONS.  7 

Alg^onquian  in  construction.  "  The  adjective,"  wrote  Horatio  Hale, 
"  when  employed  in  an  isolated  form,  follows  the  substantive,  as 
Kanonsa,  '  house ;'  Kanonsa-kowa,  '  large  house ;'  but  in  general  the 
substantive  and  adjective  coalesce."  In  some  cases  the  adjective  is 
split  in  two,  and  the  substantive  inserted,  as  in  Tiogen,  a  composition 
of  Te,  "  two,"  and  ogeit,  "  to  separate,"  which  is  split  and  the  word 
ononte,  "  mountain,"  or  hill,  inserted,  forming  Te-ononte-ogen,  "  Be- 
tween two  mountains,"  "  The  local  relations  of  nouns  are  expressed 
by  affixed  particles,  such  as  ke,  ne,  kon,  akon,  akta.  Thus  from 
Ononta,  mountain,  we  have  Onontdkc,  at  (or  to)  the  mountain;  from 
Akchrat  dish,  Akehrdtne,  in  or  on  the  dish,"  etc.  From  the  variety 
of  its  forms  and  combinations  it  is  a  more  difficult  language  than 
the  Algonquian.     No  European  has  fully  mastered  it. 

No  attempt  has  been  made  to  correct  record  orthographies  fur- 
ther than  to  give  their  probable  missionary  equivalents  where  they 
can  be  recognized.  In  many  cases  crude  orthographies  have  con- 
verted them  into  unknown  tongues.  Imperfect  as  many  of  them 
are  and  without  standing  in  aboriginal  glossaries,  they  have  become 
place  names  that  may  not  be  disturbed.  No  two  of  the  early  scribes 
expressed  the  sound  of  the  same  name  in  precisely  the  same  letters, 
and  even  the  missionaries  who  gave  attention  to  the  study  of  the 
aboriginal  tongues,  did  not  always  write  twice  alike.  Original 
sounds  cannot  now  be  restored.  The  diacritical  marks  employed 
by  Williams  and  Eliot  in  the  English  alphabet,  and  by  Zeisberger 
and  Heckewelder  in  the  German  alphabet,  are  helpful  in  pronun- 
ciations, but  as  a  rule  the  corrupt  local  record  orthographies  are 
a  law  unto  themselves.  In  quoting  diacritical  marks  the  forms  of 
the  learned  linguists  who  gave  their  idea  of  how  the  word  was  pro- 
nounced, have  been  followed.  It  is  not,  however,  in  the  power  of 
diacritical  marks  or  of  any  European  alphabet  to  express  correctly 
the  sound  of  an  Algonquian  or  of  an  Iroquoian  word  as  it  was  orig- 
inally spoken,  or  write  it  in  European  characters.  Practically,  every 
essential  element  in  pronunciation  is  secured  by  separating  tihe  forms 
into  words  or  parts  of  words,  or  particles,  of  which  it  is  composed, 
(where  the  original  elements  of  the  composition  cannot  be  detected) 
by  syllabalizing  on  the  vowel  sounds.  An  anglicized  vocalism  of 
any  name  may  be  readily  established  and  an  original  name  formed 
in  American  nomenclature,  as  many  names  in  current  use  amply  il- 


8 


INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 


lustrates.  Few  would  suspect  that  Ochsechraga  (Mohawk)  was  the 
original  of  Saratoga,  or  that  P'tuk-sepo  (Lenape)  was  the  original 
of  Tuxedo. 

A  considerable  number  of  record  names  have  been  included  that 
are  not  living.  They  serve  to  illustrate  the  dialect  spoken  in  the 
valley  as  handed  down  by  European  scribes  of  different  languages, 
as  well  as  the  local  geography  of  the  Indians.  The  earlier  forms 
are  mainly  Dutch  notations.  A  few  Dutch  names  that  are  regard- 
ed by  some  as  Indian,  have  been  noticed,  and  also  some  Indian 
names  on  the  Delaware  River  which,  from  the  associations  of  that 
river  with  the  history  of  the  State,  as  in  part  one  of  its  boundary 
streams,  as  well  as  the  intimate  associations  of  the  names  with  the 
history  of  the  valley  of  Hudson's  River,  become  of  especial  interest. 
In  the  arrangement  of  names  geographical  association  has  been 
adopted  in  preference  to  the  alphabetical,  the  latter  being  supplied 
by  index.  This  arrangement  seems  to  bring  together  dialectic 
groups  more  satisfactorily.  That  there  were  many  variations  in 
the  dialects  spoken  in  the  valle}-  of  Hudson's  River  no  one  will  deny, 
I  but  it  may  be  asserted  with  confidence  that  the  difference  between 
1  the  German  and  the  English  alphabets  in  renderings  is  more  marked 
than  differences  in  dialects.  In  so  far  as  the  names  have  been 
j  brought  together  they  form  the  only  key  to  the  dialects  wliich  were 
spoken  in  the  valley.  Their  grammatical  treatment  is  the  work  of 
skilled  philologists. 

Credit  has  been  given  for  interpretations  where  the  authors 
were  known,  and  especially  to  the  late  eminent  Algonquian  authority, 
J.  Hammond  Trumbull.  Special  acknowledgment  of  valuable  as- 
sistance is  made  to  the  late  Dr.  D.  G.  Brinton,  of  Philadelphia ;  to 
the  late  Horatio  Hale,  M.  A.,  of  Clinton,  Ontario,  Canada;  to  the 
late  Prof.  J.  W.  Powell,  of  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology,  Washington, 
D.  C,  and  his  successor,  William  H.  Holmes,  and  their  co-laborers, 
Dr.  Albert  S.  Gatschet  and  J.  B.  N.  Hewitt,  and  to  Mr.  William 
R.  Gerard,  of  New  York. 

The  compilation  of  names  and  the  ascertaining  of  their  locatives 
and  probable  meanings  has  interested  me.  Where  those  names 
have  been  preserved  in  place  they  are  certain  descriptive  landmarks 
above  all  others.  The  results  of  my  amateur  labors  may  be  useful 
to  others  in  the   same   field  of  inquiry  as   well   as  to  professional 


I 


PRIMARY    EXPLANATIONS.  9 

linguists.  Primarily  the  work  was  not  undertaken  with  a  view  to 
pubHcation.  Gentlemen  of  tlie  New  York  Historical  Association, 
with  a  view  to  preserve  what  has  been  done,  and  which  may  never 
be  again  undertaken,  have  asked  the  manuscript  for  publication, 
and  it  has  been  given  to  them  for  that  purpose. 

E.  M.  RUTTENBER. 
Newburgh,  January,  1906. 


INDIAN  GEOGRAPHICAL  NAMES. 


Hudson's  River  and  Its  Islands. 

Muhheakun'nuk,  "  The  great  waters  or  sea,  which  are  constant- 
ly in  motion,  either  ebbing  or  flowing,"  was  written  by  Chief  Hen- 
drick  Aupaumut,  in  his  history  of  the  Muhheakun'nuk  nation,  as 
the  name  of  Hudson's  River,  in  the  Stockbridge  dialect,  and  its 
meaning.  The  first  word,  Muhheakiin,  was  the  national  name  of 
the  people  occupying  both  banks  of  the  river  from  Roelof  Jansen's 
Kill,  a  few  miles  south  of  Catskill,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  north 
and  east  with  limit  not  known,  and  the  second  -nuk,  the  equivalent 
of  Massachusetts  -titk.  Lenape  -ittuk,  "  Tidal  river,  or  estuary,"  or 
"  Waters  driven  by  waves  or  tides,"  with  the  accessory  meaning  of 
"  great."  Literally,  in  application,  "  The  great  tidal  river  of  the 
Muhheakan'neuw  nation."  The  Dutch  wrote  the  national  name 
Mahikan,  Maikan,  etc.,  and  the  English  of  Connecticut  wrote  Mo- 
hegan,  which  was  claimed  by  Drs.  Schoolcraft  and  Trumbull  to  be 
derived  from  Maingan  (Cree  Maheggun),  "  Wolf  " — "  an  enchanted 
wolf,  or  a  wolf  of  supernatural  powers."  From  their  prevailing 
totem  or  prevailing  coat-of-arms,  the  Wolf,  the  French  called 
them  Loups,  "  wolves,"  and  also  Manhingans,  including  under  the 
names  "  The  nine  nations  gathered  between  Manhattan  and  Quebec." 
While  the  name  is  generic  its  application  to  Hudson's  River  was 
probably  confined  to  the  vicinity  of  Albany,  where  Chief  Aupaumut 
located  their  ancient  capital  under  the  name  of  Pem-po-tow-wut-hut 
Muh-hea-kan-neiiw,  "  The  fire-place  of  the  Muh-hea-kan-nuk  na- 
tion."^ The  Dutch  found  them  on  both  sides  of  the  river  north  of 
Catskill,  with  extended  northern  and  eastern  alliances,  and  south 
of  that  point,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  in  alliance  with  a  tribe 
known  as  Wappans  or  Wappings,  Wappani,  or  "  East-side  people," 
the  two  nations  forming  the  Mahikan  nation  of  Hudson's  River  as 
known  in  history.     (See  Wahamensing.) 


'  Presumed  to  have  been  at  what  is  now  known  as  Sclicdac,  which  see. 


12  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Father  Jogues,  the  French-Jesuit  martyr-missionary,  wrote  in 
1646,  Oi-o-gue  as  the  Huron-Iroquoian  name  of  the  river,  given  to 
him  at  Sarachtoga,  with  the  connection  "  At  the  river."  "  Ohioge, 
river ;  Ohiogc-son,  at  the  long  river,"  wrote  Bruyas.  Arent  van 
Curler  wrote  the  same  name,  in  1634,  Vyoge,  and  gave  it  as  that 
of  die  Mohawk  River,  correcting  the  orthography,  in  his  vocabulary, 
to  "  Oyoghi,  a  kill "  or  channel.  It  is  an  Iroquoian  generic  applica- 
ble to  any  principal  stream  or  current  river,  with  the  ancient  related 
meaning  of  '"  beautiful  river." 

It  is  said  that  the  Mohawks  called  the  river  Cohohataton.  I 
have  not  met  that  name  in  records.  It  was  quoted  by  Dr.  School- 
craft as  traditional,  and  of  course  doubtful.  He  wrote  it  Kohatatea, 
and  in  another  connection  wrote  "  -atea,  a  valley  or  landscape."  It 
is  suspected  that  he  coined  the  name,  as  he  did  many  others.  Shate- 
muck  is  quoted  as  a  Mohegan^  name,  but  on  very  obscure  evidence, 
although  it  may  have  been  the  name  of  an  eel  fishing-place,  or  a 
great  fis'hing-place  {-amaug).  Hudson  called  the  stream  "The 
River  of  the  Mountains."  On  some  ancient  maps  it  is  called  "  Man- 
hattans River."  The  Dutch  authorities  christened  it  "  Mauri tus' 
River  "  in  honor  of  their  Staat-holder,  Prince  Maurice.  The  Eng- 
lish recognized  the  work  of  the  explorer  by  conferring  the  title 
''  Hudson's  River."  It  is  a  fact  established  that  Verrazano  visited 
New  York  harbor  in  1524,  and  gave  to  the  river  the  name  "  Riviere 
Grande,"  or  Great  River ;  that  Estevan  Gomez,  a  Spanish  navigator 
who  followed  Verrazano  in  1525,  called  it  "  St.  Anthony's  River," 
a  name  now  preserved  as  that  of  one  of  the  hills  of  the  Highlands, 
and  it  is  claimed  that  French  traders  visited  the  river,  in  1540,  and 
established  a  chateau  on  Castle-  Island,  at  Albany.'  and  called  the 

^  "  Moliegans  is  an  anglicism  primarily  applied  to  the  small  band  of  Pe- 
quots  under  Uncas."'  (Trumbull.)  While  of  the  same  linguistic  stock, 
neither  the  name  or  the  history  of  Uncas's  clan  should  be  confused  with 
that  of  the   Mahicani  of  Hudson's   River. 

*  Introduced  by  the  Dutch — Kastecl.  The  Indians  had  no  such  word. 
The  Delawares  called  a  house  or  hut  or  a  town  that  was  palisaded,  Moenach, 
and  Zeisberger  used  the  same  word  for  "  fence  " — an  inclosure  palisaded 
around.     Eliot  wrote  Wonkonons,  "  fort." 

^  It  is  claimed  that  the  walls  of  this  fort  were  found  by  Hendrick  Chris- 
tiansen, in  i6t4;  that  they  were  measured  by  him  and  found  to  cover  an  area 
of  58  feet;  that  the  fort  was  restored  by  the  Dutch  and  occupied  by  them 
until  they  were  driven  out  by  a  freshet,  occasioned  by  the  breaking  up  of  the 
ice  in  the  river  in  the  spring  of  1617;  that  the  Dutch  then  built  what  was 


HUDSON'S   RIVER,   1609.      From  Hudson's  Chart.) 


HUDSON  S   RIVER   AND   ITS   ISLANDS.  1$ 

river  "  Norumbega."  It  may  be  conceded  that  possibly  French 
traders  did  have  a  post  on  Castle  Island,  but  "  Norumbega  "  was 
obviously  conferred  on  a  wide  district  of  country.  It  is  an  Abnaki 
term  and  belonged  to  the  dialect  spoken  in  Maine,  where  it  became 
more  or  less  familiar  to  French  traders  as  early  as  1535.  That 
those  traders  did  locate  trading  posts  on  the  Penobscot,  and  that 
Champlain  searched  for  their  remains  in  1604,  are  facts  of  record. 
The  name  means  "  Quiet  "  or  '*  Still  Water,"  It  would  probably 
be  applicable  to  that  section  of  Hudson's  River  known  as  "  Still- 
water," north  of  Albany,  but  the  evidence  is  wanted  that  it  was  so 
applied.  Had  it  been  applied  by  the  tribes  to  any  place  on  Hudson's 
River,  it  would  have  remained  as  certainly  as  Menate  remained  at 
New  York. 

Manhattan,  now  so  written,  does  not  appear  in  the  Journal  of 
Hudson's  exploration  of  the  river  in  1609.  On  a  Spanish-English 
map  of  1610,  "  Made  for  James  I,"  and  sent  to  Philip  III  by  Velasco 
in  letter  of  March  22,  1611,^  Mannahatin  is  written  as  the  name  of 
the  east  side  of  the  river,  and  Mannahata  as  that  of  the  west  side. 
From  the  former  Manhattan,  and  from  it  also  the  name  of  the  In- 
dians "  among  whom  "  the  Dutch  made  settlement  in  1623-4,  other- 
wise known  by  the  general  name  of  Wickquaskecks,  as  well  as  the 
name  of  the  entire  Dutch  possessions.'  Presumably  the  entries  on 
the  Spanish-English  map  were  copied  from  Hudson's  chart,  for 
which  there  was  ample  time  after  his  return  to  England.  Possibly 
they  may  have  been  copied  by  Hudson,  who  wrote  that  his  voyage 
"  had  been  suggested  "  by  some  "  letters  and  maps  "  which  "  had 
been  sent  to  him  "  by  Capt.  Smith  from  Virginia.  Evidently  the  no- 
tations are  English,  and  evidently,  also,  Hudson,  or  his  mate,  Juet, 


subsequently  known  as  Fort  Orange,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tawalsentha,  or 
Norman's  Kill,  about  two  miles  south  of  the  present  State  street,  Albany, 
and  that  Castle  Island  took  that  name  from  the  French  chateau — all  of  which 
is  possible,  but  for  conclusive  reasons  why  it  should  not  be  credited,  the 
student  may  consult  "  Norumbega "  in  Winsor's  "  Narrative  and  Critical 
History  of  America."  Wrote  Dr.  Trumbull :  "  Theuet,  in  La  Cosntographie 
Universella,  gives  an  account  of  his  visit,  in  1656,  to  '  one  of  the  finest  rivers 
in  the  whole  world,  which  we  call  Norumbeque,  and  the  aboriginees  Agoncy,' 
now  Penobscot  Bay." 

^  Brown's  "  Genesis  of  the  United  States,"  2>27,  457,  459,  ii,  80. 

'  Colonial  History  of  New  York. 


14  .NDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

had  a  chart  from  his  own  tracing  or  from  that  of  a  previous  ex- 
plorer, which  he  forwarded  to  his  employers,  or  of  which  they  had 
a  copy,  when  he  wrote  in  his  Journal :  "  On  that  side  of  the  river 
called  Mannahata;'  as  a  reference  by  which  his  employers  could 
identify  the  side  of  the  river  on  which  the  Half-Moon  anchored,' 
Presumably  the  chart  was  drawn  by  Hudson  and  forwarded  with 
his  report,  and  that  to  him  belong-s  the  honor  of  reducing  to  an 
orthographic  form  the  first  aboriginal  name  of  record  on  the  river 
which  now  bears  his  name.  Five  years  after  Hudson's  advent 
Adriaen  Block  wrote  Manhates  as  the  name  of  what  is  now  New 
York  Island,  and  later,  De  Vries  wrote  Manates  as  the  name  of 
Staten  Island,  both  forms  having  the  same  meaning,  /.  e.,  "  Small 
island."  There  have  been  several  interpretations  of  Mannahatin, 
the  most  analytical  and  most  generally  accepted  being  by  the  late 
Dr.  J.  H.  Trumbull:  "  From  Menatey  (Del.),  '  Island  '—Manmh- 
ata  '  The  Island,'  the  reference  being  to  the  main  land  or  to  Long 
Island  as  the  large  island.  Menatan  (Hudson's  Mannah-atin,  -an  or 
-in,  the  indefinite  or  diminutive  form),  '  The  small  island,'  or  the 
smaller  of  the  two  principal  islands,  the  Manhates  of  Adriaen'  Block.* 
Mandhtons,  '  People  of  the  Island,'  Mandhatanesen,  '  People  of  the 
small  islands.'  "  ^  The  Eastern-Algonquian  word  for  "  Island  " 
(English  notation),  is  written  Miinnoh,  with  formative  -an  (Mun- 
nohan).  It  appears  of  record,  occasionally,  in  the  vicinity  of  New 
York,  presumably  introduced  by  interpreters  or  English  scribes. 
The  usual  form  is  the  Lenape  Menate.  Chippeway  Miiuiis,  "  Small 
island,"  classed  also  as  Old  Algonquian,  or  generic,  may  be  met  in 
the  valley  of  the  Hudson,  but  the  instances  are  not  clear.  It  is 
simply  a  dialectic  equivalent  of  Del.  Menates.  (See  Monach'nong.) 
"Van  Curler  wrote  in  his  Mohawk  vocabulary  (1635),  "  Kanon- 
nezmga,  Manhattan  Island."  The  late  J.  W.  Powell,  Director  of 
the  Bureau  of  Ethnology,  wrote  me :  ''  In  the  alphabet  of  this  of- 


^  Hudson  anchored  in  tlie  bay  near  Hoboken.  Near  by  his  anchorage  he 
noticed  that  "  there  was  a  cliff  that  looked  of  the  color  of  white  green."  This 
cliflF  is  near  Elysian  Fields  at  Hoboken.  (Broadhead-)  The  cliff  is  now 
known  as  Castle  Point. 

*  The  reference  to  Adriaen  Block  is  presumably  to  the  "Carte  Figurative" 
of  1614-16,  now  regarded  as  from  Block's  chart. 

* "  Composition  of  Indian  Geographical  Names,"  p.  22. 


HUDSON  S   RIVER   AND   ITS    ISLANDS.  15 

fice  the  name  may  be  transliterated  Kanonnb' ge.  It  signifies  '  Place 
of  Reeds.'  "  Perhaps  what  was  known  as  the  "  Reed  Valley  "  was 
referred  to,  near  which  Van  Twiller  had  a  tobacco  plantation  w^here 
the  Indians  of  all  nations  came  to  trade.  (See  Saponickan.)  The 
lower  part  of  the  island  was  probably  more  or  less  a  district  of  reed 
swamps. 

Pagganck,  so  written  in  Indian  deed  of  1637,  as  the  name  of 
Governor's  Island — Peconuc,  Denton/  is  an  equivalent  of  Pagdn'trnk, 
meaning  literally  "  Nut  Island."  Also  written  Pachgan,  as  in  Pach- 
ganunschi,  "White  walnut  trees."  (Zeisb.)  Denton  explained, 
"  Because  excellent  nut  trees  grew  there."  ^  The  Dutch  called  it 
"  der  Nooten  Eilandt,"  literally  "  The  Walnut  Island,"  from  whence 
the  modern  name,  "  Nutten  Island."  The  island  was  purchased 
from  the  Indian  owners  by  Director  Wouter  van  Twiller,  from 
whose  occupation,  and  its  subsequent  use  as  a  demense  of  the 
governors  of  the  Province,  its  present  name. 

Minnisais  is  not  a  record  name.  It  was  conferred  on  Bedloe's 
Island  by  Dr.  Schoolcraft  from  the  Ojibwe  or  Chippeway  dialect,* 
in  which  it  means  "  Small  island." 

Kiosh,  or  "  Gull  Island,"  was  conferred  on  Ellis  Island  by  Dr. 
Schoolcraft  from  the  Ojibwe  dialect.  The  interpretation  is  correct 
presumably. 

Tenkenas  is  of  record  as  the  Indian  name    of    what    is    now 


^  Denton's  "  Description  of  New  York,"  p.  29.  Ward's  and  Blackwell's 
islands  were  sold  to  the  Dutch  by  the  Marechawicks,  of  Long  Island,  in 
1636-7.  Governor's  Island  was  sold  in  the  same  year  by  the  Tappans,  Hack- 
insacks  and  Nyacks,  the  grantors  signing  themselves  as  "  hereditary  owners." 
Later  deeds  were  signed  by  chiefs  of  the  Raritans  and  Hackinsacks. 

^The  Objibwe  (Objibwai)  were  a  nation  of  three  tribes  living  northwest 
of  the  great  lakes,  of  which  the  Ojibwai  or  Chippeway  represented  the 
Eagle  totem.  It  is  claimed  by  some  writers  that  their  language  stands  at 
the  head  of  the  Algonquian  tongues.  This  claim  is  disputed  on  behalf  of 
the  Cree.  the  Shawanoe,  and  the  Lenape  or  Delaware.  It  is  not  assumed 
that  Ojibwe  (Chippeway)  terms  are  not  Algonquian,  but  that  they  do  not 
strictly  belong  to  the  dialects  of  the  Hudson's  river  families.  Rev.  Hecke- 
welder  saw  no  particular  difference  between  the  Ojibwe  and  the  Lenape 
except  in  the  French  and  the  English  forms.  Ojibwe  terms  may  always  be 
quoted  in  explanations  of  the  Lenape. 


l6  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

known  as   Ward's   Island.'       It   appears   in  deed   of    1636-7.       It 
means  "Small  island,"  from  Tenke   (Len.),  "little." 

Monatun  was  conferred  by  Dr.  Schoolcraft  on  the  whirlpool  off 
Hallet's  Cove,  with  the  explanation,  "  A  word  conveying  in  its 
multiplied  forms  the  various  meanings  of  violent,  forcible,  danger- 
ous, etc."  Dr.  Schoolcraft  introduced  the  word  as  the  derivative  of 
Manhatan,  Which,  however,  is  very  far  from  being  explained  by 
it.  Hell-gate,  a  vulgar  orthography  of  Dutch  Hellegat,  has  long 
been  the  popular  name  of  the  place.  It  was  conferred  by  Adriaen 
Block,  in  1614-16,  to  tlie  dangerous  strait  known  as  the  East  River, 
from  a  strait  in  Zealand,  which,  presumably,  was  so  called  from 
Greek  Hellc,  as  heard  in  Hellespont — "  Sea  of  Helle  " — now  known 
as  the  Dardanelles — vi^hich  received  its  Greek  name  from  Helle, 
daugliter  of  Athamas,  King  of  Thebes,  who,  the  fable  tells  us,  was 
diT'^-^f-d  in  passing  ovtv  it.  Probably  the  Dutch  sailors  regarded 
the  strait  as  the  "  Gate  of  Hell,"  but  that  is  not  the  meaning  of 
the  name — "  a  dangerous  strait  or  passage."  In  some  records  the 
strait  is  called  Hurlgate,  from  Dutch  Warrel,  "  Whirl,"  and  gat, 
"  Hole,  gap,  mouth  " — substantially,  "  a  whirlpool." 

Monachnong,  deed  to  De  Vries,  1636;  Menates,  De  Vries's 
Journal;  Ehquaons  (Eghquaous,  Brodhead,  by  mistake  in  the  letter 
n),  deed  of  1655,  and  Aquehonge-Monuchnong,  deed  to  Governor 
Lovelace,  1670,  are  forms  of  the  names  given  as  that  of  Staten 
Island,  and  are  all  from  Lenape  equivalents.  Meitates  means 
'■'  Small  island  "  as  a  whole ;  Monach'nong  means  a  "  Place  on  the 
island,"  or  less  than  the  whole,  as  shown  by  the  claims  of  the  In- 
dians in  1670,  that  they  had  not  previously  sold  all  the  island.  (Col. 
Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  453.)  It  is  the  equivalent  of  Menach'hen,  Minsi ; 
Menach'n,  Abn.,  "  Island,"  and  ong,  locative ;  in  Mass.  Mimnoh-han- 
auke.  (See  Mannhonake.)  Eghquaons  and  Aquehonga  are  equiv- 
alents, and  also  equivalents  of  Achquoanikan-ong,  "  Bushnet  fishing- 
place,"  of  which  Acquenonga  is  an  alternate  in  New  Jersey.  (Nel- 
son's "  Indians  of  New  Jersey,"  122.)     In  other  words,  the  Indians 


*  The  Dutch  called  the  island  Onvruchtbaar,  "  Unfruitful,  barren."  The 
English  adopted  the  signification,  "  Barren,"  which  soon  became  corrupted 
to  "  Barrent's,"  to  which  was  added  "  Great "  to  distinguish  it  from  Randal's 
Island,  which  was  called  "  Little  Barrent's  Island."  Barn  Island  is  another 
corruption.     Both  islands  were  "  barren  "  no  doubt. 


Hudson's  river  and  its  islands.  17 

conveyed  places  on  the  island,  including  specifically  their  "  bushnet 
fishing-place,"  and  by  the  later  deed  to  Lovelace,  conveyed  all  un- 
sold places.  The  island  was  owned  by  the  Raritans  who  resided 
"  behind  the  Kol,"  and  the  adjoining  Hackensacks.  (Deed  of  1655.) 
Its  last  Indian  occupants  were  the  Nyacks,  who  removed  to  it  after 
selling  their  lands  at  New  Utrecht.      (See  Paganck  note.) 

Minnahanock,  given  as  the  name  of  BlackweH's  Island,  was  in- 
terpreted by  Dr.  Trumbull  from  Munndhan,,  Mass.,  the  indefinite 
form  of  Munnoh,  "  Island,"  and  auke,  Mass.,  "  Land  "  or  place. 
Dr.  O'Callaghan's  "  Island  home,"  is  not  in  the  composition.  (See 
Mannhonake.) 


On  Manhattan  Island. 

Kapsee,  Kapsick,  etc.,  the  name  of  what  was  the  extreme  point 
of  land  between  Hudson's  River  and  the  East  River,  and  still  known 
as  Copsie  Point,  was  claimed  by  Dr.  Schoolcraft  to  be  Algonquian^ 
and  to  mean,  "  Safe  place  of  landing,"  which  it  may  have  been. 
The  name,  however,  is  pretty  certainly  a  corruption  of  Dutch  Kaap- 
hoekje,  "  A  little  cape  or  promontory." 

Saponickan  and  Sapohanican  are  the  earliest  fonns  of  a  name 
which  appears  later  Sappokanican,  Sappokanikke,  Saponican,  Shaw- 
backanica,   Taponkanico,   etc.     "  A  piece  of  land  bounded  on  the 
north  by  the  strand  road,  called  Saponickan  "    ( 1629)  ;  "  Tobacco 
plantation  near  Sapohanican  "   ( 1639)  ;  "  Plantation  situate  against 
the  Reed  Valley   beyond   Sappokanican"    (1640).        Wouter  van 
Twiller  purchased  the  tract,  in  1629,  for  the  use  of  the  Dutch  gov- 
ernment and  established  thereon  a  tobacco  plantation,  with  build- 
ings enclosed  in   palisade,   which   subsequently  became   known  as 
"  the  litJtle  village  of  Sapokanican — Sappokanican,  Van  der  Donck — 
and  later   (1721)  as  Greenwich  Village.       It  occupied  very  nearly 
the  site  of  the  present  Gansevort  market.     The  "  Strand  road  "  is 
now  Greenwich   Street.       It  was  primarily,  an  Indian  path  along 
the  shore  of  the  river  north,  with  branches  to  Harlem  and  other 
points,  the  main  path  continuing  the  trunk-path  through  Raritan 
Valley,  but   locally  beginning  at   the   "  crossing-place,"  or,   as   the 


i8 


INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 


record  reads,  "  Where  the  Indians  cross  [the  Hudson]  to  bring 
their  pelteries." '  "  South  of  Van  Twiller's  plantation  was  a  marsh 
much  affected  by  wild-fowl,  and  a  bright,  quick  brook,  called  by  the 
Dutch  '  Bestavar's  Kil,'  and  by  the  English  '  Manetta  Water.'  " ' 
(Half-Moon  Series.)  Saponickan  was  in  place  here  when  Van 
Twiller  made  his  purchase  (1629),  as  the  record  shows,  and  was 
adopted  by  him  as  the  name  of  his  settlement.  To  what  feature 
it  referred  cannot  be  positively  stated,  but  apparently  to  the  Reed 
Valley  or  marsh.  It  has  had  several  interpretations,  but  none  that 
are  satisfactory.  The  syllable  pon  may  denote  a  bulbous  root  which 
was  found  there.  (See  Passapenoc.)  The  same  name  is  probably 
met  in  Saphorakain,  or  Saphonakan,  given  as  the  name  of  a  tract 
described  as  "  Marsh  and  canebrake,"  lying  near  or  on  the  shore 
of  Gowanus  Bay,  Brooklyn.  (See  Kanonnewage,  in  connection 
with  Manhattan.) 

Nahtonk,  Recktauck,  forms  of  the  name,  or  of  two  different 
names,  of  Corlear's  Hook,  may  signify,  abstractively,  "  Sandy 
Point,"  as  has  been  interpreted;  but  apparently,  Nahtonk^  is  from 
Na-i,  "a  point  or  corner,"  and  Recktauck  from  Lekau   (Requa), 

* "  Through  tliis  valley  pass  large  numbers  of  all  sorts  of  tribes  on  their 
way  north  and  east."  (Van  Tienhovcn,  1650.)  "Where  the  Indians  cross 
to  bring  their  pelteries.''  (De  Laet,  1635.)  The  crossing-place  is  now  known 
as  Pavonia.  The  path  crossed  the  Spuyten  Duyvil  at  Harlem  and  extended 
along  the  coast  east.  To  and  from  it  ran  many  ''  paths  and  roads  "  on  Man- 
hattan, which,  imder  the  grant  to  Van  Twiller,  were  to  "  forever  remain  for 
the  use  of  the  inhabitants."  The  evidence  of  an  Indian  village  at  or  near 
the  landing  is  not  tangible.  The  only  village  or  settlement  of  which  there 
is  an}'  evidence  was  that  which  gathered  around  Van  Twiller's  plantation, 
which  was  a  noted  trading  post  for  "  all  sorts  of  tribes." 

^Bestevaar  (Dutch)  means  "Dear  Father,"  and  Manetta  (Manittoo,  Al- 
gonquian),  means,  "That  which  surpasses,  or  is  more  than  ordinary."  Water 
of  more  than  ordinary   excellence.      (See   Manette.) 

'  Naghtonk  (Benson);  Nahtonk  (Schoolcraft);  Rechtauck  (record).  It 
was  to  the  huts  which  were  located  here  to  which  a  clan  of  Long  Island  In- 
dians fled  for  protection,  in  February.  1643,  and  were  inhumanly  murdered 
by  the  Dutch.  The  record  reads :  "  Where  a  few  Rockaway  Indians  from 
Long  Island,  with  their  chief,  Niande  Nummcrus,  had  built  their  wigwams." 
(Brodhead.)  "And  a  party  of  freemen  behind  Corlear's  plantation,  on  the 
Manhattans,  who  slew  a  large  number  and  afterwards  burned  their  huts." 
The  name  of  the  Chief,  Niande  Nniiniicrus,  is  corrupted  from  the  Latin  Ni- 
canda  Numericus,  the  name  of  a  Roman  gens-  De  Vries  wrote,  "  Hummerus, 
a  Rockaway  chief,  who  I  knew." 

*  See  Rechqua-hackie.  "  The  old  Harlem  creek,  on  Manhattan  Island,  was 
called  Rechawanes,  or  '  Small,   sandy  river.' "     (Gerard.) 


i 


ON  MANHATTAN  ISLAND.  1 9 

"  Sand  gravel  "' — a  "  sandy  place."       It  was  a  sandy  point  with  a 
beach,  entered,  on  English  maps,  "  Crown  Point." 

Warpoes  is  given  as  the  name  of  "a  small  hill  "  on  the  east 
side  and  "  near  ye  fresh  water  "  lake  or  pond  called  the  Kolk  (Dutch 
"  p'it-hole  "),  which  occupied  several  acres  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Centre  Street.^  The  Indian  name  is  that  of  the  narrow  pass  be- 
tween the  hill  and  the  pond,  wdiich  it  described  as  "  small  "  or  nar- 
row.     (See  Raphoos.) 

In  the  absence  of  record  names,  the  late  Dr.  Schoolcraft  con- 
ferred, on  several  points,  terms  from  the  Ojibwe  or  Chippeway, 
which  may  be  repeated  as  descriptive  merely.  A  hill  at  the  corner 
of  Charlton  and  Varick  streets  was  called  by  him  IsJipatiiiau,  "A  bad 
hill."  ^  A  ridge  or  cliff  north  of  Beekman  Street,  was  called  Ishibic, 
"  A  bad  rock  ;"  the  high  land  on  Broadway,  Acitoc ;  a  rock  rising  up 
in  the  Battery.  Abie,  and  Mount  Washington,  Penabic,  "  The  comb 
mountain."  The  descriptions  are  presumably  correct,  but  the  fea- 
tures no  longer  exist. 

Muscota  is  given  as  the  name  of  the  "  plain  or  meadow  "  known 
later  as  Montague's  Flat,  between  io8th  and  124th  streets.  (Col. 
Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv.)  It  also  appears  as  the  name  of  a  hill,  and  in 
Muskuta  as  that  of  the  great  flat  on  the  north  side  of  the  Spuyten 
Duivel.  "  The  first  point  of  the  main  land  to  the  east  of  the  island 
Papirinimen,  there  where  the  hill  Muskuta  is."  The  hill  takes  the 
name  from  the  meadows  which  it  describes.  "  Moskehtu,  a  meadow." 
(EHot.) 

Papinemen  (1646),  Pahparinnamen  (1693),  Papirinimen 
(modern),  are  forms  of  the  Indian  name  used  interchangeably  by 
the  Dutch  with  Spuyten  Duivel  to  designate  a  place  where  the  tide- 
overflow  of  the  Harlem  River  is-  turned  aside  by  a  ridge  and  unites 
with  Tibbet's  Brook,  constituting  what  is  known  as  the  Spuyten 
Duivel  Kill,  correctly  described  by  Riker  in  his  "  History  of  Har- 
lem " :    "  The    narrow    kill   called   by    the    Indians    Pahparinamen, 


'  "  By  ye  edge  of  ye  hill  by  ve  fresh  water."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers, 
17.)  The  Dutch  name  ran  into  Kalch,  Kolack  and  Collect,  and  m  early  rec- 
ords "  Kalch-hock."  from  its  peculiar  shape,  resembling  a  fish-hook. 

■-"At  ve  sand  Hills  near  the  Bowery."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers.  17.) 
Ishpctou<{a  was  given  by  the  same  writer  to  Brooklyn  Heights,  with  the  ex- 
planation "  High,  sandy  banks,"  but  the  term  does  not  describe  Mie  character 
of  the   elevation.     (See   Espating.) 


2  0  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

which,  winding  around  t'he  northerly  end  of  Manhattan,  connected 
the  Spuyten  Duyvil  with  the  Great  Kill  or  Harlem  River,  gave  its 
name  to  the  land  contiguous  to  it  on  either  side."  The  locative  of 
the  name  is  clearly  shown  in  the  boundaries  of  the  Indian  deed  to 
Van  der  Donck,  in  1646,  and  in  the  subsequent  Philipse  Patent  of 
1693,  the  former  describing  the  south  line  of  the  lands  conveyed  as 
extending  from  the  Hudson  "  to  Papinemen,  called  by  our  people 
Spuyten  Duivel,"  and  the  latter  as  extending  to  and  including  "  the 
neck,  island  or  hummock,  Pahparinnamen,"  on  the  north  side  of 
the  passage,  at  which  point,  in  the  early  years  of  Dutch  occupancy, 
a  crossing  place  or  "  wading  place  "  was  found  which  had  been 
utilized  by  the  Indians  for  ages,  and  of  which  Jasper  Bankers  and 
Peter  Sluyter  wrote,  in  1679-80,  "  They  can  go  o\'er  this  creek,  at 
dead  or  low  water,  upon  the  rocks  aud  reefs,  at  a  place  called  Spuyt 
ten  Duyvel."  From  this  place  the  name  was  extended  to  the 
"  island  or  hummock  "  and  to  what  was  called  "  the  Papirinameno 
Patent,"  at  the  same  point  on  the  south  side  of  the  stream,  to  which 
it  was  claimed  to  belong  in  1701.  Mr.  Riker's  assignment  of  the 
name  to  the  Spuyten  Duivel  passage  is  probably  correct.  The 
"  neck,  island  or  hummock  "  was  a  low  elevation  in  a  salt  marsh 
or  meadow.  It  was  utilized  as  a  landing  place  by  the  Indians  whose 
path  ran  from  thence  across  the  marsh  "  to  the  main,"  Later,  the 
path  was  converted  to  a  causeway  or  road-approach  to  what  is  still 
known  as  King's  Bridge.  A  ferry  was  established  here  in  1669 
and  known  as  "  The  Spuyten  Duyvil  passage  or  road  to  and  from 
the  island  to  the  main."  In  1692  Governor  Andros  gave  power  to 
the  city  of  New  York  to  build  a  bridge  "  over  the  Spiken  devil 
ferry,"  and  the  city,  with  the  consent  of  the  Governor,  transferred 
the  grant  to  Frederick  Philipse.  In  giving  his  consent  the  Gover- 
nor made  the  condition  that  the  bridge  "  s'hould  thenceforth  be 
known  and  called  King's  Bridge."  It  was  made  a  free  bridge  in 
1758-9.  The  "  island  or  hummock  "  came  to  be  the  site  of  the 
noted  Macomb  mansion. 

The  name  has  not  been  satisfactorily  translated.  Mr.  Riker 
wrote,  "Where  the  stream  closes,"  or  is  broken  off,  recognizing 
the  locative  of  the  name.  Ziesberger  wrote,  Papinamen,  "  Di- 
verting," turning  aside,  to  go  different  ways ;  accessorily,  that  which 
diverts  or  turns  aside,  and  place  where  the  action  of  the  verb  is 


ON  MANHATTAN  ISLAND.  2  1 

perfomied.     Where  the  Harlem  is  turned  aside  or  diverted,  would 
be   a   literal   description. 

Spuyten  Duyvil,  now  so  written,  was  the  early  Dutch  nickname 
of  the  Papirinimen  ford  or  passage,  later  known  as  King's  Bridge. 
■'  By  our  people  called,"  wrote  Van  der  Donck  in  1652,  indicating 
conference  by  the  Dutch  prior  to  that  date.  It  simply  described 
die  passage  as  evil,  vicious,  dangerous.  Its  derivatives  are  Spui, 
"  sluice ;"  Spidt,  "  spout ;"  Spuiten,  "  to  spout,  to  squirt,  to  dis- 
charge with  force,"  as  a  waterspout,  or  water  forced  through  a  nar- 
row passage.  Duyzil  is  a  colloquial  expression  of  viciousness. 
The  same  name  is  met  on  the  Mohawk  in  application  to  the  passage 
of  the  stream  between  two  islands  near  Schenectady.  The  gen- 
erally quoted  translation,  "Spuyt  den  Duyvil,  In  spite  of  the  Devil," 
quoted  by  Brodhead  as  having  been  written  by  Van  der  Donck,  has 
no  standing  except  in  Irving's  "  Knickerbocker  History  of  New 
York."  Van  der  Donck  never  wrote  the  sentence.  He  knew,  and 
Brodhead  knew,  that  Spiiyt  was  not  Spijt,  nor  Spuiten  stand  for 
Spuittcn.  The  Dutcli  for  "In  spite  of  the  Devil,"  is  /;/  Spijt  van 
Diiivel.  The  sentence  may  have  been  quoted  by  Brodhead  without 
examination.  It  was  a  popular  story  that  Irving  told  about  one 
Antony  Corlear's  declaration  that  he  would  swim  across  the  ford 
at  flood  tide  in  a  violent  storm,  "  In  spite  of  the  devil,"  but  obvious- 
ly coined  in  Irving's  brain.  It  may,  however,  had  for  its  founda- 
tion the  antics  of  a  very  black  and  muscular  African  who  was  em- 
ployed to  guard  the  passage  and  prevent  hostile  Indians  as  well  as 
indiscrete  Dutchmen  from  crossing,  and  who,  for  the  better  dis- 
charge of  his  duty,  built  fires  at  night,  armed  himself  with  sword 
and  firebrands,  vociforated  loudly,  and  acted  the  cl^aracter  of  a  devil 
very  well.  At  all  events  the  African  is  the  only  historical  devil  that 
had  an  existence  at  the  ford,  and  he  finally  ran  away  and  became 
merged  with  the  Indians.  Spiting  Devil,  an  English  corruption, 
ran  naturally  into  Spitting  Devil,  and  some  there  are  who  think  that 
that  is  a  reasonably  fair  rendering  of  Dutch  Spuiten.  They  are 
generally  of  the  class  that  take  in  a  cant  reading  w'ith  a  relish. 

Shorakkapoch  and  Shorackappock  are  orthographies  of  the 
name  of  record  as  that  of  the  cove  into  which  the  Papirinemen  dis- 
charges its  waters  at  a  point  on  the  Hudson  known  as  Tubby  Hook, 
It  is  specifically  located  in  the  Philipse  charter  of  1693 :    "  A  creek 


22  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

called  Papparinnemeno  which  divides  New  York  Island  from  tlie 
main  land,  so  along  said  creek  as  it  runs  to  Hudson's  River,  which 
part  is  called  by  the  Indians  Shorackhappok,"  i.  e.  that  part  of  the 
stream  on  Hudson's  River.  In  the  patent  to  Hugh  O'Neil  (1666)  : 
"  To  the  Kill  Shorakapoch,  and  then  to  Papirinimen,"  /.  c,  to  the 
cove  and  thence  east  to  the  Spuyten  Duyvil  passage.  "  The  beau- 
tiful inlet  called  Schorakapok."  (Riker.)  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote 
"  Showaiikuppock  (Mohegan),  a  cove."  William  R.  Gerard  sug- 
gests ''  P'skurikuppog  (Lenape),  'forked,  fine  harbor,'  so  called  be- 
cause it  was  safely  shut  in  by  Tubby  Hook,^  and  another  Hook  at 
the  north,  the  current  taking  a  bend  around  the  curved  point  of 
rock  (covered  at  high  tide)  that  forked  or  divided  the  harbor  at 
the  back."  Dr.  Brinton  wrote:  "  W'shakuppek,  'Smooth  still 
water ;'  pek,  a  lake,  cove  or  any  body  of  still  water ;  kup,  from  kiippi, 
'cove,'  "  Bolton,  in  his."  History  of  Westchester  County,"  located 
at  the  mouth  of  the  stream,  on  the  north  side,  an  Indian  fort  or 
castle  under  the  name  of  Nipinichen,  but  that  name  belongs  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Hudson  at  Konstable's  Hook,-  and  the  narrative  of 
the  attack  on  Hudson's  ship  in  1609,  noted  in  Juet's  Journal,  does 
not  warrant  the  conclusion  that  there  was  an  Indian  fort  or  castle 
in  the  vicinity.  A  fishing  village  there  may  have  been.  At  a  later 
date  (1675)  the  authorities  permitted  a  remnant  of  the  Weckquas- 
gecks  to  occupy  lands  "  On  the  north  point  of  Manhattan  Island  " 
(Col,  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  494),  and  the  place  designated  may  have 
been  in  previous  occupation. 


Names  on  the  East  from  Manhattan  North. 

Keskeskick,  "a  pijce  of  land,  situated  opposite  to  the  flat  on 
the  island  of  Manhattan,  called  Keskeskick,  stretching  lengthwise 
along  the  Kil  which  runs  behind  the  island  of  Manhattan,  begin- 
ning at  the  head  of  said  Kil  and  running  to  opposite  of  the  high 
hill  by  the  flat,  iiamely  by  the  great  hill,"     (Deed  of  1638.)     Kax- 

^  Tubby  I  Took,  Dutch  Tobbe  Hoeck,  from  its  resemblance  to  a  washtub. 

°  Called  Konstabelshc's  Hoek  from  a  grant  of  land  to  one  Jacobus  Roy. 
the  Konstabel  or  gunner  at  Fort  Amsterdam,  in  1646. 


Courtesy  of  the  Four  Track  News. 

THE  PALISADES  FROM  YONKERS. 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN  NORTH.  23 

keek  is  the  orthography  of  Riker  (Hist,  of  Harlem)  ;  and  Kekesick 
that  of  Brodhead  (Hist.  New  York),  in  addition  to  which  may  be 
quoted  Keesick  and  Keakates,  given  as  the  names  of  what  is  now 
known  as  Long  Pond,  which  formed  the  southeast  boundary  of  the 
tract,  where  was  also  a  salt  marsh  or  meadow.  In  general  terms, 
the  name  means  a  "  meadow,"  and  may  have  been  that  of  this  salt 
marsh  (a  portion  of  the  name  dropped)  or  of  the  flat.  The  root 
is  Kak,  "  sharp  ;''Kdkdkes,  "  sharp  grass,"  or  sedge-marsh ;  Sik- 
kdkaskeg,  "salt  sedge-marsh."  (Gerard.)  Micuckaskeete,  "a. 
meadow."  (Williams.)  Muscota,  now  in  use,  is  another  word  for 
meadow. 

Mannepies  is  quoted  by  Riker  (Hist.  Harlem)  as  the  name  of 
the  hilly  tract  or  district  of  Keskeskick,  described  as  lying  "  over 
against  the  flats  of  the  island  of  Manhattan."  It  is  now  preserved 
as  the  name  of  Cromwell  Lake  and  creek,  and  seems  to  have  been 
the  name  of  the  former.  The  original  was  probably  an  equivalent 
of  Menuppek,  "  Any  enclosed  body  of  water  great  or  small."  (An- 
thony.) '    \'    \\k 

Neperah,  Nippiroha,  Niperan,  Nepeehen,  Napperhaera,  Ar= 
mepperahin,  the  latter  of  date  1642  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  9), 
forms  of  record  as  the  name  of  Sawmill  Creek,  and  also  quoted  as 
the  name  of  the  site  of  the  present  city  of  Yonkers,  has  been  trans- 
lated by  Wm.  R.  Gerard,  from  the  form  of  1642 :  "  A  corruption  of 
Ana-nepeheren,  that  is,  '  fishing  stream/  or  '  fishing  rapids.'  "  Ap- 
pehan  (Eliot),  "a  trap,  a  snare."  There  was  an  Indian  village  on 
the  north  side  of  the  stream  in  1642.     (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  9.) 

Nepahkomuk,  Nappikomack,  etc.,  quoted  as  the  name  of  a  place 
on  Sawmill  Creek,  and  also  as  the  name  of  an  Indian  village  at  Yon- 
kers, may  have  been  the  name  of  the  latter  by  extension.  It  has  been 
translated  with  apparent  correctness  from  Nepe-komuk  (Mass.), 
"  An  enclosed  or  occupied   water-place.' 

^This  translations  is  from  Nepe  (Nepa,  Nape,  Kippc,  etc.),  meaning 
"water,"  generally,  and  Komuk,  "place  enclosed,  occupied,  limited,"  a  par- 
ticular body  of  water.  "  The  radical  of  Nipe  is  pe  or  pa,  which,  with  the 
demonstrative  and  definitive  ne  prefixed,  formed  the  noun  nippe,  water." 
(Trumbull.)  Nape-ake  {-aukc,  -aki)  means  "Water-land,"  or  water-place. 
Nape-ek,  Del.,  Nepeauk,  Mass.,  means  "  Standing  water,"  a  lake  or  pond  or 
a  stretch  of  still  water  in  a  river.  Menuppek,  "  Lake,  sea,  any  enclosed  body 
of  water,  great  or  small."     (Anthony.)     Nebi,  nabe,  m'bi,  be,  are  dialectic 


24  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Meghkeekassin,  the  name  of  a  large  rock  in  an  obscure  nook  on 
the  west  side  of  the  Neperah,  near  the  Hudson,  is  written  Macackas- 
sin  in  deed  of  1661.  It  is  from  Mechek,  Del.,  "  great,"  and  assin' 
"stone."  "  Meechck-assin-ik,  At  the  big  rock."  (Heckewelder.) 
The  name  is  also  of  record  Amack-assin,  a  Delaware  term  of  the 
same  general  meaning — "  Amangi,  great,  big  (in  composition  Aman- 
gach),  with  the  accessory  notion  of  teTrible,  frightful."  (Dr.  Brin- 
ton.)  Presumalbly,  in  application  'here,  "  a  monster,"  i.  e.  a  stone 
not  of  the  native  formation  usually  found  in  the  locality.^ 

Wickquaskeck  is  entered  on  Van  der  Donck's  map  as  the  name 
of  an  Indian  village  or  castle  the  location  of  which  is  claimed  by 
Bolton  to  have  been  at  Dobb's  Ferry,  where  the  name  is  of  record. 
It  was,  however,  the  name  of  a  place  from  which  it  was  extended 
by  the  early  Dutch  to  a  very  considerable  representative  clan  or 
family  of  Indians  whose  jurisdiction  extended  from  the  Hudson 
to  or  beyond  the  Armonck  or  Byram's  River,  with  principal  seat  on 
the  head  waters  of  that  stream,  or  on  one  of  its  tributaries,  who 
constituted  the  tribe  more  especially  known  to  the  Dutch  settlers 
as  the  Manhattans.  Cornelius  Tienhoven,  Secretary  of  New  Am- 
sterdam, wrote,  in  1654,  "  Wicqitaeskeck  on  the  North  River,  five 
miles  above  New  Amsterdam,  is  very  good  and  suitable  land  for 
agriculture.  *  *  This  land  lies  between  the  Sintsinck  and  Ar- 
monck streams,  situate  between  the  East  and  North  rivers."  (Doc. 
Hist,  N.  Y.,  iv,  29.)     "Five  miles,"  Dutch,  was  then  usually  counted 


forms.  The  Delaware  M'hi  (Zeisb.)  is  occasionally  met  in  the  valley,  but 
the  Massachusetts  Nepe  is  more  frequent.  Garni  is  another  noun-generic 
meaning  "Water"  (Cree,  Kume).  Komuk  (Mass.),  Kamick  (Del.),  is  fre- 
quently met  in  varying  orthographies.  In  general  terms  it  means  "  Place," 
limited  or  enclosed,"  a  particular  place  as  a  field,  garden,  house,  etc.,  as  dis- 
tinguished from  auke,  "  Land,  earth,  unlimited,  unenclosed." 

^The  Indians  are  traditionally  represented  as  regarding  boulders  of  this 
class,  as  monuments  of  a  great  battle  which  was  fought  between  their  hero 
myth  Micabo  and  Kasbun  his  twin  brother,  the  former  representing  the 
East  or  Orient,  and  the  latter  the  West,  the  imagery  being  a  description  of 
the  primary  contest  between  Light  and  Darkness — Light  learning  from  the 
East  and  Darkness  retreating  to  the  West  before  it-  Says  the  story:  "The 
feud  between  the  brothers  was  bitter  and  the  contest  long  and  doubtful.  It 
began  on  the  mountains  of  the  East.  The  face  of  the  land  was  seamed  and 
torn  by  the  wrestling  of  the  mighty  combatants,  and  the  huge  boulders  that 
are  scattered  about  were  the  weapons  hurled  at  each  other  by  the  enraged 
brothers."  The  story  is  told  in  its  several  forms  by  Dr.  Brinton  in  his 
"  American  Hero  Myths." 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  25 

as  twenty  miles  (Eng'lish).  Standard  Dutch  miles  would  be  about 
eighteen.  The  Armonck  is  now  called  Byram  River ;  it  flows  to  the 
Sound  on  the  boundary  line  between  New  York  and  Connecticut. 
A  part  of  the  territory  of  this  tribe  is  loosely  described  in  a  deed 
of  1682,  as  extending-  "  from  the  rock  Sigbes,  on  Hudson's  River, 
to  the  Neperah,  and  thence  north  until  you  come  to  the  eastward 
of  the  head  of  the  creek,  called  by  the  Indians  Wiequaskeck,^  stretch- 
ing through  the  woods  to  a  kill  called  Seweruc,"  including  "  a  piece 
■of  land  about  Wighqueskeck,''  i.  e.  about  the  bead  of  the  creek, 
which  was  certainly  at  the  end  of  a  swamp.  The  historic  seat  of 
the  clan  was  in  this  vicinity.  In  the  narrative  of  the  war  of  1643-5, 
it  is  written,  "  He  of  Witqueschreek,  living  N.  E.  of  Manhattans." 

*  *  "  The  old  Indian  (a  captive)  promised  to  lead  us  to  Wet- 
quescheck."  He  did  so,  but  the  castles,  three  in  number,  strongly 
palisaded,  were  found  empty.  Two  of  them  were  burned.  The  in- 
mates, it  was  learned,  had  gathered  at  a  large  castle  or  village  on 
Patucquapaug,  now  known  as  Dumpling  Pond,  in  Greenwich,  Ct., 
to  celebrate  a  festival.  They  were  attacked  there  and  slaughtered 
in  great  numbers.  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iv,  29.)  Bolton's  claim  that 
the  clan  had  a  castle  at  or  near  Dobb's  Ferry,  may  have  been  true 
at  some  date.  The  name  appears  in  many  orthographies;  in  1621, 
Wyeck;  in  treaty  of  1645,  Wiquaeshex ;  in  other  connections,  Wit- 
queschreek, JVeaquassick,  and  Van  der  Donck's  Wickquaskeek. 
Bolton  translated  it  from  the  form,  Weicquasguck,  "  Place  of  the 
bark  kettle,"  which  is  obviously  erroneous.  Dr,  Trumbull  wrote: 
"  From  Moh.  Weegasoegiick,  '  the  end  of  the  marsh  or  wet  mea- 
dow.' "  Van  der  Donck's  Wickquaskeek  has  the  same  meaning. 
It  is  from  Lenape  Wicqua-askek — wicqua,  "end  of,"  askek, 
''  swamp,"  marsh,  etc. :  -ck,  -eck,  formative. 

Pocanteco,    Pecantico,    Puegkandico    and    Perghanduck,    a 

stream  so  called-  in  Westchester  County,  was  translated  by  Dr.  O'- 
Callaghan  from  Pohknnni,  "Dark."  "The  daric  river,"  and  by  Bolton 

'  The  creek  now  bearing  the  name  flows  to  the  Hudson  through  the  village 
of  Dobb's  Ferry.  Its  local  name,  "  Wicker's  creek,"  is  a  corruption  of  Wick- 
quaskeek.    It  was  never  the  name  of  an  individual. 

'December  ist,  1680,  Frederick  Phillips  petitioned  for  liberty  to  purchase 
"  a  parcel  of  land  on  each  side  of  the  creek  called  by  the  Indians  Pocanteco, 

*  *  adjoining  the  land  he  hath  already  purchased;  there  to  build  and  erect 
a  saw-mill."     (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  546-) 


26  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

from  Pockawachne,  "  A  stream  between  hills,"  which  is  certainly 
erroneous.  The  first  word  is  probably  Pohk  or  Pdk,  root  Paken 
{Pdkemim,  "Dark,"  Zeisb. ;  Pohkcn-ahtu,  "In  darkness,"  Eliot). 
The  second  may  stand  for  antakeu,  "  Woods,"  "  Forest,"  and  the 
combination  read  "  The  Dark  Woods."  The  stream  rises  in  New 
Castle  township  and  flows  across  the  town  of  Mt.  Pleasant  to  the 
Hudson  at  Tarrytown,  where  it  is  associated  with  Irving-'s  story  of 
Sleepy  Hollow.  The  Dutch  called  it  "  Sleeper's-haven  Kil,"  from 
the  name  which  they  gave  to  the  reach  on  the  Hudson,  "  Verdrietig 
Hoek,"  or  "  Tedious  Point,"  because  the  hook  or  point  was  so  long 
in  sight  of  their  slow-sailing  vessels,  and  in  calms  their  crews  slept 
away  the  hours  under  its  shadows,  "  Over  against  the  Verdrietig 
Hoek,  commonly  called  by  the  name  of  Sleeper's  Haven,"  is  the 
record.  Pocanteco  was  a  heavily  Avooded  valley,  and  suggested  to 
the  early  mothers  stories  of  ghosts  to  keep  their  children  from  wan- 
dering in  its  depths.  From  the  woods  or  the  valley  the  name  was 
extended  to  the  stream.'     (See  Alipkonck.) 

Alipkonck  is  entered  on  Van  der  Donck's  map  of  1656,  and 
located  with  the  sign  of  an  Indian  village  south  of  Sing  Sing.  Bol- 
ton (Hist.  West.  Co.)  claimed  it  as  the  name  of  Tarrytown,  and 
translated  it.  "  The  place  of  elms,"  which  it  certainly  does  not  mean. 
Its  derivative,  however,  is  disguised  in  its  orthography,  and  its 
locative  is  not  certain.  Conjecturall)%  Alipk  is  from  IVdlagk  (surd 
mutes  g  and  p  exchanged),  "An  open  place,  a  hollow^  or  excava- 
tion." The  locative  may  have  been  Sleepy  Hollow.  Tarrytown, 
which  some  writers  have  derived  from  Tarwe  (Dutch),  "Wheat" 
— Wheat  town — proves  to  be  from  an  early  settler  whose  name  was 
Terry,  pronounced  Tarry,  as  written  in  early  records.  The  Dutch 
name  for  Wheait  town  would  be  Tarwe-stadt,  whicli  was  never  writ- 
ten here. 

Oscawanna,  an  island  so  called,  lying  a  short  distance  south  of 
Cruger's  Station  on  N.  Y.  Central  R.  R.,  Hudson  River  Division, 
is  of  record,  in  1690,  Wuscawanus.  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  ii,  237.) 
It  seems  to  have  been  from  the  name  of  a  sachem,  otherwise  known 


*"Far  in  the  foldings  of  the  hills  winds  this  wizard  stream — sometimes 
silently  and  darkly  through  solemn  woodlands.  *  *  In  the  neighborhood 
of  the  acqueduct  is  a  deep  ravine  which  forms  the  dreamv  region  of  Sleepy 
Hollow."     (Sketch  Book.) 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  2^ 

as  Weskora,  Weskheun,  Weskomen,  in  1685.     IVuski,  Len.,  "  New, 
young- ;"  IVuske'cne    Williams,  "  A  youth." 

Shildrake,  or  Sheldrake,  given  as  the  name  of  Furnace  Brook, 
takes  that  name  from  an  extended  forest  known  in  local  records  as 
"  The  Furnace  Woods."  By  exchange  of  /  and  n,  it  is  probably 
from  Schind,  "Spruce-pine"  (Zeisb.)  ;  aki,  "Land"  or  place. 
Schindikeu,  "Spruce  forest  ("Hemlock  woods,"  Anthony).  (See 
Shinnec'ock.)  Furnace  Brook  talces  that  name  from  an  ancient 
furnace  on  its  bank.  In  1734  it  was  known  as  "The  old-mill 
stream."  Jamazvissa,  quoted  as  its  Indian  name,  seems  to  be  an 
aspirated  form  of  Tamaqiiese,  "  Small  beaver."     (See  Jamaica.) 

Sing=Sing — Sinsing,  Van  der  Donck ;  Sintsing,  treaty  of  1645 — 
usually  translated,  "  At  the  standing-  stone,"  and  "  Stone  upon  stone," 
means  "  At  the  small  stones,"  or  "  Place  of  small  stones  " — from 
fOssin  "  stone ;"  is,  diminutive,  and  ing,  locative.  Ossiji'sing,  the 
[name  of  the  town,  has  the  same  meaning ;  also,  Sink-sink,  L.  I., 
ind  Assinising,  Chemung  County.  The  intei-pretation  is  literally 
sustained  in  the  locative  on  the  Hudson. 

Tuckahoe,  town  of  East  Chester,  is  from  Ptuckzveoo,  ''  It  is 
[round."  It  was  the  name  of  a  bulbous  root  which  was  used  by  the 
[Indians  for  food  and  for  making  bread,  or  round  loaves.  (See 
[Tuckahoe,  L.  I.) 

Kitchiwan,  modern  form ;  Kitchawanc,  treaty  of  1643 ;  Kich- 
\tazvanghs,  treaty  of   1645 ;  Kitchiwan,  deed  of   1645  >  Kitchawan, 
treaty  of  1664;  the  name  of  a  stream  in  Westchester  County  from 
[which  extended  to  an  Indian  clan,  "  Is,"  writes  Dr.  Albert  S.  Gaits- 
[chet  of  the   Bureau  of  Ethnology,   "  an  equivalent    of    Wabenaki 
-ke'dshwan,   -kidshuan,   suffixed   verbal   stem,   meaning   '  Running 
S-wiftly,'  '  Rushing  water,'  or  current,  whether  over  rapids  or  not. 
sas-katchczvan,  Canada,  '  The  roiley,  rushing  stream ;  assisku,  'Mud, 
[dirt.'     (Cree.)     The  prefix  ki  or  ke,  is  notihing  else  than  an  abbre- 
jviation  of  kitchi,  '  great,'  '  large,'  and  here  '  strong.'     Examples  are 
[frequent  as  -kitchuan,  -kitchawan,  Mass. ;  kesi-itsooa"n  or  ta"n,  Abn., 
[ussi-tchuan,  Mass.,  '  It  swift  flows.'     The  prefix  is  usually  applied 
to  streams  which  rise  in  the  higfhlands  and  flow  down  rapidly  de- 
scending slopes."     The  final  k  in  some  of  the  early  forms,  indicates 
)ronunciation    with    the    gutural    aspirate,    as   met    in   wank    and 


28  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

wangh  in  other  local  names/  The  final  i*  is  a  foreign  plural  usually 
employed  to  express  "  people,"  or  tribe.  The  stream  is  now  known 
as  the  Croten  from  Cnoten,  the  name  of  a  resident  sachem,  which 
by  exchange  of  n  and  r,  becomes  Croten,  an  equivalent,  wrote  Dr. 
Schoolcraft  of  Noten,  Chip.,  "  The  wind."  "  Bounded  on  the 
south  by  Scroton's  River  "  (deed  of  1703)  ;  "  Called  by  the  Indians 
Kightawank,  and  by  the  English  Knotrus  River."  (Cal.  N.  Y, 
Land  Papers,  79.) 

Titicus,  given  as  the  name  of  a  branch  of  the  Croton  flowing 
from  Connecticut,  is  of  record  Mutighticos  and  Matightekonks, 
translated  by  Dr.  Trumbull  from  Mat'uhtugh-ohke,  "  Place  without 
wood,"  from  whidh  extended  to  the  stream.  (See  Mattituck  and 
Sackonck. ) 

Navish  is  claimed  as  the  name  of  Teller's  (now  Crdton)  Point, 
on  a  reading  of  the  Indian  deed  of  1683 :  "  All  that  parcel,  neck 
or  point  of  land,  with  the  meadow  ground  or  valley  adjoining,  situ- 
ate, lying  and  being  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  over  against  Ver- 
drietig's  Hooke,  commonly  called  and  known  by  the  name  '^f 
Slauper's  Haven  and  by  the  Indians  Navish,  the  meadow  being 
called  by  the  Indians  Senasqua."  Clearly,  Navish  refers  to  Ver- 
drietig  Hook,  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  where  it  is  of  record. 
It  is  an  equivalent  of  A^c^vds  (Len.),  "promontory."  (See  Nyack- 
on-the-Hudson.) 

Nannakans,  given  as  the  name  of  a  clan  residing  on  Croton 
River,  is  an  equivalent  of  N'arragans  (s  foreign  plural),  meaning 
"  People  of  the  point,"  the  locative  being  Croton  Point.  (See 
Nyack.)  This  clan,  crushed  by  the  war  of  1643-5,  removed  to  the 
Raritan  country,  where,  by  dialectic  exchange  of  n  and  r,  they  were 
krown  as  Rarit?.noos,  or  Narritans.  They  were  represented,  in 
1649,  by  Pennekeck,  "  The  chief  behind  the  Kul,  having  no  chief 
of  their  own."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii.)  The  interpretation  given 
tc  their  removal,  by  some  writers,  viz.,  "  That  the  Wappingers 


*  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote  in  the  Natick  (Mass.)  dialect,  "  Kiissitchuan,  -uwan, 
impersonal  verb,  'It  flows  in  a  rapid  stream,'  a  current;  it  continues  flowing; 
as  a  noun,  'a  rapid  stream.'"  In  Cree,  Kussehtanne,  "Flowing  as  a  stream" 
In  Delaware,  -tanne  has  its  equivalent  in  -hanne.  "  The  impersonal  verb 
termination  -awan,  -uan,  etc.,  is  sometimes  written  with  the  participial  and 
subjunctive  k  (ka  or  gh.)  (Gerard.)  The  k  or  gh  appears  in  some  forms 
of  Kitchawan.     (See  Waronawanka.) 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  29 

removed  to  New  Jersey,"  is  only  correct  in  a  limited  sense.  The 
removal  was  of  a  single  clan  or  family.  The  Indians  on  both  sides 
of  the  Hudson  here  were  of  kindred  stock  and  were  largely  inter- 
married.     (See  Raritans  and  Pomptons.) 

Senasqua,  quoted  as  the  name  of  Teller's  Point  (now  Croton 
Point),  and  also  as  the  name  of  Teller's  Neck,  is  described  as  "A 
meadow,"  presumably  on  the  neck  or  point.  It  is  an  equivalent  of 
Del  Lenaskqiial,  "Original  grass,"  (Zeisb.),  i.  e.  grass  which  was 
supposed  to  have  grown  on  the  land  from  the  beginning.  (Heck.) 
Called  "Indian  grass"  to  distinguish  it  from  "Whitemen's  grass."  ^ 

Peppeneghek  is  a  record  form  of  the  name  quoted  as  that  of 
what  is  now  known  as  Cross-river. 

Kewighecack,  the  name  of  a  boundmark  of  Van  Cortlandt's 
Manor,  is  written  on  the  map  of  the  Manor  Kezveghteuack  as  the 
name  of  a  bend  in  the  Croton  west  of  Pine  Bridge.  It  is  from 
Kona,  Kozva,  Cnzvc,  "Pine" —  C^iwe-uchac,  "Pine  wood,  pine  logs." 
(Zeisb.) 

Kestaubniuk  is  entered  on  Van  der  Donck's  map  as  the  name 
of  an  Indian  place  or  village  north  of  Sing  Sing.  On  Vischer's 
map  the  orthography  is  Kestauhocuck.  Dr.  Schoolcraft  wrote  Kes- 
toniuck,  "Great  Point,"  and  claimed  that  the  last  word  had  been 
borrowed  and  applied  to  Nyack  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river, 
but  this  is  a  mistake  as  Nyack  is  generic  and  of  local  record  where 
it  now  is  as  early  as  1660.  and  is  there  correctly  applied.  No  one 
seems  to  know  where  Kestaubniuk  was,  but  the  name  is  obviously 
from  Kitsclu-hnuok,  "Great  ground-nut  place."  Kctclic-punak  and 
Ketcha-bonac,  L.  I.,  K'schohhenak,  Del. 

Menagh,  entered  in  Indian  deed  to  Van  Cortlandt,  1683,  as  the 
name  of  what  is  now  known  as  Verplanck's  Point,  is  probably  from 
Menach'eii  (Del.),  the  indefinite  form  of  Mendtes,  diminutive,  mean- 
mg  "Small  island."  The  point  was  an  island  in  its  separation  from 
the  main  land  by  a  water  course.  Monack,  Monach,  Menach,  are 
other  orthographies  of  the  name. 

Tammoesis  is  of  record  as  the  name  of  a  small  stream  north  of 
Peekskill. 

*  Askquall,  or  Askqua,  is  an  inanimate  plural  in  the  termination  -all,  -al, 
or  -a.  All  grass  was  not  described  by  Maskik,  in  which  the  termination  -ik 
is  the  animate  plural. 


3°  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Appamaghpogh,  now  Amazvalk,  seems  to  have  been  extended 
to  a  tract  of  land  without  specific  location.  It  is  presumed  to  have 
been  the  name  of  a  fishing  place  on  what  is  now  known  as  Mohegan 
Lake  Appcli-ania-pang,  "Trap  fishing  place,"  or  pond.  Amawalk, 
is  from  Nani'c-aukc,  "Fishing-place,"  (Trumbull.)  In  the  Mas- 
sachusetts dialect  -pogh  stands  for  "pond,"  or  water-place, 

Keskistkonck,  Pasquasheck,  and  Nochpeem  are  noted  on  Van 
der  Donck's  map  in  the  TIig"hlands,  In  Colonial  History  is  the  entry 
(.1644),  "Mongochkonnome  and  Papenaharrow,  chiefs  of  Wiqusesk- 
kack  and  Nochpeems,"  On  the  east  side  of  the  river,  apparerbtly 
about  opposite  the  Donderberg,  is  located,  on  early  maps,  the 
Fachimi,  who,  in  turn,  are  associated  in  records  with  the  Tankitekes. 
I'acham  is  given  as  the  name  of  a  noted  chief  of  the  early  period. 
His  clan  was  probably  the  Pachimi.  Keskistkonck  was  a  living 
name  as  late  as  1663,  but  disappears  after  that  date.  "The  Kis- 
kightkoncks,  who  have  no  chief  now,  but  are  counted  among  the 
foregoing  savages."     (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  303.) 

Sachus,  Sachoes  and  Sackonck  are  quoted  as  names  of  Peeks- 
kill,  and  Magrigaries  as  the  name  of  the  stream.  The  latter  is  an 
orthography  of  MacGregorie's,  from  Hugh  MacGregorie,  an  owner 
of  lands  on  the  stream.^  Though  quoted  as  the  name  of  Peak's 
Kill,  it  was  the  name  given  to  a  small  creek  south  of  that  stream, 
as  per  map  of  1776.  Sachus  and  Sachoes  are  equivalents,  and 
probably  refer  to  the  mouth  or  outlet  of  the  small  or  MacGregorie's 
Creek — Sakoes  or  Saukoes.  Sackonck  has  substantially  the  same 
meaning — Sakiink,  "At  the  mouth  or  outlet  of  a  creek  or  river." 
There  was,  however,  a  resident  sachem  who  was  called  Sachoes, 
probably  from  his  place  of  residence,  but  which  can  be  read  "Black 
Kettle,"  from  Siickcii,  "black,"  and  dos,  "kettle."  Peekskill  is 
modern  from  Peak's  Kill,  so  called  from  Jan  Peak,'  the  founder 


*  Hugh  MacGregorie  was  son  of  Major  Patrick  MacGregorie,  the  first 
settler  in  the  present  count}'  of  Orange.  He  was  killed  in  the  Leisler  rebel- 
lion in  New  York  in  1691.  The  son,  Hugh,  and  his  mother,  were  granted 
1500  acres  of  land  "  At  a  place  called  John  Peaches  creek."  No  fees  were 
charged  for  the  patent  out  of  respect  for  the  memory  of  Major  MacGregorie, 
as  he  then  had  "  lately  died  in  His  Majesty's  service  in  defence  of  the  Prov- 
ince." (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y-,  ii,  364.)  MacGregories  sold  to  Van  Cortlandt  in 
1696. 

' Peake,  an  orthography  of  Peak,  English;  Dutch,  Piek;  pronounced  Pek 
(e  as  e  in  wet)  ;  English,  Pek  or  Peck. 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  JT 

of  the  settlement.  The  Indian  name  of  the  stream  is  noted,  in  deed 
of  1695,  "Called  by  the  Indians  Paquintiik,"  probably  an  equivalent 
of  Pokqueiintuk,  "A  broad,  open  place  in  a  tidal  river  or  estuary." 
Peekskill  Bay  was  probably  referred  to.     (See  Sackonck.) 

Kittatinny,  erroneously  claimed  to  mean  "  Endless  hills,"  and 
to  describe  the  Highlands  as  a  continuation  of  the  Alleghany  range, 
belongs  to  Anthony's  Nose/  to  which,  however,  it  has  no  very  early 
record  application.  It  is  from  Kitschi,  "Principal,  greatest,"  and 
-atinny,  "Hill,  mountain,"  applicable  to  any  principal  mountain  peak 
compared  with  others  in  its  vicinity.' 

Sacrahung,  or  Mill  River,  "takes  its  name  from  Sacra,  'rain.' 
Its  liability  to  freshets  after  heavy  rains,  may  have  given  origin  to 
the  name."  (O'Callaghan.)  Evidently,  however,  the  name  is  a 
corruption  of  Sakzcihiing  (Zeisb.),  "At  the  mouth  of  the  river." 
The  record  reads,  "A  small  brook  or  run  called  Wigwam  brook, 
but  by  some  falsely  called  Sackwrahung."     (Deed  of  1740.) 

Quinnehung,  a  neck  of  land  at  the  mouth  and  west  side  of  Bronx 
River,  is  presumed  to  have  been  the  name  of  Hunter's  Point.  The 
adjectival  Quinneh,  is  very  plainly  an  equivalent  of  Quinnih  (Eliot), 
"long,"  and  -ung  or  -ongh  may  stand  for  place — "A  long  place,  or 
neck  of  land."     (See  Aquchung.) 

Sackonck  and  Matightekonck,  record  names  of  places  petitioned 
for  by  Van  Cortlandt  in  1697,  are  located  in  general  terms,  in  the 
petition,  in  the  neighborhood  of  John  Peak's  Creek  and  Anthony's 
Nose.     (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  49.)     The  first  probably  referred 


^  The  origin  of  the  name  is  uncertain.  Estevan  Gomez,  a  Spanish  navi- 
gator, wrote  "St.  Anthony's  River"  as  the  name  of  the  Hudson,  in  1525. 
The  current  exphmation,  "Antonius  Neiis,  so  called  from  fancied  resemblance 
to  the  nose  of  one  Anthony  de  Hoages,"  is  a  myth.  The  name  as  the  early 
Dutch  understood  it,  is  no  doubt  more  correctly  explained  by  Jasper  Bankers 
and  Peter  Sluyter  in  their  Journal  of  1679-80:  "A  headland  and  high  hill 
in  the  Highlands,  so  called  because  it  has  a  sharp  ridge  running  up  and  down 
in  the  form  of  a  nose,"  but  fails  to  explain  St.  Anthony,  or  Latin  Antonius. 
The  name  appears  also  on  the  Mohawk  river  and  on  Lake  George,  presum- 
ably from  resemblance  to  the  Highland  peak. 

'The  Indians  had  no  names  for  mountain  ranges,  but  frequently  desig- 
nated certain  peaks  by  specific  names.  "Among  these  aboriginal  people," 
wrote  Heckewelder,  "every  tree  was  not  the  tree,  and  every  mountain  the 
mountain ;  but,  on  the  contrary,  everything  is  distinguished  by  its  specific 
name."  Kitatinny  was  and  is  the  most  conspicuous  or  greatest  hill  of  the 
particular  group  of  hills  in  its  proximity  and  was  spoken  of  as  such  in  desig- 
nating the  boundmark. 


32  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

to  the  mouth  of  Peak's  Creek  (Peekskill).  Saknnk  (Heck.),  "At 
the  mouth  or  outlet  of  a  creek  or  river."  Saukunk  (onck)  is  an- 
other form.      (See  Titicus.) 

Aquehung,  Acqueahounck,  etc.,  was  translated  by  Dr.  O'Cal- 
laghan,  "The  place  of  peace."  from  Aqiiene,  Nar.,  "peace,"  and 
xmk,  locative.  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote,  "A  place  on  this  side  of  some 
other  place,"  from  the  generic  Acq.  The  descr'iption  in  N.  Y.  Land 
Papers  reads,  "Bounded  on  the  east  by  the  river  called  by  the  In- 
dians Aquehung,"  the  river  taking  its  name  from  its  position  as  a 
boundary  "on  this  side"  of  which  was  the  land.  The  contemporary 
name,  Ran-ahqua-nng,  means  "A  place  on  the  other  side,"  corre- 
sponding with  the  description,  "On  the  other  side  of  the  Great  Kil." 
Bolton  assigns  Acqueahounck  to  Hutchinson's  Creek,  the  west 
boundary  of  the  town  of  Pelham.  The  "  Great  Kil  "  is  now  the 
Bronx. 

Kakeout,  the  name  of  the  highest  hill  in  Westchester  County, 
is  from  Dutch  Kijk-uit,  "  Look-out — a  place  of  observation,  as  a 
tower,  hill,"  etc.  It  appears  also  in  Rockland  and  in  Ulster  Coun- 
ty and  on  the  Mohawk.      (See  Kakiate.) 

Shappequa,  a  name  now  applied  to  the  Shappequa  Hills  and 
to  a  mineral  spring  east  of  Sing-Sing,  and  destined  to  be  remem- 
bered as  that  of  the  home  of  Horace  Greeley,  was  primarily  given 
to  locate  a  tract  now  embraced  in  the  towns  of  New  Castle  and  Bed- 
ford, and,  as  in  all  such  cases,  was  a  specific  place  by  which  the  lo- 
cation could  be  identified,  but  wliich  in  turn  has  never  been  identi- 
fied. The  name  is  apparently  a  form  of  Chepi  written  also  Chappa, 
signifying,  "Separated,  apart  from,  a  distinct  place."  ^  (See  Kap- 
hack.) 

Aspetong,  a  bold  eminence  in  Bedford,  is  an  equivalent  of  Ash- 
pohtag.  Mass.,  "A  high  place,"  "A  height."  (Trumbull.)  See 
Ishpatinau. 


^  The  word  Chippe  or  Shappa,  means  not  only  separate,  "The  separate 
place,"  but  was  employed  to  describe  a  future  condition — Chepeck,  the  dead. 
As  an  adjective,  Chippe  (El.)  signilies  separated,  set  apart.  Chepiohkomuk, 
the  place  of  separation.  The  same  word  was  used  for  '  ghost,'  '  spectre,' 
'evil  spirit.'  (Trumbull.)  The  corresponding  Delaware  word  was  Tschipey. 
It  is  not  presumed  that  the  word  was  made  use  of  here  in  any  other  sense 
than  its  literal  application,  "A  separate  place."  Bolton  assigns  the  name  to 
a  Laurel   Swamp,   but   with   doubtful   correctness. 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  33 

Quarepos,  of  record  as  the  name  of  the  district  of  country  called 
by  the  English  "White  Plains,"  from  the  primary  prevalence  tliere 
of  white  balsam  (Dr.  O'Callaghan),  seems  to  have  been  the  name 
of  the  lake  now  known  as  St.  Mary's.  Qiiar  is  a  form  of  Qiiin, 
Oitan,  etc.,  meaning  "Long,"  and  pos  stands  for  pog  or  pang,  mean- 
ing "Pond."  The  name  is  met  in  Oitiii'e-paug,  "Long  Pond."  The 
pond  lies  along  the  east  border  of  the  town  of  White  Plains. 

Peningo,  the  point  or  neck  of  land  forming  the  southeastern  ex- 
tremity of  the  town  of  Rye,^  was  interpreted  by  Dr.  Bolton,  with 
doubtful  correctness:  "From  Points,  an  Indian  chief."  The  neck 
is  some  nine  miles  long  by  about  two  miles  broad  and  seems  to 
have  been  primarily  a  region  of  ridges  and  swamps. 

Apanammis,  Cal.  N.  Y,  Land  Papers ;  Apauamis  and  Apauamin, 
Col.  Hist.  N.  Y. :  Apawammeis,  Apawaniis,  Apawqunamis,  Epaw- 
ames,  local  and  Conn.  Records,  is  given  as  the  name  of  Budd's  Neck, 
between  Mamaroneck  River  and  Blind  Brook,  Westchester  County. 
Dr.  Trumbull  passed  t'he  name  without  explanation.  Tt  is  written 
as  the  name  of  a  boundmark. 

Mochquams  and  Moagunanes  are  record  forms  of  the  name  of 
Blind  Brook,  one  of  the  bouudar\'  streams  of  the  tract  called  Pen- 
ningo,  which  is  described  as  lying  "between  Blind  Brook  and 
Byram  River."     (See  Armonck.) 

Magopson  and  Mangopson  are  orthograpl-iies  of  the  name  given 
as  that  of  De  Lancey's  Neck,  described  as  "The  great  neck."  (See 
Waumaniuck.)  The  dialect  spoken  in  eastern  Westchester  seems 
to  have  been  Quiripi  (or  Quininipiac),  which  prevailed  near  the 
Sound  from  New  Haven  west. 

Armonck,  claimed  as  the  name  of  Byram 's  River,  was  probably 
that  of  a  fishing  place.  In  1649  the  name  of  the  stream  is  of  record, 
"Called  by  the  Indians  Seweyruck.''  In  the  same  record  the  land 
is  called  Haseco  and  a  meadow  Misosehasakey,  interpreted  by  Dr. 
Trumbull,  "Great  fresh  meadow,"  or  low  wet  lands.  Hasseco  has 
no  meaning;  it  is  now  assigned  to  Port  Chester  (Saw-Pits),  and 
Misosehasakey  to  Horse  Neck.  Armonck  has  lost  some  of  its  let- 
ters. What  is  left  of  it  indicates  Amaug,  "fishing  place."  (Trum- 
bull's Indian  Names.) 

"-Rye  is  from  Rye,  England.  The  derivative  is  Ripe  (Latin),  meaning, 
"The  bank  of  a  river."     In  French,  "The  sea-shore." 


34  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Eauketaupucason,  the  name  written  as  that  of  the  feature  in  the 
village  of  Rye  known  by  the  unpleasant  English  title  of  "  Hog-pen 
Ridge,"  is,  writes  Mr.  William  R.  Gerard,  "Probably  an  equivalent 
of  Lenape  O gid-apuchk-essen,  meaning,  'There  is  rock  upon  rock/ 
or  one  rock  on  another  rock."     Topography  not  ascertained. 

Manussing — in  will  of  Joseph  Sherwood,  Moiassink — an  island 
so  called  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Rye,  may  be  an  equivalent  of  Min- 
assin-ink,  "At  a  place  of  small  stones,"  Minneweis,  now  City  Island, 
is  in  the  same  jurisdiction. 

Mamaroneck,  now  so  written  as  the  name  of  a  town  in  West- 
chester County,  is  of  record,  in  1644,  Mamarrack  and  Mamarranack ; 
later,  Mammaranock,  Mamorinack,  Mammarinickes  (1662),  pri- 
marily as  that  of  a  "Neck  or  parcel  of  land,"  but  claimed  to  be  from 
the  name  of  an  early  sachem  of  the  Kitchtawanks  whose  territory 
was  called  Kitchtawanuck.^  Wm.  R.  Gerard  explains :  "The  dis- 
syllabic root,  mamal,  or  mamar,  means  '  To  stripe ;'  Mamar-a-imk, 
'  striped  arms,'  or  eyebrows,  as  the  name  of  an  Indian  chief  who 
painted  his  arms  in  stripes  or  radiated  his  eyebrows,"  a  custom 
noted  by  several  early  writers.  There  is  no  evidence  that  the  Kitch- 
tawanuck  sachem  had  either  residence  or  jurisdiction  here,  nor  is 
his  name  signed  to  any  deed  in  this  district.  The  reading  in  one 
record,  "Three  stripes  or  strips  of  land,"  seems  to  indicate  that 
the  name  was  descriptive  of  the  necks  or  strips  of  land.  (See 
Waumaniuck.) 

Waumaniuck  and  Maumaniuck,  forms  of  the  name  of  record 
as  that  of  the  eastern  part  of  De  Lancey's  Neck,  or  Seaman's  Point, 
Westchester  County,  as  stated  in  the  Indian  deed  of  1661,  which  con- 
veyed to  one  John  Richbell  "three  necks  of  land,"  described  as 
"Btounded  on  the  east  by  Mamaroneck  River,  and  on  the  west  y 
Gravelly  or  Stony  Brook"  "(Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  5),  the  lat- 
ter by  the  Indians  called  Pockotesse-wacke,  oame  to  be  known  as 
Mamaraneck  Neck,  otlierwisc  described  as  "The  great  neck  of  land 
at  Mamaroneck." 

Pockotessewacke,  given  as  the  name  of  what  came  to  be  known 


'"Mamarranack  and  Waupaurin,  chiefs  of  Kitchawanuck."  (Col.  Hist. 
N.  Y.,  xiii,  17.)  The  Kitchawan  is  now  known  as  Croton  river.  It  has  no 
connection  whatever  with  Mamaroneck. 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN  NORTH.  35 

as  "Gravelly  or  Stony  Brook,"  and  "Beaver-meadow  Brook,"  ^ 
'has  been  translated  by  Wm.  R.  Gerard,  from  "Petuk-assin-icke, 
'where  there  are  numerous  round  stones'  " ;  a  place  from  which 
the  name  was  extended  to  the  stream,  or  the  name  of  a  place  in  the 
stream  where  there  were  numerous  round  stones,  /.  e.  paving  stones 
or  "hard-heads."  Esse  (esseni)  from  assin,  "stone,"  means  "stony, 
flinty." 

Manuketesuck,  quoted  by  Bolton  (Hist.  West,  Co.)  as  the  name 
of  Long  Island  Sound  and  interpreted,  "Broad  flowing  river,"  was 
more  correctly  explained  by  Dr.  Trumbull :  "Apparently  a  dimin- 
utive of  Manunkatcsuck,  'Menhaden  country,'  from  Miinongutteau, 
'that  which  fertalizes  or  manures  land,'  the  Indian  name  for  white 
fish  or  bony  fish,  which  were  taken  in  great  numbers  by  the  Indians, 
on  the  shores  of  the  Sound,  for  manuring  their  corn  lands." 

Moharsic  is  said  to  have  been  the  name  of  what  is  now  known 
as  Crom-pond,  in  the  town  of  Yorktown.  The  pond  is  in  two  parts, 
and  the  name  may  mean,  "Where  two  ponds  meet,"  or  come  to- 
gether. Crom-pond  is  corrupt  Dutch  from  Krom-poel,  "  Crookec 
pond." 

Maharness,  the  name  of  a  stream  rising  in  Westchester  County 
and  flowing  east  to  the  Sound,  is  also  written  Mianus  and  Mahanus, 
in  Dutch  records  Mayane,  correctly  Mayanno.  It  was  the  name  of 
"a  sachem  residing  on  it  between  Greenwich  and  Stamford,  Ct., 
who  was  killed  by  Capt.  Patrick,  in  1643,  and  his  head  cut  ofif  and 
sent  to  Fort  Amsterdam."  (Brodhead,  i,  386.)  Dr.  Trumbull  in- 
terpreted, "He  who  gathers  together."  Kechkaives  is  written  as 
the  name  of  the  stream  in  1640. 

Nanichiestawack,  given  as  the  name  of  an  Indian  village  on  the 
southern  spur  of  Indian  Hill  (so  called)  in  the  town  of  Bedford, 
rests  on  tradition. 

Petuckquapaug,  a  pond  in  Greenwich,  Ct.,  but  originally  under 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Dutch  at  Fort  Amsterdaim,  signifies  "Round 
Pond."  It  is  now  called  "Dumpling  Pond."  The  Dutch  changed 
the  suffix  to  paen,  "soft  land,"  and  in  that  form  described  an  adja- 
cent district  of  low  land,     (See  Tappan.) 

Katonah,  the  name  of  a  sachem,  is  preserved  in  that  of  a  village 


'  Pockotessewacke  and  Beaver-meadow  Brook.     (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers.) 


36  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

in  the  town  of  Bedford.  The  district  was  known  as  "Katoiiah's 
land."  In  deed  of  1680,  the  orthography  is  Katoonah — ^00  as  in 
food. 

Succabonk,  a  place-name  in  the  town  of  Bedford,  stands  for 
Sagabonak-ong,  "Place  of  ground  nuts,"  or  wild  potatoes.  (See 
Sagabonock.) 

Wequehackhe  is  written  by  Reichel  ("Mem.  Moravian  Church") 
as  the  name  of  the  Highlands,  with  the  interpretation,  "The  hill 
country" — "People  of  the  hill  country."  The  name  has  no  such 
meaning.  Weque  or  IVcqua,  means  "The  end,"  and  -hackhc  (hacki) 
means  "Land,"  not  up-land.  In  other  words,  the  boundary  was 
the  end  of  the  Highlands.' 

Mahopack,  the  modern  form  of  the  name  of  a  lake  in  Putnam 
County,  is  of  record  Makoohpcck  in  1765,  and  Macookpack  on  Sau- 
thier's  map  of  1774,  which  seem  to  stand  for  M'achkookpcek  {Ukh- 
okpeck,  Mah.),  meaning  "Snake  Lake,"  or  "Water  where  snakes 
are  abundant."  (See  Copake.)  In  early  years  snakes  were  abun- 
dant in  the  region  about  the  lake,  and  are  not  scarce  in  present  times.^ 
The  lake  is  ten  miles  in  circumference  and  lies  sixteen  hundred  feet 
above  the  level  of  Hudson's  River.  It  contains  two  or  tliree  small 
islands,  on  the  largest  of  which  is  the  traditionally  famous  "Chief- 
tain's Rock." 

Canopus,  claimed  to  have  been  the  name  of  an  Indian  sachem 
and  now  preserved  in  Canopus  Hollow,  Putnam  County,  is  not  In- 
dian ;  it  is  Latin  from  the  Greek  name  of  a  town  in  Egypt.  "Ca- 
n'pus,  the  Egyptian  god  of  water."     (Webster.) 

Wiccopee  is  of  record  as  the  name  of  the  highest  peak  in  the 
Fishkill  Mountains  on  the  south  border  of  East  Fishkill.  It  is  also 
assigned  to  the  pass  or  clove  in  the  range  through  wbich  rail  the  In- 
dian path,  now  the  present  as  well  as  the  ancient  highvVay  between 
Fishkill  Village  and  Peekskill,  which  was  fortified  in  the  war  of  the 
Revolution.     An  Indian  village  is  traditionally  loca:ted  in  the  pass, 

^" Hacki.  land;  Len-hacki,  up-land."  (Zeisberger.)  "When  they  speak  of 
highlands  they  say  Lcnnihacke,  original  lands ;  but  they  do  not  apply  the 
same  name  to  low  lands,  which,  being  generally  formed  by  the  overflowing 
or  washing  of  streams,  cannot  be  called  original."     (Heckewelder.) 

^  A  wild,  wet  region  among  the  hills,  where  the  rattlesnake  abounded. 
They  were  formerly  found  in  all  parts  of  the  Highlands,  and  are  still  met 
frequently. 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  37 

of  which  "one  Wikopy"  is  named  as  cJiief  on  the  same  authority. 
The  name,  however,  has  no  reference  to  a  pass,  path,  village  or 
chief ;  it  is  a  pronunciation  of  Wccnppe,  "The  place  of  basswoods 
or  linden  trees,"  from  the  inner  bark  of  which  (zuikopi)  "the  In- 
dians made  ropes  and  mats — their  tying  bark  par  excellence." 
(Trumbuli. )  "IVikbi,  bast,  the  inner  bark  of  trees."  (Zeisberger.) 
In  Webster  and  The  Century  the  name  is  applied  to  the  Leather- 
wood,  a  willo^^•y  shrub  with  a  tough,  leathery  bark. 

Matteawan,  now  so  written,  has  retained  that  orthography  since 
its  first  appearance  in  1685  in  the  Rombout  Patent,  which  reads : 
"Beginning  on  the  south  side  of  a  creek  called  Matteawan,"  the 
exact  boundmark  being  the  north  side  or  foot  of  the  hill  knowTi 
as  Breakneck  (Matomps'k).  It  has  been  interpreted  in  various 
ways,  that  most  frequently  quoted  appearing  in  Spofiford's  Gazetteer : 
**Frtom  Matai,  a  mag-ician.  and  Wian,  a  skin ;  freely  rendered,  'Place 
of  good  furs,'  "  which  never  could  have  been  the  meaning ;  nor  does 
the  name  refer  to  mountains  to  which  it  has  been  extended.  Wm. 
R.  Gerard  writes :  "Matdivan,  an  impersonal  Algonquian  verb, 
meaning,  'It  debouches  'into,'  i.  e.  'a  creek  or  river  into  an- 
other body  of  water,'  substantially,  'a  confluence.'  "  This  render- 
ing is  confirmed  by  Albert  S.  Gatschet,  of  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology, 
who  writes:  "Mr.  Gerard  is  certainly  right  when  he  explains  the 
radix  inat — mata — by  confluence,  junction,  debouching,  and  form- 
ing verbs  as  well  as  roots  and  nouns."  -A'wan,  -ivan  -nan,  etc.,  is 
an  impersonal  verb  termination ;  it  appears  only  in  connection  with 
impersonal  verbs.  (See  Waronawanka. )  Matteawan  is  met  in 
several  forms — Matawa  and  Mattawan,  Ontario,  Canada ;  Matta- 
wan,  Maine ;  Matawan,  Monmouth  County,  N.  J. ;  Mattawanna,  Pa. ; 
Mattawoman,  Maryland. 

Fishkill,  the  English  name  of  the  stream  of  which  Matteawan 
is  the  estuary,  is  from  Dutch  Fischer's  Kil.  It  was  probably  applied 
by  the  Dutch  to  the  estuary  from  Vischer's  Rak  which  the  Dutch 
applied  to  a  reach  or  sailing  course  on  the  Hudson  at  this  point. 
De  Laet  wrote:  "A  place  which  our  country-men  call  Vischer's 
Rack,'  that  is  Fisherman's  Bend."  (See  Woranecks.)  On  the  earlier 
maps  the  stream,  or  its  estuary,  is  named  Vresch  Kil,  or  "Fresh- 

^  Rack  is  obsolete;  the  present  word  is  Rccht.  It  describes  an  almost 
straight  part   of  the    river. 


38  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

water  Kil,"  to  distinguish  it  from  the  brackish  water  of  the  Hudson^ 
From  the  estuary  extended  to  the  entire  stream. 

Woranecks,  Carte  Figurative  1614-16;  Waoranecks,  1621-2^: 
Warenecker,  Wassenaer;  Waoranekyc,  De  Laet,  1633-40;  Waoran- 
ecks, Van  der  Donck's  map,  1656 — is  located  on  the  Carte  Figurative 
north  of  latitude  42-15,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  De  Laet  and 
Van  der  Donck  place  it  between  what  are  now  known  as  Wappin- 
gers'  Creek  and  Fishkill  Creek.  De  Laet  wrote:  "Where  projects 
a  sand}'  point  and  the  river  becomes  narrower,  there  is  a  place  called 
Esopus,  where  the  Waoranekys,  another  barbarous  nation,  have 
their  abode."  Later,  Esopus  became  permanent  on  the  west  side  of 
the  river  at  Kingston.  It  is  a  Dutch  corruption  of  Algonquian 
Sepus,  meaning  brook,  creek,  etc.,  applicable  to  any  small  stream. 
From  De  Laet's  description,*  there  is  little  room  for  doubt  that  the 
"sandy  point"  to  which  he  referred  is  now  known  as  Low  Point, 
opposite  the  Dans  Kamer,  at  the  head  of  Newburgh  Bay,  where  the 
river  narrows,  or  that  Esopus  was  applied  to  Casper's  Creek.  On 
Van  der  Donck's  map  the  "barbarous  nation"  is  given  three  castles 
on  the  south  side  of  the  stream,  which  became  known  later  (1643) 
as  the  Wappingers,  who  certainly  held  jurisdiction  on  the  east  side 
of  Newburgh  Bay.  The  adjectival  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  from 
Wdro,  or  Waloh,  meaning  "Concave,  hollowing,"  a  depression  in 
land,  low  land,  the  latter  expressed  in  ock  (ohke),  "land"  or  place. 
The  same  adjectival  appears  in  Waronawanka  at  Kingston,  and  the 
same  word  in  Woronake  on  the  Sound  at  Milford,  Ct.,  w'here  the 
topography  is  similar.  The  foreign  plural  .?  extends  the  meaning 
to   "Dwellers    on,"   or   inhabitants   of.        (See  Wahamenesing   and 

•  •  n^wanka.) 

Mawenawasigh,  so  written  in  the  Rombout  Patent  of  1684,  cov- 
ering lands  extending  from  Wappingers'  Creek  to  the  foot  of  the 
hills  on  the  north  side  of  Matteawan  Creek,  was  the  name  of  the  north 
boundmark  of  the  patent  and  not  that  of  Wappingers'  Creek.  The  In- 

1  *  *  "  ^nd  thus  with  various  windings  it  reaches  a  place  which  our 
countrymen  call  Vischer's  Rack,  that  is  the  Fisherman's  Bend.  And  here 
the  eastern  bank  is  inhabited  by  the  Pachimi.  A  little  beyond  where  projects 
a  sandy  point  and  the  river  becomes  narrower,  there  is  a  place  called  Esopus, 
where  the  Waoranekys,  another  barbarous  nation,  have  their  abode.  To 
these  succeed,  after  a  short  interval,  the  Waranawankconghs,  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  river."     (De  Laet.) 

"At  the  Fisher's  Hook  are  the  Pachany,  Wareneckers,"  etc.   (Wassenaer.) 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  39 

dian  deed  reads :  "Beginning  on  the  south  side  of  a  creek  called  Mat- 
t'Cawan,  from  thence  northwardly  along  Hudson's  river  five  hundred 
yards  beyond  the  Great  Wappingers  creek  or  kill,  called  Mawena- 
wasigh."  The  stream  was  given  the  name  of  the  boundmark  and 
was  introduced  to  identify  the  place  that  was  five  hundred  yards 
north  of  it,  /'.  c.  the  rocky  point  or  promontory  through  which  passes 
the  tunnel  of  the  Hudson  River  R.  R.  at  New  Hamburgh.  The 
name  is  from  Maivc,  '"To  meet,"  and  Nezmsek,^  "A  point  or  prom- 
ontory"— literally,  "The  promontory  where  another  boundary  is 
met."  The  assignment  of  the  name  to  Wappingers'  Falls  is  as  er- 
roneous as  its  assignment  to  the  creek. 

Wahamanesing  is  noted  by  Brodhead  (Hist.  N.  Y.)  as  the  name 
of  Wappingers'  Creek — authority  not  cited  and  place  w'here  the 
stream  was  so  called  not  ascertained.  The  initial  W  was  probably 
exchanged  for  M  by  mishearing,  as  it  was  in  many  cases  of  record. 
Mall  means  "To  mee't,"  Amhannes  means  "A  small  river,"  and  the 
suffix  -iug  is  locative.  The  composition  reads :  "A  place  where 
streams  come  together,"  which  may  have  been  on  the  Hudson  at 
the  mouth  of  the  creek.  In  Philadelphia  Moyamansing  was  the 
name  of  a  marsh  bounded  by  four  small  streams.  (N.  Y.  Land 
Papers,  646.)  Dr.  Trumbull  in  his  "  Indian  Names  on  the  Connec- 
ticut," quoted  Mahinansiick  (Moh.),  in  Connecticut,  with  the  ex- 
planation, "Where  two  streams  come  together."  The  name  was 
extended  to  the  creek  as  customary  in  such  cases.  The  Wahaman- 
esing flows  from  Stissing-  Pond,  in  northern  Duchess  County,  and 
follows  the  center  of  a  narrow  belt  of  limesitone  its  entire  length 
of  about  thirty-five  miles  southwest  to  the  Hudson,  wdiich  it  reaches 
in  a  curve  and  passes  over  a  picturesque  fall  of  seventy-five  feet  to 
an  estuary.  From  early  Dutch  occupation  it  has  been  known  or 
called  Wappinck  (1645),  Wappinges  and  Wappingers'  Kill  or  creek, 
taking  that  name  presumably  from  the  clan  which  was  seated  upon 
it  of  record  as  "Wappings,  Wappinges,  Wapans,  or  Highland  In- 
dians." ^     On  Van  der  Donck's  map  three  castles  or  villages  of  the 

^  Nawaas,  on  the  Connecticut,  noted  on  the  Carte  Figurative  of  1614-16,  is 
very  distinctly  located  at  a  point  on  the  head-waters  of  that  river. 

Neversink  is  a  corruption  of  Ncwas-ink,  "At  the  point  or  promontory." 

'  "Highland  Indians"  was  a  designation  employed  by  the  Dutch  as  well 
as  by  the  English.     (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  viii,  440.) 


40  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

clan  are  located  on  the  south  side  or  south  of  the  creek,  indicating 
the  inclusion  in  the  tribal  jurisdiction  of  the  lands  as  far  south  as 
the  Hig-Mand's.  From  Kregier's  Journal  of  the  "Second  Esopus 
War"  (1663),  it  is  'learned  that  they  had  a  principal  castle  in  the 
vicinity  of  Low  Point  and  that  they  maintained  a  crossing-place 
to  Dans  Kamer  Point.  Their  name  is  presumed  to  have  been 
derived  from  generic  IVapaii,  ''East" — Wapani,  "Eastern  peo- 
ple" ^ — •which  could  have  been  properly  applied  to  them 
as  residents  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  not  "Eastern  peo- 
ple" as  that  term  is  applied  to  residents  of  the  more  Eastern 
States,  but  locally  so  called  by  residents  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Hudson,  or  by  the  Delawares  as  the  most  eastern  nation  of  their 
own  stock.  They  were  no  doubt  more  or  less  mixed  by  association 
and  marriage  with  their  eastern  as  well  as  their  western  neig'hbors, 
but  were  primarily  of  Lenape  or  Delaware  origin,  and  related  to  the 
Minsi,  Monsey  or  Minisink  clans  on  the  west  side  of  the  river, 
though  not  associated  with  thcm  in  tribal  government.-  Their  tribal 
jurisdiction,  aside  from  that  which  was  immediately  local,  extended 
on  the  east  side  of  the  river  from  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill  (south  of 
opposite  to  the  Catskill)  to  the  sea.  At  their  northern  bound  they 
met  the  tribe  known  to  the  Dutch  as  the  Mahicans,  a  people  of  east- 
ern origin  and  dialect,  whose  eastern  limit  included  the  valley  of 
the  Housatonic  at  least,  and  with  them  in  alliance  formed  the  "Ma- 
hican  nation"  of  Dutch  history,  as  stated  by  King  Ninham  of  the 


^  The  familiar  historic  name  IVuppiugcrs  seems  to  have  been  introduced 
by  the  Dutch  from  their  word  IVapendragers,  "  Armed  men."  The  tribe  is 
first  met  of  record  in  1643,  when  they  attacked  boats  coming  down  from  Fort 
Orange.  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iv,  12-)  A  map  of  1690  gives  them  a  large  set- 
tlement on  the  south  side  of  the  creek.  There  is  no  Opossum  in  the  name, 
as  some  writers  read  it,  aUhough  some  blundering  clerk  wrote  Oping  for 
W a ping. 

°  The  relations  between  the  Esopus  Indians  and  the  Wappingers  were 
always  intimate  and  friendly,  so  much  so  that  when  the  Mohawks  made 
peace  with  the  Esopus  Indians,  in  1669,  and  refused  to  include  the  Wappin- 
gers, it  was  feared  by  the  government  that  further  trouble  would  ensue  from 
the  "great  correspondence  and  affinity  between  them."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y., 
xiii,  427.)     "Affinity,"   relationship  by  marriage,   kinship  generally. 

Gov-  Tryon,  in  his  report  in  1774,  no  doubt  stated  the  facts  correctly 
when  he  wrote  that  the  "  Montauks  and  others  of  Long  Island,  Wappingers 
of  Duchess  County,  Esopus,  Papagoncks,  &c.,  of  Ulster  County,  generally  de- 
nominated River  Indians,  spoke  a  language  radically  the  same,"  and  were 
"understood  by  the  Delawares,  being  originallv  of  the  same  race."  (Doc 
Hist.  N.  Y.,  i,  765.) 


NAMES  ON  Tlin  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  4I 

Wappingers,  in  an  affidavit  in  1757,  and  who  also  stated  that  the 
language  of  the  Mahicans  was  not  the  same  as  that  of  the  Wappin- 
gers, although  he  understood  the  Mahicani.  Reduced  by  early  wars 
with  the  Dutch  around  New  Amsterdam  and  by  contact  with  Euro- 
pean civilization,  they  melted  away  rapidly,  many  of  them  finding 
homes  in  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania,  others  at  Stockbridge,  and 
a  remnant  living  at  Fishkill  removing  thence  to  Otsiningo,  in  1737, 
as  wards  of  the  Senecas.     (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  vii,  153,  158.) 

Poughquag,  the  name  of  a  village  in  the  town  of  Beekman, 
Duchess  County,  and  primarily  the  name  of  what  is  now  known  as 
Silver  Lake,  in  the  southeast  part  of  the  town,  is  from  Apoquague, 
(Mass.),  meaning,  "A  i^aggy  meadow,"  which  is  presumed  to  have 
adjoined  the  lake.  It  is  from  Uppuqui,  "Lodge  covering,"  and 
-aiike,  "Land"  or  place.      (Trumbull.) 

Pietawickquassic!:,  a  brook  so  called  which  formed  a  bound- 
mark  of  a  tract  of  land  conveyed  by  Peter  Schuyler  in  1699,  de- 
scribed as  "On  the  east  side  of  Hudson's  River,  over  against  Juff- 
rou's  Hook,  at  a  place  called  by  the  Christians  Jan  Casper's  Creek." 
The  creek  is  now  known  as  Casper's  Creek.  It  is  the  first  creek 
north  of  Wappingers'  Kill.  Schuyler  called  the  place  Rust  Plaest 
(Dutch,  Rust-plaats),  meaning  "Resting  place,  or  place  of  peace." 
The  Indian  name  has  not  been  located.  It  is  probably  a  form  or 
equivalent  of  P'fukgii-suk,  "A  bend  in  a  brook  or  outlet." 

V/assaic,  a  village  and  a  creek  so  called  in  the  town  of  Amenia, 
Duchess  County,  appears  in  N.  Y.  records  in  1702,  Wiesasack,  as 
the  name  of  a  tract  of  land  "lying  to  the  southward  of  Wayanag- 
lanock,  to  the  westward  of  Westenhoek  creek."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land 
Papers,  58)  :  later,  "Near  a  place  called  Weshiack"  (lb.  65),  and 
thence  northerly  to  a  place  called  Wishshiag,  and  so  on  about  a 
mile  northwest  of  ye  Allum  rocks."  ^  (lb.  75.)  The  name  seems 
to  have  been  applied  to  the  north  end  of  West  Mountain,  where  is 
located  the  ravine  known  as  the  Dover  Stone  Church,  about  half  a 
mile  west  of  the  village  of  Dover  Plains.  The  ravine  is  20  to  25 
feet  wide  at  the  bottom,  i  to  3  feet  at  the  top,  30  to  40  feet  long, 

'  Wallam — the  initial  W  dropped — literally,  "  Paint  rocks,"  a  formation 
of  igneous  rock  which,  by  exposure,  becomes  disintegrated  into  soft  earthy 
masses.  There  are  several  varieties.  The  Indians  used  the  disintegrated 
masses  for  paint.  The  name  is  met  in  some  forms  in  all  Algonquian  dia- 
lects.    (See  Wallomschack.) 


42  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

and  40  to  50  feet  high,  hence  called  a  church.  The  Webotuck,  a 
tributary  of  Ten  Mile  River,  flows  through  the  ravine.  Dr.  Trum- 
bull ("Indian  Names  in  Connecticut")  wrote:  "IVassiog,  (Moh.), 
alternate  IVashiack,  a  west  bound  of  the  ]\'Iohegan  country  claimed 
by  Uncas  ;  'the  south  end  of  a  very  high  hill'  very  near  the  line  be- 
tween Glastonbury  and  Hebron,"  a  place  near  Hartford,  Conn.,  but 
failed  to  give  explanation  of  the  name. 

Weputing,  Weepitung,  Webotuck,  Weepatuck  (N.  Y.  and 
Conn.  Rec),  given  as  the  name  of  a  "high  mountain,"  in  the  Sac- 
kett  Patent,  was  translated  by  Dr.  Trumbull,  from  Conn.  Records : 
"Weepatuck,  'Place  of  the  narrow  pass,'  or  'strait.'"  (See  Was- 
saic.) 

Querapogatt,  a  boundmark  of  the  Sackett  Patent,  is,  apparent- 
ly, a  compound  of  Qucnne,  "long,"  pog  (paug),  "pond,"  and  att 
locative — "Beginning  at  the  (a)  long  pond."  The  name  is  met  in 
Quine-baug,  without  locative  suffix,  signifying  "Long  Pond"  sim- 
ply. 

She'kom'eko,  preserved  as  the  name  of  a  small  stream  which 
rises  near  Federal  Square,  Duchess  County,  and  flows  tfience  north 
to  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill,  was  primarily  the  name  of  an  Indian  vil- 
lage conspicuous  in  the  history  of  the  labors  of  the  Moravian  mis- 
sionaries.^ It  was  located  about  two  miles  south  of  Pine  Plains  in 
the  valley  of  the  stream.  Dr.  Trumbull  translated :  "She'com'eko, 
modern  Chic'omi'co,  from  -she,  -che  (from  mishe  or  k'che),  'great,' 


*  The  field  of  the  labors  of  the  Moravian  missionaries  extended  to  Wech- 
quadnach,  Pachquadnach,  Potatik,  Westenhoek  and  Wehtak,  on  the  Housa- 
tenuc.  Wechqiiadnach  (Wechquetank,  Loskiel)  was  at  the  end  of  what  is 
now  known  as  Indian  Pond,  lying  partly  in  the  town  of  North  East,  Duchess 
County,  and  partly  in  Sharon,  Conn.  It  was  the  Gnadensee,  or  "  Lake  of 
Grace,"  of  the  missionaries.  Weqiiadn'ach  means  "At  the  end  of  the  moun- 
tain "  between  which  and  the  lake  the  Indian  village  stood.  Pachquadn'ach 
was  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  pond;  it  means  "Clear  bare  mountain  land." 
Wehtak  means  "Wigwam  place."  Pishgachtigok  ( Pach-gat-gock,  German 
notation),  was  about  twenty  miles  south  of  Shekomeko,  at  the  junction  of 
Ten  Mile  River  and  the  Housatenuc.  It  means,  "  Where  the  river  divides," 
or  branches.  (See  Schaghticoke.)  Westenhoek,  noted  above,  is  explained 
in  another  connection.  Housatonuc,  in  N.  Y.  Land  Papers  Owassitanuc, 
stands  for  A-wass-adene-uc,  Abn. ;  in  Delaware,  Awossi,  "Over,  over  there, 
beyond,"  -actcnne,  "hill  or  mountain,"  with  locative  -uk,  "place,"  "land" ; 
literally,  "A  place  beyond  the  hill."  (Trumbull.)  It  is  not  the  name  of 
either  the  hill  or  the  river,  to  which  it  was  extended,  but  a  verbal  direction. 
An  Indian  village  called  Potatik  by  the  Moravian  missionaries,  was  also  on 
the  Housatenuc,  and  is  written  in  one  form,  Pateook. 


A 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN   NORTH.  43 

and  comaco,  'house,'  or  'enclosed  place' — 'the  great  lodge,',  or  'the 
great  village.'  "  ^  We  have  the  testimony  of  Loskiel  that  the  occu- 
pants of  the  village  were  "Mahicander  Indians." 

Shenandoah  (Shenandoah  Corners,  East  Fishkill)  is  an  Iro- 
quoian  name  of  modern  introduction  here.  It  is  met  in  place  in 
Saratoga  County  and  at  Wyoming,  Pa.      (See  Shannondhoi.) 

Stissing,  now  the  name  of  a  hill  and  of  a  lake  one  mile  west  of 
the  village  of  Pine  Plains,  Duchess  County,  is  probably  an  apheresis 
of  Mistissing,  a  "Great  rock,"  and  belongs  to  the  hill,  wbidh  rises 
400  or  500  feet  above  the  valley  and  is  crowned  with  a  mass  of 
naked  rock,  described  by  one  writer  as  "resembling  a  huge  boulder 
transported  there." 

Poughkeepsie,  now  so  written,  is  of  record  in  many  forms  of 
which  Pooghkeepesingh,  1683;  Pogkeepke,  1702;  Pokeapsinck, 
1703;  Pacaksing,  1704;  Poghkeepsie,  1766;  Poughkeepsie,  1767, 
are  the  earlier.  The  locative  of  the  name  and  the  key  to  its  ex- 
planation are  clearly  determined  by  the  description  in  a  gift  deed 
to  Peter  Lansing  and  Jan  Smedes,  in  1683 :  "A  waterfall  near  the 
bank  of  the  river  called  Pooghkeepesingh ;"  ^  in  p'^tition  of  Peter 
Lansing  and  Arnout  Viele,  in  1704:  "Beginning  at  a  creek  called 
Pakaksing,  by  ye  river  side."  ^  There  are  other  record  applications, 
but  are  probably  extensions,  as  Poghkeepke  (1702),  given  as  the 
name  of  a  "muddy  pond"  in  the  vicinity.  Schoolcraft's  interpre- 
tation, "Safe  harbor,"  from  Apokeepsing,  is  questioned  by  W.  R. 
Gerard,  who,  from  a  personal  acquaintance  with  the  locative,  "A 
water-fall,"  writes :  "The  name  refers  not  to  the  fall,  but  to  the 
basin  of  water  worn  out  in  the  rocks  at  the  foot  of  the  fall.     Zeis- 

^  A  translation  from  the  Delaware  Scha-gach-we-u,  "straight,"  and  meek 
■*'  fish  " — an  eel — eel  place — has  been  widely  quoted.  The  translation  by  Dr. 
Trumbull  is   no   doubt   correct. 

^  "This  fifth  day  of  May,  1683,  appeared  before  me  *  *  a  Highland 
Indian  called  Massang,  who  declared  herewith  that  he  has  given  as  a  free 
gift,  a  bouwery  (farm)  to  Pieter  Lansingh,  and  a  bouwery  to  Jan  Smeedes, 
a  young  glazier,  also  a  waterfall  near  the  bank  of  the  river,  to  build  a  mill 
thereon.  The  waterfall  is  called  Pooghkeepesingh  and  the  land  Minnisingh, 
situated  on  the  east  side  of  the  river."     (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  571.) 

'  Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  71.  There  are  forty-nine  record  orthographies 
of  the  term,  from  which  a  selection  could  be  made  as  a  basis  of  interpretation.^ 
Poghkeepke,  for  example,  might  be  accepted  as  meaning,  "Muddy  Pond," 
although  there  is  neither  a  word  or  particle  in  it  that  would  warrant  the 
conclusion. 


44  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

berger  would  have  written  the  word  Apuchklpisink,  that  is,  '  At  the 
rock-pool  (or  basin)  of  water.'  A-puchk-ipis-ink  is  a  composition  of 
■puchk,  'rock';  ipis,  in  composition,  'little  water,'  'pool  of  water,' 
'pond,'  'little  lake,'  etc.  Pooghk  is  no  doubt  from  dpughk  (apuchk), 
"rock."  The  stream  has  long  been  known  as  the  Fall  Kill.  Pri- 
marily there  seeins  to  have  been  three  falls  upon  it,  of  which  Mata- 
pan  will  be  referred  to  later. 

Wynogkee,  Wynachkee,  and  Winnakee  are  record  forms  of 
the  name  of  a  district  of  country  or  place  from  which  it  was  ex- 
tended to  the  stream  known  as  the  Fall  Kill  "Through  which  a 
kill  called  Wynachkee  runs,  *  *  including  the  kill  to  the  sec- 
ond fall  called  Mattapan,"  is  the  description  in  a  gift  deed  to  Amout 
Velie,  in  1680,  for  three  flats  of  land,  one  on  the  north  and  two 
on  the  south  side  of  the  kill.  "A  flat  on  the  west  side  of  the  kil, 
called  Wynachkee"  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  545,  572),  does  not 
mean  that  the  kill  was  called  Wynachkee.  but  the  flat  of  land,  to 
which  the  name  itself  sthows  that  it  belonged.  The  derivatives 
are  Winne,  "good,  fine,  pleasant,"  and  -aki  (auke,  ohke),  "land" 
or  place ;  literally,  "  land."  ' 

Mattapan,  "  the  second  fall,"  so  called  in  the  deed  to  Amout 

Yelie  (1680),  was  the  name  of  a  "carrying  place,"  "the  end  of 
a  portage,  where  the  canoe  was  launched  again  and  its  bearers  re- 
embarked."  (Trumbull.)  A  landing  place.-  "At  a  place  called 
Matapan,  to  the  south  side  thereof,  bounded  on  the  west  by  John 
Casperses  Creek."  (Cal.  Land  Papers,  108.)  (See  Pietawick- 
quasick.) 


*  From  the  root  Wulit,  Del.  From  the  same  root  Winne,  Willi,  Wirri, 
Waure,  Wule,  etc.  The  name  is  met  in  equivalent  forms  in  several  places. 
Wenaque  and  Wynackie  are  forms  of  the  name  of  a  beautiful  valley  in  Pas- 
saic county,  N.  J.  (Nelson.)  Winakaki,  "  Sassifras  land — rich,  fat  land." 
Winak-aki-ng,  "At  the  Sassifras  place,"  was  the  Lenape  name  of  Eastern 
Pennsylvania.  (See  Wanaksink.)  Eliot  wrote  in  the  Natick  (Mass.)  dia- 
lect, "  Wunohke,  good  land."  The  general  meaning  of  the  root  is  pleasurable 
sensation. 

*  Mattappan,  a  participle  of  Mattappu,  "  he  sits  down,"  denotes  "  a  sitting 
down  place,"  or  as  generally  employed  in  local  names,  the  end  of  a  portage 
between  two  rivers,  or  from  one  arm  of  the  sea  to  another — where  the  canoe 
was  launched  again  and  its  bearers  re-embarked.  (Trumbull.)  In  Lenape 
Aan  is  a  radical  meaning,  'To  move ;  to  go."  Paan,  "To  come ;  to  get  to" ; 
Wiket-pann,  'To  get  home" ;  Paancep,  "Arrived" ;  Mattalan,  "To  come  up- 
to  some  body";  logically,  Mattappan,  "To  stop,"  to  sit  down,  to  land,  a 
landing  place. 


NAMES  ON  THE  EAST  FROM    MANHATTAN  NORTH.  45 

Minnissingh  is  written  as  the  name  of  a  tract  conveyed  to  Peter 
Lansing  and  Jan  Smedes  by  gift  deed  in  1683.  (See  Poughkeep- 
sie.)  Minnissingh  is,  apparently,  t/he  same  word  tbait  is  met  in 
Minnisink,  Orange  County.  The  locative  of  the  tract  has  not  been 
ascertained,  but  it  was  pretty  certainly  on  the  "back"  or  upper 
lands.     There  was  no  island  there.      (See  Minnisink.) 

Eaquorisink  is  of  record  as  the  name  of  Crom  Elbow  Creek,  and 
Eaquaquanessinck  as  that  of  lands  on  the  Hudson,  in  patent  to 
Henry  Beekman,  the  'bomidary  of  wihich  ran  from  the  Hudson 
"east  by  the  side  of  a  fresh  meadow  called  Maiisakin^  and  a  small 
run  of  water  called  Mancapawimick."  In  patent  to  Peter  Falconier 
the  land  is  called  Eaquaquaannessinck,  the  meadow  Mansakin,  the 
small  creek  Nanacopaconick,  and  Crom  Elbow  (Krom  Elleboog, 
Dutch,  '"crooked  e'lbow")  Creek.  Eaquarysink  is  a  compression 
of  Eaquaquaannessinck.  It  was  not  the  name  of  the  creek,  but 
located  the  b-oundmark  "as  far  as  the  small  creek."  The  compo- 
sition is  the  equivalent  of  Wequa,-  "end  of" ;  anncs,  "small  stream," 
and  ink,  "at,"  "to,"  etc. 

Wawyachtanock,  Indian  deed  to  Robert  Livingston,  1685 ; 
Wawyachtanock,  Wawijachtanock,  Wawigachtanock  in  Livingston 
Patent  and  IVatvijachtoiiocks  in  association  with  "The  Indians  of 
the  Long  Reach"  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  93,  97),  is  given  as  the  name 
of  a  place — "'  The  path  that  leads  to  Wawyachtenock."  In  a  petition 
for  permission  to  purchase,  in  1702  (Col.  Land  Papers,  58),  the 
description  reads :  "A  tract  of  land  lying  to  the  westward  of  Wes- 
tenhoeks  Creek^  and  to  ye  eastwaid  of  Poghkeepsie,  called  by  ye 
Indians  VVayaughtanock."     It  is  presumed  that  the  locative  of  the 


^"A  meadow  or  marsh  land  called  Manjakan,"  is  an  equivalent  record 
in  Ulster  County.  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  133.)  "A  fresh  meadow,"  1.  e. 
a  fresh  water  meadow,  or  low  lands  by  the  side  of  the  creek. 

■  Enaughqua,  L.  I. ;  Yb  anuck  qiiaqiie,  Williams;  Wcqua,  IVcquc,  Aqua, 
Ukwe.  Echqu,  etc.,  "end  of."  The  word  is  met  in  many  forms.  IVchque, 
"  as  far  as."     (Eliot.) 

'Westenhoek  is  Dutch.  It  means  "West  corner."  It  was  given  by  the 
Dutch  to  a  tract  of  land  lying  in  a  bend  of  Housatonuk  river,  long  m  dispute 
between  New  York  and  Massachusetts,  called  by  the  Indians  W-nngh-tak-ook, 


Now  Stockbridge,  Mass. 


46  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

name  is  now  known  as  Union  Corners,  Duchess  County,  where 
Krom  Elleboog  Creek,  after  flowing  southwesterly,  turns  at  nearly 
a  right  angle  and  flows  west  to  the  Hudson,  which  it  reaches  in  a 
narrow  channel  between  bluffs,  a  little  south  of  Krom  Elbow  Point, 
where  a  bend  in  the  Hudson  forms  the  north  end  of  the  Long  Reach. 
The  first  word  of  the  name  is  from  Wawai,  "Round  about,"  "Wind- 
ing around,"  "eddying,"  as  a  current  in  a  bend  of  a  river.  The 
second,  -tan,  -ten,  -ton  means  "current,"  by  metonymie,  "river,"  and 
ock,  means  "land"  or  place — "A  bend-of-the-river  place."  The 
same  name  is  met  in  Wawiachtanos,  in  the  Ohio  country,^  and  the 
prefix  in  many  places.     (See  Wawayanda.) 

Metambeson,  a  creek  so  called  in  Duchess  County,  is  now  known 
as  Sawkill.  It  is  the  outlet  of  a  lake  called  Long  Pond.  The  In- 
dian name  is  from  Matt,  negative  and  depreciatory,  "  Small,  un- 
favorable," etc.,  and  M'beson,  "  Strong  water,"  a  word  used  in 
describing  brandy,  spirits,  physic,  etc.  The  rapidity  of  the  water 
was  probably  referred  to. 

Waraughkaraeck — Waraukameck — a.  small  lake  in  the  same 
county,  is  now  known  as  "Fever  Cot  or  Pine  Swamp."  The  In- 
dian namie  is  probably  an  equivalent  of  Len.  Wdlagh-kamik,  an  en- 
closed hole  or  den,  a  hollow  or  excavation. 

Aquassing — "At  a  creek  called  by  the  Indians  Aquassing,  and 
by  the  Christians  Fis'h  Creek" — has  not  been  located.  Aquassing 
was  the  end  of  the  boundar}'  line,  and  may  be  from  Enaughquasink, 
"As  far  as." 

Tauquashqueick,  given  as  the  name  of  a  meadow  lying  between 
Magdalen   Island^  and   the   main   land,  now   known  as   "Radcliff's 

^  "Tjughsaghrondie,  alias  Wawayachtenok."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iv,  900; 
La  Trobe's  Translation  of  Loskiel,  i,  23.)  The  first  name,  Tjughsaghrondie, 
is  also  written  Taghsaglirondie,  and  in  other  forms.  It  is  claimed  to  be 
from  the  Wyandot  or  Huron-Iroquoian  dialect.  In  History  of  Detroit  the 
Algonquin  is  quoted  Waweatunong,  interpreted  "  Circuitous  approach,"  and 
the  claim  made  that  the  reference  was  to  the  bend  in  the  Strait  at  Detroit  at 
an  elevation  "  from  which  a  view  of  the  whole  broad  river  "  could  be  had. 
In  Shawano,  Wawia'tan  describes  bending  or  eddying  water — with  locative, 
"Where  the  current  winds  about."  The  name  is  applicable  at  any  place 
where  the  features  exist. 

'  Magdalen  Island  is  between  Upper  and  Lower  Red-hook.  The  original 
Dutch,  Maagdelijn,  supposed  to  mean  "A  dissolute  woman,"  here  means, 
simply,  "Maiden,"  i.  e.  shad  or  any  fish  of  the  herring  family.  (See  Magaat 
Ramis.)     The  name  appears  on  Van  der  Donck's  map  of  1656. 


NAMEo    ON    THE   EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  47 

Vly,"  is  probably  an  equivalent  of  Paiiqua-ask-ek.  "Open  or  clear 
wet  meadow  or  vly." 

Sankhenak  and  Saukhenak  are  record  forms  of  the  name  given 
as  that  of  Roelof  Jansen's  Kil  (Do'c.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iii,  612;  French's 
Gazetteer.)  Sauk-hannek  would  describe  the  mouth  or  outlet  of 
the  stream,  and  Sank-hannek  would  read  "Flint-stone  creek."  Sauk 
is  probably  correct.  The  purchase  included  land  on  both  sides  of 
the  creek  from  "A  small  kil  opposite  the  Katskil,"  on  the  north, 
called  Wachhanekassik.  "to  a  place  opposite  Sagertyes  Kil,  called 
Saaskahampka."     The  stream  is  now  known  as  Livingston's  Creek. ^ 

Wachanekassik,  Indian  deed  to  Livingston,  1683 ;  Waghank- 
asick,  patent  to  Van  Rensselaer,  1649,  ^^'d  other  ortliographies,  is 
written  as  the  name  of  a  small  creek  which  marked  the  place  of  be- 
ginning of  the  northwest  boundmark  of  the  Livingston  Patent  and 
the  place  of  ending  of  the  southwest  boundmark  O'f  the  prior  Van 
Rensselaer  Patent  of  Claverack.  The  latter  reads ;  "  *  *  And 
so  along  the  said  Hudson  River  southward  to  the  south  side  of  Vas- 
trix  Island,  by  a  creek  called  Waghankasick,  thence  easterly  to 
Wawanaquasik,"  etc.  The  deed  to  Livingston  conveyed  lands  "On 
both  sides  of  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill,-  called  by  the  Indians  Saulc- 
henak,"  including  lands  "along  the  river's  bank  from  said  Roeloft" 
Jansen's  Kill,  northwards  up,  to  a  small  stream  opposite  CatskiU 
named  Wachanekasseck,  and  southwards  down  the  river  to  opposite 
the  Sagertjes  Kill,  called  by  the  Indians  Saaskahampka."  In  the 
Livingston  Patent  of  1684:  "Eighteen  hundred  acres  of  woodland 
lying  between  a  small  creek  or  kill  lying  over  against  Catskill  called 
Wachanakasseck  and  a  place  called  Suaskahampka,"  and  in  patent 
of  1686:  "On  the  north  by  a  line  to  be  drawn  from  a  certain  creek 
or  kill  over  against  the  south  side  of  Vastrix  Island  in  Hudson's 
River,  called  Wachankasigh,"  to  which  Surveyor  John  Beatty  add- 
ed more  precisely  on  has  map  of  survey  in  1715  :  "Beginning  on 
the  east  side  of  Hudson's  River  southward  from  Vastrix  Island,  at 
a  place  where  a  certain  run  of  water  watereth  out  into  Hudson's 
River,  called  in  ye  Indian  tongue,  Wachanl^assik."       The  "run  of 

^The  creek  was  the  boundmark  between  the   Wappingers  and  the  Ma- 
hicans.     (See  Wahamanessing.) 

-  Named  from  Roeliff  Jansen,  Overseer  of  the  Orphan  Court  under  the 
Dutch  Government.     (French.) 


48  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

water"  is  not  marked  on  Beatty's  map.  nor  on  the  map  of  survey 
of  the  paten't  in  1798,  but  it  is  marked,  from  existence  or  presumed 
existence,  on  a  m.ip  of  the  boundary  line  between  New  York  and 
Massachusetts  and  seems  to  have  been  one  of  the  several  small 
streams  that  flow  down  the  bluff  from  the  surface,  apparently  abcmt 
two  miles  and  a  half  north  of  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill,  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  old  Oak  Hill  station'  on  the  H.  R.  R.,  later  known  as  Catskill 
station.  While  referred  to  in  connection  with  the  boundmark  to 
identify  its  location,  its  precise  location  seems  to  have  been  lost. 
In  early  days  boundmarks  were  frequently  designated  in  general 
terms  by  some  well  known  place.  Hence  we  find  Catskill  spoken  of 
and  particularly  "the  south  end  of  Vastrix  Island,"  a  point  that 
every  voyager  on  the  Hudson  knew  to  be  the  commencement  of 
a  certain  "rak"  or  sailing  course.-  Hence  it  was  that  Van  Rens- 
selaer's first  purchase  (1630)  was  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  south 
end  of  Beercn  or  Mahican  Island,  and  the  second  purchase  by  the 
south  end  of  Vastrix  Island,  which  became  the  objective  of  the  north- 
west bound  of  Livingston's  Patent.  While  the  name  is  repeatedly 
given  as  tha.t  of  the  stream,  it  was  probably  that  of  a,  place  or  point 
on  the  limestone  bluff  which  here  bounds  the  Hudson  on  the  east 
for-  several  miles.  Surveyor  Beatty's  description,  "Beginning  at  a 
place  where,"  and  the  omission  of  the  stream  on  his  map,  and  its 
omission  on  subsequent  maps  of  the  manor,  and  the  specific  entry 
in  the  amended  patent  of  1715,  "Beginning  at  a  certain  place  called 
by  the  Indians  Wahankassek,"  admit  of  no  other  conclusion,  and 
the  conclusion  is,  apparently,  sustained  by  the  name  itself,  which 
seems  to  be  from  Moh.  Wakhinuihkodsck,  "A  high  point,"  as  a  hill, 
mountain,  peak,  bluff,  etc.,  from  IVaklni,  "hill,  mountain,"  uhk, 
"end,  point,"  and  oosic,  "peak,  pinnacle."  etc.  The  reference  may 
have  been  to  a  point  formed  by  the  channel  of  the  little  stream 
flowing  down  from  the  bluff'  above,  or  to  some  projection,  but  cer- 

'  Oak  Hill  station  on  the  Hudson  River  R.  R.,  about  five  miles  south  of 
the  city  of  Hudson,  was  so  called  from  a  hill  in  the  interior  just  north  of  the 
line  of  the  town  of  Livingston,  from  wh[ch  the  land  slopes  west  towards  the 
Hudson  and  south  to  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill.  jj 

'  Vastrix  is  a  compression  of  Dutch  f'l'asfe  Rak  as  written  on  Van  der 
Donck's  map  of  1656,  meaning,  "The  fast  or  steady  reach  or  sailing  course," 
which  began  here.  The  island  is  the  first  island  lying  north  of  the  mouth  of 
the  Katskill.     It  is  now  known  as   Roger's  Island. 


I 


NAMES    ON    THE    EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  49 

tainly  to  the  bluff  as  the  only  permanenit  objective  on  the  Hudson. 
The  connection  of  the  "small  run  of  water"  with  the  boundmark 
should  entitle  it  to  more  particular  description  than  has  been  given 
to  it  by  local  writers. 

Nickankook,  Kickua  and  Weckqashake  are  given  as  the  names 

of  "three  flats"  vvhic'h,  with  "some  small  flats,"  were  included  in 
the  first  purchase  by  Livingston,  and  described  as  "Situate  on  both 
sides"  of  the  kill  called  Saukhenak  (Roelof  Jansen's  Kill).  The 
Indian  deed  also  included  all  land  "Extending  along  the  bank  of 
the  river  northwards  from  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill  to  a  small  stream 
opposite  Catskill  named  Wachanekassik."  The  names  of  the  three 
flats  are  variously  spelled — Nickankooke,  Nickankook,  etc.  The 
first  has  been  translated  by  Mr.  Wm.  R.  Gerard  from  Nichdnhkiik, 
"At  the  bend  in  front."  Kickua,  the  second,  is  untranslatable. 
Wickquashaka,  Wequakake,  etc.,  is  the  equivalent  of  Wequaohke, 
"End  land"  or  place.  The  kill  flows  through  a  valley  of  broad 
and  fertile  flats,  but  near  the  Hudson  it  breaks  through  the  lime- 
stone bluff  which  forms  the  east  line  of  the  Hudson,  and  its  banks 
are  steep  and  rocky. 

Saaskahampka,  Indian  deed ;  Suaskahampka  patent  of  1684 — 
the  southwest  boundmark  of  the  Livingston  Patent,  is  described  as 
"A  dry  gully  at  Hudson's  River."  It  is  located  about  opposite 
Sawyer's  Creek,  north  of  the  present  Saugerties  or  Esopus  Creek. 
Sasco,  or  as  written  Saaska,  means  "A  swamp;"  Assisku  (Del,), 
"Mud,  clay" ;  Asxiskdkamika,  "Muddy  place,"  a  gully  in  which 
no  water  was  flowing.     (Gerard.) 

Mananosick — "  Along  the  foot  of  a  high  mountain  to  the  path 
that  goes  to  Wawyactanock  to  a  hill  called  by  the  Indians  Manan- 
osick." Also  written  Nanosick.  Elidt  wrote,  in  the  Natick  dialect, 
Nahoosick,  "Pinnacle,"  or  high  peak.  The  indefinite  and  imper- 
sonal M'  or  Ma,  prefixed,  would  add  "a"  or  "the"  high  peak.  The 
hill  has  not  been  located  except  in  a  general  way  as  near  the  Massa- 
chusetts line. 

Nanapenahakan  and  Nanipanihekan  are  orthographies  of  the 
name  of  a  "creek  or  brook"  described  as  "coming  out  of  a  marsh 
lying  near  unto  the  hills  where  the  heaps  of  stones  lye."  The 
stream  flows  to  Claverack  Creek.     The  outlet  waters  of  Achkook- 


50  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

peek  Lake  unite  with  it,  from  which  it  is  now  called  Copake  Creek. 
It  unites  with  Kinderhook  Creek  north  of  the  city  of  Hudson. 

Wawanaquasik,  Claverack  Patent,  1649;  Wazvanaquassick,  Liv- 
ingston Patent  of  1686 ;  IVazvauaquossick  and  Mawaiiapqiiassek, 
patent  of  1715  ;  Mawanagzvassik,  surveyor's  noitation,  1715 ;  now 
written  Mawaiiaquassick—a.  boundmark  of  the  Claverack  Patent  of 
1649,  and  also  of  the  Livingston  Patent,  is  described  in  the  Claver- 
ack Patent,  "To  the  high  woodland  called  Wawanaquasik,"  and 
in  the  Livingston  Patent,  "To  a  place  called  by  the  Indians  Wa- 
wanaqussek,  where  the  heapes  of  stone  lye,  near  to  the  head  c^f  a 
creek  called  Nanapenahaken,  which  comes  out  of  a  marsh  lying 
near  unto  the  hills  of  the  said  heapes  of  stones,  upon  wliich  the 
Indians  throw  Mother  as  they  pass  by,  from  an  ancient  custom 
among  them."  The  heap  of  stones  here  was  "on  the  south  side 
of  the  path  leading  to  Wa3^achtanok,"  and  other  paths  diverged, 
showing  that  the  place  was  a  place  of  meeting.  "To  the  high 
woodland,"  in  the  description  of  1649,  is  marked  on  the  map  of 
survey  of  17 15,  "Foot  of  the  hill,"  apparently  a  particular  point, 
the  place  of  which  was  identified  by  the  head  of  the  creek,  the 
marsh  and  the  heap  of  stones.  The  name  may  have  described  this 
poinlt  or  promontory,  or  it  may  have  referred  to  the  place  of  meet- 
ing near  the  head  of  the  creek,  or  to  the  end  of  the  marsih,  but  it 
is  claimed  that  it  was  the  name  of  the  heap  of  stones,  and  thait  it 
is  from  Mide,  or  Miyde,  "Together" — Mawcna,  "Meeting,"  "As- 
sembly"— frequently  met  in  local  names  and  accepted  as  meaning, 
"  Where  paths  or  streams  or  boundaries  come  together ;"  and  Qus- 
suk,  "stone" — "Where  the  stones  are  assembled  or  brought  to- 
gether," "A  stone  heap."  This  reading  is  of  doubtful  correctness. 
Dr.  Trumbull  wrote  that  Qiissuk,^  meaning  "stone,"  is  "rarely, 
perhaps  never"  met  as  a  substantival  in  local  names,  and  an  in- 
stance is  yet  to  be  cited  where  it  is  so  used.  It  is  a  legitimate 
word  in  some  connections,  however,  Eliot  writing  it  as  a  noun  in 
Mohshe-qussuk,  "A  flinty  rock,"  in  the  singular  number.  If  used 
here  it  did  not  describe  "a  heap  of  stones,"  but  a  certain  rock.     On 

*  Williams  wrote  in  the  Narraganset  dialect  Qussuck,  stone;  Qussuck- 
anash,  stones ;  Qussuckquon,  heavy.  _  Zeisberger  wrote  in  the  Minsi-Lenape, 
Ksncquon,  heavy;  Achsun,  stone;  Apuchk.  rock.  Chippeway.  Assin,  stone; 
Aubik,  rock.  Old  Algonquian,  Assin.  stone.  Eliot  wrote  in  the  Natick 
(Mass.)  dialect,  Qussuk,  a  rock;  Qussukquanash,  rocks;  Hussunash,  stones; 


NAMES    ON    THE   EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  51 

the  map  of  survey  of  the  patent,  in  1798,  the  second  station  is 
marked  "j\Ianor  Rock,"  and  the  third,  "Wavvanaquassick,"  is  lo- 
cated 123  chains  and  34  hnks  (a  fraction  over  one  and  one-half 
miles)  north  of  Manor  Rock,  as  the  corner  of  an  angle.  In  the 
survey  of  1715,  the  first  station  is  "the  foot  of  the  hill" — "the 
high  woodland" — which  seems  to  have  been  the  Mawan-uhqu- 
oosik^  of  the  text.  To  avoid  all  question  the  heap  of  stones  seems 
to  have  been  included  in  the  boundar}^  It  now  lies  in  an  angle 
in  the  line  between  the  townships  of  Claverack  and  Taghkanic, 
Columbia  County,  and  is  by  far  the  most  interesting  feature  of  the 
locative — a  veritable  footprint  of  a  perished  race.  Similar  heaps 
v/ere  met  by  early  European  travelers  in  other  parts  of  the  country. 
Rev.  Gideon  Hawley,  writing  in  1758,  described  one  which  he  met 
in  Schohare  Valley,  and  adds  that  the  largest  one  that  he  ever  saw 
was  "on  the  mountain  between  Stockbridge  and  Great  Barrington." 
Mass.  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iii,  1039.)  The  significance  of  the  "an- 
cient custom"  of  casting  a  stone  to  these  heaps  has  not  been  handed 
down.  Rev.  Mr.  Sergeant  wrote,  in  1734,  that  though  the  Indians 
"each  threw  a  stone"  as  they  passed,  they  had  entirely  lost  the 
knowledge  of  the  reason  for  doing  so,"  and  an  inquiry  by  Rev. 
Hawley,  in  1758,  was  not  attended  by  a  better  result.^  The  heaps 
were  usually  met  at  resting  places  on  the  path  and  the  custom  of 
throwing  the  stone  a  sign-language  indicating  that  one  of  the  tribe 
had  passed  and  which  way  he  was  going,  but  further  than  the  ex- 
planation that  the  casting  of  the  stone  was  "an  ancient  custom," 
nothing  may  be  claimed  with  any  authority.  A  very  ancient  cus- 
tom, indeed,  when  its  signification  had  been  forgotten. 

Ahashewaghick  and  Ahashewaghkameck,  the  latter  in  correct- 
ed patent  of  171 5.  is  given  as  the  name  of  the  northeast  bound- 

Hussunek,  lodge  or  ledge  of  rocks,  and  for  Hussimek  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote 
Assinek  as  an  equivalent,  and  Hussun  or  Hussunash,  stones,  as  identical 
with  Qussukqun,  heavy.  Eliot  also  wrote  -pick  or  -p'sk,  in  compound  words, 
meaning  ''Rock,"  or  "stone,"  as  qualified  by  the  adjectival  prefix,  Omp'sk, 
"  Standing  rock." 

^  Literally,  "A  meeting  point,"  or  sharp  extremity  of  a  hill. 

'Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iii,  1039.  The  heap  referred  to  by  Rev.  Hawley  was 
on  the  path  leading  to  Schohare.  It  gave  name  to  what  was  long  known  as 
the  "Stoneheap  Patent."  The  heap  is  now  in  the  town  of  Espcrance  and 
near  Sloansville,  Schohare  Coimty.  It  is  four  rods  long,  one  or  two  wide, 
and  ten  to  fifteen  feet  high.     (French.) 


52  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

mark  of  tlie  Manor  of  Livingston,  and  described  as  "the  northern- 
most end  of  the  hills  that  are  to  the  north  of  Tachkanick  " — specifi- 
cally by  the  surveyor,  "To  a  heap  of  stones  laid  together  on  a 
certain  hill  called  by  the  Indians  Ahasliawag-hkik,  by  the  north  end 
of  Taghanick  hill  or  mountaiin  " — has  been  translated  from  Nash- 
aue-komuk  (Eliot),  "A  place  between."  Dr.  Trumbull  noted 
Ashowugh-commocke,  from  the  derivatives  quoted — Na^shaue,  "  be- 
tween" ;  -komiik,  "place,"  limited,  enclosed,  occupied,  i.  e.  by  "a 
heap  of  stones  laid  togetiher,"  probably  by  the  surveyor  of  the  prior 
Van  Rensselaer  Patent,  of  which  it  was  also  a  boundmark.  The 
hill  is  now  the  nor'theast  comer  of  the  Massachusetts  boundary 
line,  or  the  north  end  of  Taghkanick  hills. 

Taghkanick,  the  name  of  a  town  in  Columbia  County  and  pri- 
marily of  a  tract  of  land  included  in  the  Livingston  Patent  and 
located  "behind  Potkoke,"  is  written  Tachkanick  in  the  Indian  deed 
of  1685;  Tachhanick  in  the  Indian  deed  of  1687-8;  "Land  called 
Tachkanick  which  the  owners  reserved  to  plant  upon  when  they 
sold  him  Tachhanick,  with  the  land  called  Quissichkook ;"  Tach- 
kanick, "having  the  kill  on  one  side  and  the  hill  on  the  other" ; 
Tahkanick  (Surveyor's  notation)  1715 — ^is  positively  located  by 
the  surveyor  on  the  east  side  of  the  kill  called  by  the  Indians  Sauk- 
henak,  and  by  the  purchasers  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill.  Of  the  meaning 
of  the  name  Dr.  E.  B.  O'Callaghan  wrote :  "Tachanuk,  'Wood 
place,'  Hterally,  'the  woods,'  from  Takone,  'forest,'  and  iik, 
'place'";  which  Dr.  Trumbull  regarded  as  "the  least  objectionable" 
of  any  of  the  interpretations  that  had  fallen  under  his  notice,  and 
to  which  he  added :  "Literally,  'wild  lands,'  'forest.'  "  It  would 
seem  to  be  more  probable  that  Tachk,  Taghk,  Tachh,  Tahk,  etc., 
represents  Tak  (Taghk),  with  formative  an,  Taghkan,  meaning 
"wood ;"  and  ek,  animate  plural  added,  "Woods,"  "trees,"  "for- 
-est."  Dr.  O'Callaghan's  ilk  (00k),  "Land  or  place,"  is  not  in  any 
•of  the  orthographies.  Tlie  deed-sentence,  "When  they  sold  him 
Tachanick,"  reads  literally,  from  the  name,  "When  they  sold  him 
the  woods."  The  name  was  extended  to  the  reserved  field,  to  the 
stream  and  to  the  mountain.*     The  latter  is  famiHar  to  geologists 

*  The  purchasers  claimed  but  the  Indians  denied  having  sold  the  moun- 
tain. It  was  heavil}'  wooded  no  doubt.  Livingston  claimed  it  from  having 
bought  "the  woods.''  The  Moravian  missionaries  wrote,  in  1744,  Wtakan- 
tschan,  which  Dr.  Trumbull  converted  to  Ket-takone-wadchu,  "Great  woody 
mountain." 


NAMES    ON    THE    EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  53 

in  what  is  known  as  the  Tax^onic  rocks.  Translations  of  the  name 
from  Del.  Tuphanne,  ''Cold  stream,"  and  Tankkanne,  "Little 
river,"  are  without  merit,  althoug'h  Tankhanne  would  describe  the 
branch  of  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill  on  which  the  plantation  was  located. 

Wichquapakat,  Wichquapuchat,  Wickquapubon,  the  latter  by 
the  surveyor,  given  as  the  name  of  the  southeast  boundmark  of  the 
Livingston  Patent  and  therein  described  as  "the  south  end  of  the 
hills,"  of  which  Ahashawag^h-kameck  was  the  north.  Wichqiia 
is  surely  an  equivalent  of  JVequa  {Wehqua,  Eliot),  "As  far  as; 
end'ing  at ;  the  end  or  extreme,  point."  *  Now  the  southwest  cor- 
ner on  the  Massachusetts  line. 

Mahaskakook,  a  boundmark  in  the  Livingston  Patent,  is  de- 
scribed, in  one  entry,  as  "A  copse,"  i.  e.  "A  thicket  of  under- 
brush," and  in  another  entry,  "A  cripple  bush,"  /.  e.  "A  patch 
of  low  timber  growth  " — Dutch,  Kreupelbosch,  "  Underwood." 
Probably  the  Indian  name  has,  substantially,  the  same  moaning. 
Manask  (Del.),  "Second  crop";  -ask,  "Green,  raw,  immature"; 
■ak,  "wood";  -ook  (ilk),  locative.  The  location  has  not  been  ascer- 
tained. 

Nachawawakkano,  given  as  the  name  of  a  creek  described  as  a 
"creek  which  comes  into  another  creek,"  is  an  equivalent  of  Lechau- 
ivakhanne  (Lenape),  "The  fork  of  a  river,"  a  stream  that  forks 
another  stream.  Aupaumut,  the  Stockbridge  H'isitorian,  wrote, 
with  locative  suffix,  N aukhuivivhnauk ,  "At  the  fork  of  the  streams." 

Mawichnauk — "the  place  where  the  two  streams  meet  being 
-called  Mawidmauk" — 'means  "The  fork  place,  or  place  where  the 
Nachawawakkano  and  the  Tawastaweka  came  together,  or  where 
the  streams  meet  or  flow  together.  In  the  Bayard  Patent  the  name 
is  wr*itten  Mawighanuck  and  Wawieglianuck.  (See  Wawigh- 
anuck.) 

Shaupook  and  Skaukook  are  forms  of  tfhe  name  assigned  to 
the  eastern  division  of  a  stream,  "which,  a  little  lower  down,"  was 
"called  Twastawekah,"  known  later  as  Claverack  Creek.  It  may 
be  translated  from  Sohk,  Mass.,  "outlet,"  and  iik,  locative,  "At  the 
outle't"  or  mouth  of  the  sream. 

*  Robert  Livingston,  who  wrote  most  of  the  Indian  names  in  his  patent, 
was  a  Scotchman.  He  learned  to  "talk  Dutch"  in  Rotterdam,  and  picked 
up  an  acquaintance  with  the  Indian  tongues  at  Fort  Orange  (Albany).  Some 
of  his  orthographies  are  singular  combinations. 


54  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Twastavvekah  and  Tawastawekah,  g-iven,  in  the  Livingston 
Patent,  as  the  name  of  Claverack  Creek,  is  described  as  a  place  that 
was  below  Shaiikook,  The  root  is  Tawa,  an  "open  space,"  and 
the  name  apparently  an  equivalertt  of  Lenape  Tawatawikunk,  "At 
an  open  place,"  or  an  uninhabited  place,  a  wilderness.  TauwatOr 
wique-ak,  "A  place  in  the  wilderness."     (Gerard.) 

Sahkaqua,  "  the  south  end  of  a  sma.ll  piece  of  land  called  Sahk- 
aqua  and  Nakawaewick" ;  "to  a  run  of  water  on  ye  east  end  of  a 
certain  flat  or  piece  of  land  called  in  ye  Indian  tongue,  Sahkahka ; 
then  south  *  *  one  hundred  and  forty  rods  to  *  *  where 
two  runs  of  water  come  together  on  the  south  side  of  the  said  flat ; 
then  west  *  *  to  a  rock  or  great  stone  on  the  south  corner  of 
another  flat  or  piece  of  low  land  called  by  the  Indians  Nakaowas- 
ick."  (Doc.  Hist.,  iii,  697.)  On  the  surveyor's  may  Nakaowasick, 
the  place  last  named,  is  changed  to  Acawanuk.  From  the  text, 
Sahkaqua  described  "Land  or  place  at  the  outlet  or  mouth  of  a 
stream,"  from  Sohk,  "outlet,"  and  -ohke,  "land"  or  place.  The 
second  name  Nakazvaewick  ( Nakaouaewik,  Nakawasick,  Acawasik) 
is  probably  from  Nashauezvasnck,  "At  (or  on)  a  place  between," 
i.  e.  between  the  streams  spoken  of. 

Minnischtanock,  in  the  Indian  deed  to  Livingston,  1685,  located 
the  end  of  a  course  described  as  "Beginning  on  the  northwest  side 
of  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill,"  and  in  the  patent,  "Beginning  on  the  other 
side  of  the  creek  that  runs  along  the  flat  or  plain  land  over  against 
Minnisichtanock,  and  from  thence  along  a  small  hill  to  a  valley," 
etc.  The  name  has  been  interpreted  "Huckleberry-hill  place,"  from 
Min,  "Small  fruit  or  grain  of  any  kind" ;  -achtenne,  "hill" ;  -iik,  loca- 
tive. 

Kackkawanick,  written  also  Kachtawagick,  Kachkawyick,  and 
Kachtawayick,  is  described  in  the  deed,  as  "A  high  place  to  the 
westward  of  a  high  mountain."  Location  has  not  been  ascertained. 
From  the  map  it  seems  to  have  been  a  long,  narrow  piece  of  land 
between  the  hills. 

Quissichkook,  Quassighkook,  etc.,  one  of  the  two  places  re- 
served by  the  Indians  "to  plant  upon"  when  they  sold  Tachkanik, 
is  described  in  the  deed  as  a  place  "lying  upon  this  {i.  e.  the  west) 
side  of  Roelof  Jansen's  Kill"  and  "near  Tachanik,"  the  course  run- 
ning "thence  along  a  small  hill  to  a  valley  that  leads  to  a  small 


NAMES    ON    THE   EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  55. 

creek  called  by  the  Indians  Quissichkook,  and  over  the  creek  to  a 
hig-h  place  to  the  westward  of  a  hig-h  mountain  called  by  tlie  natives 
Kachtawag-ick."  In  a  petition  by  Philip  Schuyler,  1686,  the  de- 
scription reads :  "Quassichkook,  *  *  lying  on  the  east  side  of 
Roelof  Jansen's  Kill,"  and  the  place  as  a  tract  of  woodland.  The 
name  was  probably  that  of  a  wooded  bluff  on  the  east  side  of  the 
creek.  It  seems  to  be  from  Kussuhkoe  (Moh.),  "high,"  and  -00k, 
locative — "At,  to  or  on  a  high  place" — from  which  the  stream  and 
fhe  plantation  was  located.      (See  Ouassaick.) 

Pattkqke,  a  place  so  called,  also  written  Pot-koke,  gave  name  to 
a  large  tract  of  land  patented  to  Johannes  Van  Rensselaer  in  1649. 
In  general  terms  the  tract  was  described  as  lying  "South  of  Kinder- 
hook,^  east  of  Claverack,-  and  west  of  Taghkanick"  (Doc.  Hist.  N. 
Y.,  iii,  617),  and  also  as  "Lying  to  the  east  of  Major  Abraham's 
patent  of  Claverack."  ^     Specifically,  in  a  caveat  filed  by  John  Van 

*  Kinderhook  is  an  anglicism  of  Dutch  Kinder-hoek,  meaning,  literally, 
"  Children's  point,  angle  or  corner."  It  dates  from  the  Carte  Figurative  of 
1614-16,  and  hence  is  one  of  the  oldest  names  on  Hudson's  River.  It  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  applied  from  a  gathering  of  Indian  children  on  a  point 
of  land  to  gaze  upon  the  ship  of  the  early  navigator.  It  could  not  have  been 
a  Dutch  substitute  for  an  Indian  name.  It  is  pure  Dutch.  It  was  not  an 
inland  name.     The  navigator  of  1614-16  did  not  explore  the  country. 

"  Claverack — Dutch,  Claverrak — literally,  "Clover  reach — a  sailing  course 
or  reach,  so  called  from  three  bare  or  open  fields  which  appear  on  the  land, 
a  fancied  resemblance  to  trefoil  or  three-leaved  clover,"  wrote  Jasper  Dan- 
kers  and  Peter  Sluj^ter  in  their  Journal  in  1679-80.  Presumably  the  places 
are  specifically  located  in  the  patent  to  Jan  Frans  van  Heusen,  May,  1667, 
on  which  the  city  of  Hudson  now  stands,  which  is  described  as  "A  tract  of 
land  which  takes  in  three  of  the  Ciavers  on  the  south."  From  the  locative 
the  reach  extended  some  miles  north  and  south  and  to  lands  which  it  bound- 
ed. It  is  still  preserved  as  the  name  of  a  creek,  a  town  and  a  village.  Of 
record  it  dates  back  to  De  Laet's  map  of  1625-6,  and  is  obviously  much  older. 
It  is  possible  that  the  "  three  bare  places  "  were  fields  of  white  clover,  as  has 
been  claimed  by  one  writer,  but  there  is  no  record  stating  that  fact.  Dan- 
kers  and  Sluyter,  who  wrote  only  fifty-four  years  after  the  application  of  the 
name,  no  doubt  gave  correctly  the  account  of  its  origin  as  it  was  related  to 
them  by  living  witnesses.  If  interpreted  as  were  the  names  of  other 
reaches,  the  reference  would  be  to  actual  clover  fields. 

'"Major  Abraham"  was  Major  Abraham  Staats,  who  located  on  a  neck 
of  land  on  the  north  side  of  "Major  Staats'  Creek,"  now  Stockport  Creek. 
(See  Ciskhakainck.)  "West  of  Taghkanick,"  probably  refers  to  the  moun- 
tains now  so  known.  It  means,  literally,  however,  "The  woods."  (See  Tagh- 
kanick.) There  was  a  heated  controversy  between  the  patroon  of  Rensse- 
laerswyck  and  Governor  Stuyvesant  in  regard  to  the  purchase  of  the  tract. 
It  Avas  decided  in  1652  in  favor  of  the  former,  who  had,  in  the  meantime, 
granted  several  small  leaseholds.  (See  Brodhead's  Hist.  N.  Y.,  i.)  The 
first  settlement  by  the  patroon  was  in  1705  at  Claverack  village. 


5^  INDIAiN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Rensseliier,  in  1761,  "From  the  mouth  of  Major  Staats,  or  Kinder- 
hook  Kdll,  south  along  the  river  to  a  point  opposite  the  south  end 
of  Vastrix  Island,  thence  easterly  twenity-four  English  miles,"  etc. 
(Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  307.  See  also,  Wachanekasaik.)  It 
was  an  immense  tract,  covering  about  eigli't  miles  on  the  Hudson 
b}-  twenty-four  miles  deep,  and  became  known  as  "The  Lower 
Manor  of  Rensselaerswyck,"  but  locally  as  Claverack,  from  its  front- 
age on  the  river-reach  so  called.  The  name  was  that  of  a  particular 
place  which  was  well  known  from  which  it  was  extended  to  the  tract. 
In  "History  of  Columbia  County"  this  particular  place  is  claimed 
to  have  been  the  site  of  an  Indian  village  situate  "about  three 
(Dutch,  or  nine  Englisih)  miles  inland  from  Claverack."  (Doc. 
Hist.  N.  Y.,  iv,  84.)  The  record  does  not  give  the  name,  nor  does 
it  say  "village,"  but  place.  The  local  story  is,  therefore,  largely 
conjectural.  The  orthographies  of  the  nalne  are  imperfect.  Pre- 
sumably, they  may  be  read  from  Mass.  Pautuckoke,  meaning  "Land 
or  country  around  the  falls  of  a  stream,"  and  the  reference  to  some 
one  of  the  several  falls  on  Claverack  Creek,  or  on  Eastern  Creek,  its 
prindpal  tributary.  Both  streams  were  included  in  the  patent,  and 
both  are  marked  by  falls  and  rifts,  but  on  the  latter  there  are  sev- 
eral "cataracts  and  falls  of  great  height  and  surpassing  beauty." 
■"Nothing  but  a  greater  volume  of  water  is  required  to  distinguish 
them  as  being  among  the  grandest  in  the  wor^ld,"  adds  the  local 
historian.  The  special  reference  by  the  writer  was  to  the  falls  at 
the  manufacturing  village  known  as  Philmont,  nine  miles  east  of 
the  Hudson,  corresponding  with  the  record  of  the  "place"  where 
the  Indians  assemibled  in  1663-4.  Pautuck  is  met  in  many  forms. 
It  means,  "The  falls  of  a  stream."  With  the  suffix,  -oke  (Mass. 
-auke),  "Land,  ground,  place,  unlimited" — "the  country  around 
the  falls,"  or  the  falls  country.     (See  Potick.) 

Ciskhekainck  and  Cicklekawick  are  forms  of  the  name  of  a 
place  granted  by  patent  to  Major  Abraham  Staats,  March  25,  1667, 
and  to  his  son  in  1715,  described  as  "Lying  north  of  Claverack 
[Hudson],  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  along  the  Great  Kill  [Kin- 
derhook  Creek],  to  the  first  fall  of  water;  then  to  the  fishing  place, 
containing  two  hundred  acres,  more  or  less,  bounded  by  the  river 
on  one  side  and  by  the  Great  Kill  on  the  other."  Major  Staats  had 
made  previous  settlement  on  the  tract  under  lease  from  Van  Rens- 


NAMES    ON    'li-h    t.\^^l     J-K'JM     M  .\  N  H.M  TAN     NORTH.  57 

selaer.  His  house  and  barn  were  burned  by  the  Indians  in  the 
Esopus  war  of  1663.  In  17 15,  he  being  then  dead,  his  son,  Abra- 
ham, petitioned  for  an  additional  tract  described  as  "Four  hundred 
acres  adjoining  the  north  line  of  the  neck  of  land  containing  two 
hundred  acres  now  in  his  possession,  called  Ciskhekainck,  on  the 
north  side  of  Qaverack,  on  ye  east  side  of  Hudson's  River."  (Cal. 
N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  118.)  The  petition  was  granted  and  the  two 
parcels  consolidated.  The  particular  fall  referred  to  is  probably 
that  now  known  as  Chittenden's,  on  Kinderhook  (now  Stockport) 
Creek,  a  short  distance  west  of  Stockport  Station.  It  may  be  called 
a  series  of  falls  as  the  water  primarily  descended  on  shelves  or 
steps.  It  was  noted  as  rexrrarkable  by  Dankens  and  Slu>ter  in  1679- 
80.^  Qaverack  Creek  unites  with  Stoclq)ort  Creek  just  Vv-est  of  the 
falls.  In  other  connections  both  streams  are  called  mill  streams. 
In  the  Stephen  Bayard  patent  of  1741,  the  name  of  the  fall  on  Stock- 
port Creek  is  noted  as  "A  certain  fall  *  *  called  by  the  Indians 
Kasesjevi'ackf'  The  scA-eral  names  are  perhaps  from  Cochik'ziack 
(Moh.),  "A  wild,  dashing"  stream.  Cochik'uack,  by  the  way,  is 
one  of  the  mosit  corrupted  names  of  record. 

Kesieway's  Kil,  described  in  an  Indian  deed  to  Garritt  van 
Slichterihorst,  1667-8.  "A  certain  piece  of  land  at  Cl?.verack  be- 
tween the  bouwer}-  of  Jan  Rootfier  and  Major  Abraham  Staats, 
beginning  at  a  fall  at  the  kil  called  Kesieway's  Kil."  (Col.  Hist. 
N.  Y.,  xiii,  51,  57.)  The  tract  seems  to  have  been  on  Claverack 
Creek  south  of  Stockport  "Jan  Roothers"  is  otherwise  written, 
"Jan  Hendricksen,  alias  Jan  Roothaer."  Roth  (German)  means 
"red,"  -(ler  is  from  German  Haxir  (hair).  He  was  known  locally 
as  "Jan,  tiie  red-head."  The  location  of  the  fall  has  not  been  ascer- 
tained. Kashaway  Creek  is  a  living  form  of  the  name  in  the  town 
of  Greenport.  Columbia  County.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  Hud- 
son the  same  name  apparently,  appears  in  Keesieway,  Kesewey,  etc., 
as  that  of  a  "chief  or  sachem"  of  the  Katskill  Indians.  ( See 
Keessienwev's  Hoeck.l 


^  "  We  came  to  a  creek,  where,  near  the  river,  lives  a  man  whom  they  call 
the  Child  of  Liixury  (f  kinder  van  walde).  He  had  a  sawmill  on  the 
creek  or  ■waterfall,  which  is  a  singular  one.  The  water  falls  quite  steep  in 
one  body,  but  it  comes  down  in  steps,  with  a  broad  rest  sometimes  between 
them.  These  steps  were  sixty  feet  or  more  high,  and  were  formed  out  of  a 
single  rock." 


5^  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Pomponick,  Columbia  County.  (N.  Y.  Land  Papers.)  Pom- 
pocnik,  a  fort  to  be  erected  at  "about  the  barn  of  Lawrence  van 
Alen."  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  ii,  90.)  Pompoen  is  Dutch  for  pump- 
kin. The  name  is  also  written  as  that  of  an  Indian  owner — "  the 
land  bought  by  Jan  Bruyn  of  Pompoen."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii, 
545-)     Pompoeneck  is  the  form  of  the  signature  to  deed. 

Mawighanuck,  Mawighunk,  Waweighanuck,  Wawighnuck, 
forms  of  the  name  preserved  as  that  of  the  Bayard  Patent,  Colum- 
bia County,  described  as  a  place  "Lying  to  the  northwest  of  Kin- 
derhook,  about  fifteen  miles  from  Hudson's  River,  upon  Kinder- 
hook  River  and  some  branches  thereof,  part  of  which  tract  is  known 
by  the  Indian  name  of  Mawig'hanuck."  The  particular  "part" 
noted  has  not  been  located,  but  it  seems  to  have  been  where  one 
of  the  branches  of  Kinderhook  Creek  united  with  that  stream.  (See 
Mawichnauk.) 

Mogongh=kamigh,  a  boundmark  of  the  Bayard  Patent  (Land 
Papers,  245),  is  located  therein,  "From  a  fall  on  said  river  called 
by  the  Indians  Kasesjewack  to  a  certain  place  called  by  the  natives 
Mogongh-kamigh,  then  up  the  southeast  branch,"  etc.  The  name 
means,  probably,  "Place  of  a  great  tree." 

Kenaghtiquak,  "  a  small  stream  "  so  called,  was  the  name  of  a 
boundmark  of  the  Peter  Schuyler  Patent,  described,  "Beginning 
where  three  oak  trees  are  marked,  lying  upon  a  small  creek,  to  the 
south  of  Pomponick,  called  by  the  Indians  Kenaghtiquak,  and  run- 
ning tlience,"  etc.  It  probably  standi  for  Enaughtiqua-uk,  "  The 
beginning  place." 

Machachoesk,  a  place  so  called  in  Columbia  County,  has  not 
been  located.  It  is  described  of  record  as  a  place  "lying  on  both 
sides  of  Kinderhook  Creek,"  and  may  have  taken  its  name  from  an 
adjacent  feature. 

Wapemwatsjo,  the  name  of  a  hill  in  Columbia  County,  is  a 
Dutch  orthography  of  JVapim-ivadchu,  "Chestnut  Hill."  The  in- 
terpretation is  correctly  given  in  the  accompanying  alternate,  "or 
Karstengeberg"  (Kastanjeberg,  Dutch),  "Chestnut  Hill." 

Kaunaumeek,  an  Indian  village  sixteen  miles  east  of  Albany, 
in  the  town  of  Nassau,  Rensselaer  County,  was  the  scene  of  the 
labors  of  Moravian  missionaries,  and  especially  of  Missionary  Brain- 
erd.     It  was  long  known  as  Brainerd's  Bridge,  and  is  now  called 


NAMES    ON    THE   EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  59 

Brainerds.  The  name  is  Lenape  (German  notation)  and  the  equiva- 
lent of  Oitannamdug,  Nar.,  Gunemeek,  Len.,  "Long-fish  place,"  a 
'"Fis'hing'-place  for  lampreys."  The  form,  Kaunaumeek,  was  in- 
troduced here  by  the  Moravian  missionaries. 

Scompamuck  is  said  to  have  been  the  name  of  the  locality  now 
covered  by  the  village  of  Ghent,  Columbia  County,  perhaps  more 
strictly  the  head  of  the  outlet  of  Copake  Lake  where  an  Indian  set- 
tlement is  located  on  early  maps.  The  suffix,  -amuck,  is  the  equiv- 
alent of  -amaug,  "fishing  place."  Ouschank-amaug,  from  Otisch- 
acheu,  "smooth,  slippery,"  hence  eel  or  lampery — "a  fishing-place 
for  eels." 

Copake,  the  modern  form  of  the  name  of  a  lake  in  Columbia 
County,  is  of  record  Achkookpeek  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iii.  628), 
meaning,  literally,  "Snake  water,"  from  Achkook,  "Snake,"  and 
-peek,  "Water  place,"  pool  or  pond.  Hendrick  Aupaumut,  the 
Historian  of  the  Stockbridge-Mahicans,  wrote:  "Ukhkokpeck;  it 
signifies  snake-water,  or  water  where  snakes  are  abundant."  On 
a  map  of  the  boundary  line  between  Mas'sachusetts  and  New  York 
an  Indian  village  is  located  at  the  outlet  of  the  lake,  presumably 
that  known  as  Scompamuck. 

Kaphack,  on  Westenhook  River,  a  place  described  as  "  Begin- 
ning at  an  Indian  burying-place  hard  by  Kaphack,"  probaibly  means 
"A  separate  place" — "land  not  occupied."  The  tract  began  at 
"an  Indian  burying-place,"  and  presumably  took  its  name  there- 
from. Chepeck,  "The  dead  ;"  Chepeack,  "Place  of  the  dead."  (See 
Shapequa.) 

Valatie,  the  name  of  a  village  in  Columbia  County,  is  Dutch. 
It  means  "Vale,  valley,  dale,  dell,"  and  not  "Little  Falls,"  as  ren- 
dered in  French's  Gazetteer.  Waterval  is  Dutch  for  "  Waterfall." 
Vallate,  Low  Latin  for  "valley,"  is  the  derivative  of  Valatie,  as 
now  written. 

Schodac,  now  covered  by  the  village  of  Castleton  (Schotax, 
1677;  Schotack,  1768),  was  the  place  of  residence  of  Aepjin,  sach- 
em, or  "peace  chief,"  of  the  Mahicans.^       It  has  been  translated 


'Aepjin's  name  appears  of  record  first  in  1645  as  the  representative  of  the 
Westchester  County  clans  in  negotiating  a  treaty  of  peace  with  the  Dutch. 
In  the  same  capacity  he  was  at  Esopus  in  1660.  He  could  hardly  have  been 
the  "old  man"  whom  Hudson  met  in  1609.  In  one  entry  his  name  is  writ- 
ten "Eskuvius,  alias  Aepjin   (Little  Ape),"  and  in   another   "Called  by  the 


6o  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

from  Skootay,  Old  Algonquian  (Squta,  Williams),  "fire,"  and 
-ack,  "place,"  literally,  "Fire  Place,"  or  place  of  council.  It  was 
extended  to  Smack's  Island,  opposite  Albany,  whioh  was  known 
to  the  early  Dutch  as  "Schotack,  or  Aepjen's  Island."  It  is  prob- 
able, however,  that  the  correct  derivative  is  to  be  found  in  Esquatak, 
or  Eskwatak,  the  record  name  of  the  ridge  of  land  east  of  Castle- 
ton,  near  which  the  Mahican  fort  or  palisaded  village  was  located, 
from  which  Castleton  takes  its  name.  Esquatak  is  pretty  certainly 
an  equivalent  of  Ashpohtag  (Mass.),  meaning  "A  hig'h  place." 
Dropping  the  initial  A,  and  also  the  letter  p  and  the  second  h, 
leaves  Schotack  or  Shotag;  by  pronunciation  Schodac.  Eshodac,. 
of  which  Meshodack*  is  another  form,  the  name  of  a  high  peak  in 
the  town  of  Nassau,  Rensselaer  County,  has  become  Schodac  by 
pronunciation.  It  has  been  claimed  that  the  landing  which  Hud- 
son made  and  so  particularly  described  in  Juet's  Journal,  w^as  at 
Schodac.''^  The  Journal  relates  that  the  "Master's  mate"  first 
"went  on  land  with  an  old  savage,  the  governor  of  the  country, 
who  carried  him  to  his  house  and  made  him  good  oheere."  The 
next  day  Hudson  himself  "Sailed  to  the  shore,  in  one  of  their 
can'oe'S,  with  an  old  man  who  was  chief  of  a  tribe  consisting  of 
forty  men  and  seventeen  women,"  and  it  is  added,  "These  I  saw 
there  in  a  house  well  constructed  of  oak  bark  and  circular  in  shape, 
so  that  it  had  the  appearance  of  being  built  with  an  arched  roof." 
Presumably  the  house  was  near  the  shore  of  the  river  and  in  occu- 
pation during  the  fishing  and  planting  season.     The  winter  castle 

Dutch  Apeje's  (Little  Ape's)  Island."  He  may  have  been  given  that  name 
from  his  personal  appearance,  or  it  may  have  been  a  substitute  for  a  name 
which  the  Dutch  had  heard  spoken.  EHot  wrote,  "Appu.  He  sits ;  he  rests, 
remains,  abides ;  Ken  Apean,  Those  that  sittest,"  descriptive  of  the  rank  of 
a  resident  ruler  or  peace  chief,  one  of  a  class  of  sachems  whose  business  it 
was  to  maintain  the  covenants  between  his  own  and  other  tribes,  and  nego- 
tiate treaties  of  peace  on  their  behalf  or  for  other  tribes  when  called  upon. 
From  his  totemic  signature  he  was  of  the  Wolf  tribe  of  the  Mahicans.  (See 
Keessienway's   Hoeck.) 

^  The  prefixed  M,  sometimes  followed  by  a  short  vowel  or  an  apostrophe 
(M'),  has  no  definite  or  determinate   force.     (Trumbull.) 

'The  Journal  locates  the  place  at  Lat.  42  deg.  18  min.  This  would  be 
about  five  miles  (statute)  north  of  the  present  city  of  Hudson.  "  But,"  wrote 
Brodhead,  '  Latitudes  were  not  as  easily  determined  in  those  days  as  they 
are  now ;  and  a  careful  computation  of  the  distances  run  by  the  Half-Moon, 
as  recorded  in  Juet's  day-book,  shows  that  on  the  i8th  of  September,  1609, 
when  the  landing  occurred,  she  must  have  been  '  up  six  leagues  higher '  than 
Hudson,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Schodac  and  Castleton." 


NAMES    ON    THE   EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  6 1 

was  further  inland.  The  "arched  roof"  indicates  that  it  was  one 
of  the  "long"  houses  so  frequently  described,  not  a  cone-like  cabin. 
The  '"tribe"  was  the  sachem's  family. 

Sickenekas,  given  as  the  name  of  a  tract  of  land  on  the  east 
side  of  the  river,  "opposite  Fort  Orange  (Albany),  above  and  be- 
low," dates  from  a  deed  to  Van  Rensselaer,  1637,  the  name  of  one 
of  the  grantors  of  w'hich  is  written  Paepsickenekomtas.  The  name 
is  now  written  Papskanee  and  applied  to  an  island. 

Sicajoock,  (Wickagjock,  Wassenaer),  is  given  as  the  name  of 
a  tract  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  extending  from  Smack's  Island 
to  Castle  Island  where  it  joined  lands  "called  Semesseeck,"  Ges- 
messecks,  etc.,  which  extended  north  to  Negagonse,  "  being  about 
twelve  miles  (Dutch),  large  measure."  The  northern  limit  seems 
to  have  been  Unuwat's  Castle  on  the  north  side  of  a  stream  flow- 
ing to  the  Hudson  north  of  "opposite  to  Rensselaer's  Kil  and  water- 
fall." Sicajoock  (Dutch  notation),  "Black,  or  dark  colored  earth," 
from  Sucki  "Dark  colored,  inclining  to  black,"  and  -ock,  "land." 
The  same  name  is  written  Suckiage  (ohke)  in  application  to  the 
Hartford  meadows.  Conn. 

Gesmesseeck,  a  tract  of  land  so  called,  otherwise  entered  of 
record  "Nawanemit's  particular  land  called  Semesseerse,  lying  on 
the  east  bank,  opposite  Castle  Island,  off  unto  Fort  Orange." 
"Item — from  Petanoc,  the  mill  stream,  away  north  to  Negagonse." 
In  addition  Van  Rensselaer  then  purchased  lands  held  in  common 
by  several  owners,  "extending  up  the  river,  south  and  north^* 
from  Fort  Orange,  "unto  a  little  south  of  Moeneminnes  castle," 
"being  about  twelve  miles,  large  measure."  Moeneminne's  castle  was 
on  Haver  Island  at  Kahoes.  Semesseerse  is  the  form  of  the  name 
in  deed  as  printed  in  Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  vol.  i,  p.  44,  and  Gesmes- 
seecks  p.  i,  v.  iv.  Kesmesick  is  another  form  and  perhaps  also 
Taescameasick.  (See  Patuckquapaen.)  The  several  forms  of  the 
name  illustrate  the  effort  on  the  part  of  the  early  Dutch,  who  were 
then  limitedly  acquainted  with  the  Indian  tongue,  to  give  orthog- 
raphies to  the  names  which  they  heard  spoken. 

Passapenoc,  Pahpapaenpenock  and  Sapanakock,  forms  of 
the  name  of  Beeren  Island,  lying  opposite  Coe>'mans,  is  from  an 


62  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

edible  tuber  which  was  indigenous  on  it/  The  Dutch  name  Beeren 
or  Beerin,  means,  Hterally,  "She  bear,"  usually  called  Bear's  Island. 
De  Laet  wrote  "Beeren"  in  1640. 

Patuckquapaen  and  Tuscumcatick  are  noted  in  French's  Gazet- 
teer as  names  of  record  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Greenfeush, 
Rensselaer  County,  without  particular  location.  The  first  is  in 
part  Algonquian  and  in  part  Dutch.  The  original  was,  no  doubt, 
Patuck  qua  pang,  as  in  Greenwich,  Ct.,  meaning  "Round  pond." 
The  Dutch  changed  paug  to  paen  destriptive  of  the  land — low 
land — so  we  have,  as  it  stands,  "Round  land,"  "elevated  hassocks 
of  earth,  roots,"  etc.  (See  Patuckquapaug. )  The  second  name 
is  written  in  several  forms — Taescameatuck,  Taescameesick,  and 
Gessmesseecks.  Greenhush  is  an  anglicism  of  Grcsn  Bosch,  Dutch, 
meaning,  literally,  "Green  forest."  The  river  bank  was  fringed 
by  a  long  stretch  of  spruce-pine  woods.  Dutch  settlement  began 
here  about  163 1.  In  1641  a  ferry  was  established  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Tamisquesuck  or  Beaver  Creek,  and  has  since  been  main- 
tained. About  the  same  year  a  small  fort,  known  as  Fort  Cralo, 
•was  constructed  by  Van  Rensselaer's  superintendent. 

Poesten  Kill,  the  name  of  a  stream  and  of  a  town  in  Rensselaer 

County,  is  entered  in  deed  to  Van  Rensselaer  in  1630,  "Petanac, 
the  mill  stream" ;  in  other  records,  ''Petanac,  the  Molen  Kil,"  and 
"De  Laet's  Marlen  Kil  and  Waterval."  Petanac,  the  Indian  name, 
is  an  equivalent  of  Stockbridge  Patternac,  which  King  Ninham,  in 
an  affidavit,  in  1762,  declared  meant  "A  fall  of  water,  and  nothing 
more."  "Molen  Kil"  (Dutch),  means  "mill  water."  De  Laet's 
Marlen  Kil  ende  Waterval,"  locates  the  name  as  that  of  a  well- 
known  waterfall  on  the  stream  of  eighty  feet.  Weise,  in  his  "  His- 
tory of  Troy,"  wrote :  "Having  erected  a  saw-mill  upon  the  kill 
for  sawing  posts  and  timber,  which  was  known  thereafter  as  Poesten 

*  "The  Indians  frequently  designated  places  by  the  names  of  esculent  or 
medicinal  roots  which  were  there  produced.  In  the  Algonquin  language  the 
generic  names  for  tubers  was  pett,  varying  in  some  dialects  to  pin,  pena,  pon, 
or  hurt.  This  name  seems  originally  to  have  belonged  to  the  common 
ground  nut :  Apias  tuberosa.  Abnaki,  pen,  plural,  penak.  Other  species  were 
designated  by  prefixes  to  this  generic,  and,  in  the  compositions  of  place 
names,  was  employed  to  denote  locality  {auk,  auki,  ock,  etc.),  or  by  an 
abundance  verb  (kanti-kadi) .  Thus  p'sai-pen,  'wild  onions,'  with  the  suffix 
for  place,  ock,  gave  p'sai-p en-auk,  or  as  written  by  the  Dutch,  Passapenock, 
the  Indian  name  for  Beeren  Island."  (J.  H.  Trumbull,  Mag.  of  Am.  Hist  i, 
.387.) 


NAMES   ON   THE   EAST   FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH,  6;^ 

-mill,  the  name  became  extended  to  the  stream,"  an  explanation 
that  seems  to  bear  the  marks  of  having  been  coined.  From  the 
character  of  the  stream  the  name  is  probably  a  corruption  of  the 
Dutch  Boosen,  "An  angry  stream,"  because  of  its  rapid  descent. 
The  stream  reaches  the  Hudson  on  the  north  line  of  Troy.  (See 
Gesmessecks.) 

Paanpaach  is  quoted  by  Brodhead  (Hist.  N.  Y.)  as  the  name 
of  the  site  of  the  city  of  Troy.  It  appears  in  1659  ^^  application 
to  bottom  lands  known  as  "The  Great  Meadows,"  ^  lying  under 
the  hills  on  the  east  side  of  the  Hudson.  At  the  date  of  settlement 
by  Van  der  Huyden  (1720),  it  is  said  there  were  stripes  or  patches 
within  the  limits  of  the  present  city  which  were  known  as  "The 
corn-lands  of  the  Indians," '  from  which  the  interpretation  in 
French's  Gazetteer,  "Fields  of  corn,"  whidh  the  name  never  meant 
in  any  language.  The  name  may  have  had  an  Indian  antecedent, 
hnt  as  it  stands  it  is  Dutch  from  Paan-pacht,  meaning  "Low,  soft 
land,"  or  farm  of  leased  land.  The  same  name  appears  in  Paan- 
pack.  Orange  county,  which  see. 

Piskawn,  of  record  as  the  name  of  a  stream  on  the  north  line 
of  Troy,  describes  a  branch  or  division  of  a  river.  Rale  wrote  in 
Abnaki,  "Peskakoon,  branche,"  of  which  Piskawn  is  an  equivalent. 

Sheepshack  and  Pogquassick  are  record  names  in  the  vicinity 
of  Lansingburgh.  The  first  has  not  been  located.  It  seems  to 
stand  for  Tsheepenak,  a,  place  where  the  bulbous  roots  of  the  yel- 
low lily  were  obtained — ^modern  Abnaki,  Sheep'nak.  Pogquassick 
appears  as  the  name  of  a  "piece  of  woodland  on  the  east  side  of 
the  river,  near  an  island  commonly  called  Whale-fishing  Island," 
correctly,  Whalefish  Island.^  This  island  is  now  overflowed  by  the 
raising  of  the  water  by  the  State  dam  at  Lansingburgh.  The  In- 
dian name  does  not  belong  to  the  woodland;  it  locates  the  tract 
near  the  island,  in  which  connection  it  is  probably  an  equivalent 


1  Weise's  Hist,  of  Troy. 

*  Woodward's   Reminiscences   of  Troy. 

'  "Whale-fishing  Island"  is  a  mistranslation  of  "Walvish  Eiland" 
(Dutch),  meaning  simply  "Whale  Island."  It  is  related  by  Van  der  Donck 
(1656)  that  during  the  great  freshet  of  1647,  a  number  of  whales  ascende'd 
the  river,  one  of  which  was  stranded  and  killed  on  this  island.  Hence  the 
«ame. 


^4  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

of  Paitgasuck,  "A  place  at  which  a  strait  widens  or  opens  out" 
(Trumbull),  or  where  the  narrow  passage  between  the  island  and 
the  main  land  begins  to  widen.  In  the  same  district  Pogsquam- 
pacak  is  written  as  the  name  of  a  small  creek  flowing  into  Hoosick 
River. 

Wallumschack,  so  written  in  return  of  survey  of  patent  grant- 
ed to  Cornelius  van  Ness  and  others,  in  1738,  for  lands  now  in 
Washington  County ;  IValloomscook,  and  other  forms ;  now  pre- 
served in  Walloomsac,  as  the  name  of  a  place,  a  district  of  country, 
and  a  stream  flowing  from  a  pond  on  the  Green  Mountains,  in  the 
town  of  Woodford,  near  Bennington,  Vermont.^  It  has  not  been 
specifically  located,  but  apparently  described  a  place  on  the  adja- 
cent hills  where  material  was  obtained  for  making  paints  with 
which  the  Indic^ns  daubed  their  bodies.  (See  Washiack.)  It  is 
from  a  generic  root  written  in  diiiferent  dialects,  Walla,  Wara  etc., 
meaning  "  Fine,  handsome,  good,"  etc.,  from  wliich  in  the  Dela- 
ware, Dr.  Brinton  derived  Wdldm,  "Painted,  from  the  sense  to  be 
fine  in  appearance,  to  dress,  w^hich  the  Indians  accomplished  by 
painting  their  bodies,"  and  -onipsk  (Natick),  with  the  related  mean- 
ing of  standing  or  upright,  the  combination  expressing  "  Place  of 
the  paint  rocks."  ^  The  ridges  of  many  of  the  hills  as  well  as  of 
the  mountains  in  the  district  are  composed  of  slate,  quartz,  sand- 
stone and  limestone,  which  compose  the  Takonic  system.  By  ex- 
posure the  slate  becomes  disintegrated  and  forms  an  ochery  clay 
of  several  colors,  which  the  Indians  used  as  paint.  The  washing 
away  of  the  rock  left  the  quartz  exposed  in  tlie  form  of  sharp 
points,  wliich  were  largely  used  by  the  Indians  for  making  axes, 
lance-heads,  arrow  points,  etc.  Some  of  the  ochre  beds  have  been 
extensively  worked,  and  plumbago  has  also  been  obtained.  White 
Creek,  in  the  same  county,  takes  that  name  from  its  white  clay 
banks. 

*  Vermont  is  from  Vcrd  Montagne  (French),  meaning  "Green  Moun- 
tains," presumably  from  their  verdure,  but  actually  from  the  appearance  of 
the  hills  at  a  distance  from  the  color  of  the  rocks  reflected  in  the  atmos- 
phere.    To  the  Indian  they  were  Wal'ompskeck,  "  fine,  handsome  JOcks." 

'  An  interpretation  of  the  name  from  the  form  Wallumscnaik,  m  Thomp- 
son's Hist.  Vermont,  states  that  "The  termination  'chaik'  signifies  in  the 
Dutch  language,  'scrip.'  or  'patent.' "  This  is  erroneous.  There  io  no  such 
word  as  chaik  in  the  Dutch  language.  The  ch  in  the  name  here  stands  for  k 
and  belongs  to  'ompsk. 


NAMES    ON    THE   EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  65 

Tomhenack,  Tomhenuk,  forms  of  the  name  given  as  that  of 
a  small  stream  flowing  into  the  Hoosick  from  the  north/  takes  that 
name,  apparently,  from  an  equivalent  of  Tomheganic,  Mass.,  Tan- 
gamic,  Del.,  a  stone  axe  or  tomahawk,  referring  to  a  place  where 
suitable  stones  were  obtained  for  making  those  implements.  (Trum- 
bull.)     (See  Wallumschack.) 

Tyoshoke,  now  the  name  of  a  cliurch  at  San  Coick,  Rensselaer 
County,  is  probably  from  an  equivalent  of  Toyusk,  Nar.,  "a  bridge," 
and  ohke,  "Place" — a  place  where  the  stream  was  crossed  by  a 
log  forming  a  bridge.  It  was  a  well-known  fording  place  for 
many  years,  and  later  became  the  site  of  Buskirk's  Bridge. 

Sanckhaick,  now  San  Coick,  a  place  in  North  Hoosick,  Rens- 
selaer County,  appears  of  record  in  petition  of  John  de  Peyster  in 
1730,  and  in  Indian  deed  to  Cornelius  van  Ness  and  others,  in  1732, 
for  a  certain  tract  of  land  "near  a  place  called  Sanckhaick."  The 
place,  as  now  known,  is  near  the  junction  of  White  Creek  and  the 
Wallompskack,  where  one  Van  Schaick  made  settlement  and  built 
a  mill  at  an  early  date.  In  1754  his  'buildings  were  burned  by  In- 
dian allies  of  the  French.  After  the  war  of  that  period  the  mill 
was  rebuilt  and  became  conspicuous  in  the  battle  of  Bennington, 
Aug.  16,  1777.  It  is  claimed  that  the  name  is  a  corruption  of  Van 
Schaick.  Col.  Baiune,  commandant  of  the  Hessians  in  the  battle 
of  Bennington  (1777)  wrote  it  Sancoik,  which  is  very  nearly  Van 
Schaick. 

Schaghticoke,  now  so  written  as  the  name  of  a  town  in  the 
northeast  corner  of  Rensselaer  County,  and  in  other  connections,  is 
from  Pishgachtigok  Mohegan,  meaning  "Land  on  the  branch  or 
division  of  a  stream."  The  locative  of  the  name  was  at  the  mouth 
of  Hoosick  River  on  the  Hudson,  in  Washington  County.  The 
earliest  record  (1685)  reads,  "Land  at  Schautecogue"  (-ohke). 
It  is  a  generic  name  and  appears  in  several  forms  and  at  several 
places.  Pishgachtigok  is  a  form  on  the  west  side  of  the  Housatonic 
at  and  near  the  mouth  of  Ten-Mile  River.  It  was  the  site  of  an 
Indian  village  and  the  scene  of  labor  by  the  Moravian  mission- 


'"At  a  creek  called  Tomheenecks,  beginning  at  the  southerly  bounds  of 
Hoosick,  and  so  running  up  southerly,  on  both  sides  of  said  creek,  over  the 
path  which  goes  to  Sanckhaick."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  194;  petition  of 
John  de  Peyster,  1730.) 


66  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

aries.  In  some  cases  the  name  is  written  with  locative,  "at,"  etc.,, 
in  others,  with  substantive  meaning  land  or  place,  and  in  others 
without  sufifix.  Writes  Mr,  Gerard,  "The  name  would  probably 
be  correctly  written  P'skaghtuk-uk,"  when  with  locative  "at."  ^ 
Although  first  of  record  in  1685,  its  application  was  probably  as 
early  as  1675,  when  the  Pennacooks  of  Connecticut,  fleeing  from 
the  disasterous  results  of  King  Phillip's  War  in  which  they  were 
allies,  found  refuge  among  their  kindred  Mahicans,  and  later  were 
assigned  lands  at  Schaghticoke  by  Governor  Andros,  w^ere  they 
were  to  serve  as  allies  of  the  Mohawks.  They  seem  to  have  spread 
widely  over  the  district  and  to  have  left  their  footprints  as  far 
south  as  the  Katskill.  It  is  a  tradition  that  conferences  were  held 
with  them  on  a  plain  subsequently  owned  by  Johannes  Knicker- 
bocker, some  six  miles  east  of  the  Hudson,  and  that  a  veritable 
treaty  tree  was  planted  there  by  Governor  Andros  in  1676-7,  al- 
though "planting  a  tree"  was  a  figurative  expression.  In  later 
years  the  seat  of  the  settlement  seems  to  have  been  around  Schagh- 
ticoke hill  and  point,  where  Mashakoes,  their  sachem,  resided. 
(Annals  of  Albany,  v,  149.)  In  the  French  and  Indian  war  of 
1756,  the  remnant  of  the  tribe  was  carried  away  to  Canada  by  the 
St.  Francis  Indians,  an  organization  of  kindred  elements  in  the 
French  service.  At  one  time  they  are  said  to  have  numbered  six 
hundred  warriors.     (See  Shekomeko.) 

Quequick  and  Quequicke  are  orthographies  of  the  name  of  a 
certain  fall  on  Hoosick  River,  in  Rensselaer  County.  In  petition 
of  Maria  van  Rensselaer,  in  1684,  the  lands  applied  for  were  de- 
scribed as  "Lying  on  both  sides  of  a  certain  creek  called  Hoosock, 
beginning  at  ye  bounds  of  Schaakook,  and  so  to  a  fall  called  Que- 
quick, and  thence  upward  to  a  place  called  Nachacqikquat."  (Cal. 
Land  Papers,  27.)     The  name  may  stand  for  Cochik'uack  (Moh.), 

*The  root  of  the  name  is  Peske  or  Piske  (Paske,  Zeisb.),  meaning,  pri- 
marily, "To  split,"  'To  divide  forcibly  or  abruptly."  (Trumbull.)  In 
Abnaki,  Pesketekwa,  a  "divided  tidal  or  broad  river  or  estuary" — Peska- 
hakan  (Rale),  "branche."  In  the  Delaware,  Zeisberger  wrote  Pasketiwi, 
"  The  division  or  branch  of  a  stream."  Pascataway,  Md.,  is  an  equivalent 
form.  Pasgatikook,  Greene  County,  is  from  the  Mohegan  form.  Paghata- 
ghan  and  Pachkataken,  on  the  east  branch  of  the  Delaware,  and  Paghatagkcm 
on  the  Otterkill,  Vt.,  are  equivalent  forms  of  Peskahakan,  Abnaki.  The 
Hoosick  is  not  only  a  principal  branch,  but  it  is  divided  at  its  mouth  and  at 
times  presents  the  appearance  of  running  north  in  the  morning  and  south  at 
night.     (Fitch's  Surv.) 


NAMES    ON    THE   EAST   FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  6f 

"Wild,  dashing"  waters,  but  I  cannot  make  anything  out  of  it. 
The  first  fall  east  of  Schaakook  (Schagticoke)  Patent  is  now  known 
as  Valley  Falls,  in  the  town  of  Pittstown  (Pittstown  Station). 

Pahhaoke,  a  local  name  in  Hoosick  Valley,  is  probably  an  equiv- 
alent of  Paiiqna-ohke,  "Clear  land,"  "open  country."  It  is  fre- 
quently met  in  Connecticut  in  different  forms,  as  in  Pahqui-oke, 
Paquiag,  etc.,  the  name  of  Danbury  Plains.  The  form  here  is  said 
to  be  from  the  Stockbridge  dialect,  but  it  is  simply  an  orthography 
of  an  English  scribe.  It  has  no  relation  whatever  to  the  familiar 
Schaghticoke  or  Scat'acook. 

Panhoosick,  so  written  in  Indian  deed  to  Van  Rensse'laer  in 
1652,  for  a  tract  of  land  lying  north  and  east  of  the  present  city  of 
Troy,  extending  north  to  nearly  opposite  Kahoes  Falls  and  east  in- 
cluding a  considerable  section  of  Hoosick  River,  appears  in  later 
records  as  an  apheresis  in  Hoosick,  Hoosack,  and  Hoosuck,  in 
application  to  Hoosick  River,  Hoosick  Mountains,  Hoosick  Valley, 
Hoosick  Falls,  and  in  "Dutch  Hossuck,"  an  early  settlement  de- 
scribed in  petition  of  Hendrick  van  Ness  and  others,  in  1704,  as 
"land  granted  to  them  by  Governor  Dongan  in  1688,  known  by  the 
Indian  name  of  Hoosack."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  2y,  74.) 
The  head  of  the  stream  appears  to  have  been  the  outlet  of  a  lake 
now  called  Pontoosuc  from  the  name  of  a  certain  fall  on  its  outlet 
called  Pontoosuck,  "A  corruption,"  wrote  Dr.  Trumbull,  "of  Pown- 
tucksuck,  'falls  of  a  brook,'  or  outlet,  "Powntiick,  a  general  name 
for  all  falls,"  according  to  Indian  testimony  quoted  by  the  same 
writer.  "Pantiick,  falls  of  a  stream."  (Zeisb.)  Several  inter- 
pretations of  the  name  have  been  suggested,  of  which  the  most 
probably  correct  is  from  Massachusetts  Pontoosuck,  which  would 
readily  be  converted  to  Hoosick  or  Panhoosick  (Pontoosuck).  It 
was  applicable  to  any  falls,  and  may  have  had  locative  at  Hoosick 
Falls  as  well  as  on  the  outlet  of  Pontoosuck  Lake.  Without  exam- 
ination or  warrant  from  the  local  dialect,  Heckewelder  wrote  in 
his  Lenape  tradition,  "The  Hairless  or  Naked  Bear":  "Hoosink, 
which  means  the  basin,  or  more  properly,  the  kettle."  The  Lenape 
or  Delaware  Hods,  "certainly  means,  in  that  dialect,  'a  pot  or  ket- 
tle.' Figuratively,  it  might  be  applied  to  a  kettle-shaped  depres- 
sion in  land  or  to  a  particular  valley.  Hoosink  means  'in'  or  'at' 
the  pot  or  kettle.    Hoosack  might  be  read  '  round  valley  land,'  or 


68  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

land  with  steep  sides."  (Brinton.)  Of  course  this  does  not  ex- 
plain the  prefix  Pan,  nor  does  it  prove  that  Hods  was  in  the  local 
dialect,  which,  in  1652,  was  certainly  Ma:hican  or  Mohegan.  Still, 
it  cannot  be  said  that  the  tradition  was  not  familiar  to  all  Algon- 
quians  in  their  mythical  lore. 

Heckewelder's  tradition,  "The  Naked  or  Hairless  Bear,"  has 
its  culmination  at  a  place  "lying  east  oi  the  Hudson,"  where  the 
last  one  of  those  fabulous  animals  was  killed.  "The  s'tory,"  writes 
Dr.  Brinton,  "was  that  the  bear  was  immense  in  size  and  the  most 
vicious  of  animals.  Its  skin  was  bare  except  a  tuft  of  white  hair 
on  the  back.  It  attacked  and  ate  the  natives  and  the  only  means 
of  escape  from  it  was  to  take  to  the  waters.  Its  sense  of  smell 
was  remarkably  keen,  but  its  sight  was  defective.  As  its  heart 
was  very  small,  it  could  not  be  easily  killed.  The  surest  plan  was 
to  break  its  back-bone ;  but  so  dangerous  was  it  that  those  hunters 
who  went  in  pursuit  of  it  'bade  families  and  friends  farewell,  as  if 
they  never  expected  to  return.  The  last  one  was  tracked  to  Hoos- 
ink,  and  a  number  of  hunters  went  there  and  mounted  a  rock  with 
precipitous  sides.  They  then  made  a  noise  and  attracted  the  beast's 
attention,  who  rushed  to  the  attack  with  great  fury.  As  he  could 
not  cHmb  the  rock,  he  tore  at  it  v/ith  his  teeth,  while  the  hunters 
above  shot  him  with  arrows  and  threw  upon  him  great  stones,  and 
thus  killed  him." ' 

The  Hoosick  River  flows  from  its  head,  near  Pittsfield,  Berk- 
shire County,  in  Massachusetts,  through  the  Petersburgh  Mountains 
between  precipitous  hills,  and  carries  its  name  its  entire  length. 
Fort  Massachusetts,  in  the  present  town  of  Adams,  Mass.,  was  on 
its  borders  and  in  some  records  was  called  Fort  Hoosick.  It  was 
captured  by  the  French  and  their  Indians  in  1746.  The  general 
course  of  the  stream  is  north,  west,  and  south  to  the  Hudson  in 
the  northwest  corner  of  Rensselaer  County,  directly  opposite  the 
village  of  Stillwater,  Saratoga  County.  There  are  no  less  than  three 
falls  on  its  eastern  division,  of  which  the  most  considerable  are 
Hoosick  Falls,  \Vhere  the  stream  descends,  in  rapids  and  cascades, 
forty  feet  in  a  distance  of  twelve  rods.  Dr.  Timothy  Dwight,  who 
visited  it  in  the  early  part  of  the  19th  century,  described  it  as  "  One 


"The  Lenape  and  their  Legends." 


NAMES    ON    THE   EAST    FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH.  69 

of  the  most  beautiful  rivers  in  the  world."  "At  different  points," 
'he  wrote,  "The  mountains  extend  their  precipitous  declivities  so 
as  to  form  the  banks  of  the  river.  Up  these  precipitous  summits 
rise  a  most  elegant  succession  of  forest  trees,  chiefly  maple,  beech 
and  evergreens.  There  are  also  large  spots  and  streaks  of  ever- 
greens, chiefly  hemlock  and  spruce."  Though,  with  a  single  ex- 
ception, entered  in  English  records  by  the  name  of  "Hoosick  or 
Schaahkook's  Creek,"  it  was,  from  the  feature  which  especially  at- 
tracted Dr.  Dwight's  attention,  known  to  the  Iroquois  as  the  Ti- 
oneenda-hozve,  or  "  The  river  at  the  hemlocks."  ^ 

Cossayuna,  said  to  be  from  the  Mohawk  dialect  and  to  signify 
"Lake  of  the  pines,"  is  quoted  as  the  name  of  a  lake  in  the  town 
of  Argyle,  Washington  County.  The  translation  is  correct,  sub- 
stantially, but  the  naine  is  Algonquian — a  corruption  of  Codssa, 
"Pine,"  ^  and  Gmnmee,  "Lake,"  or  standing  water.  The  terms 
are  from  the  Ojibway  dialect,  and  were  probaWy  introduced  by  Dr. 
Schoolcraft. 

Anaquassacook,  the  name  of  a  patent  in  Washington  County, 
and  also  of  a  village  and  of  a  stream  of  water,  was,  primarily,  the 
name  of  a  boundmark.  The  locative  has  not  been  ascertained. 
Anakausnk-ook,  "At  the  end  of  a  course,"  or  as  far  the  brook. 

Podunk,  a  brook  so  called  in  the  town  of  Fort  Ann,  Wasihing- 
ton  County,  is  met  in  several  other  places.  (See  Potunk,  L.  L) 
Its  meaning  has  not  been  ascertained. 

Quatackquaohe,  entered  on  Pownal's  map  as  the  name  of  a 
tract  of  land  on  the  south  side  of  a  stream,  has  explanation  in  the 
accompanying  entry,  "Waterquechey,  or  Quatackquaohe."     Water- 

*  See  Saratoga.  Ti-oneenda-howe  was  applied  by  the  Mohawks  to  the 
Hoosick,  and  Ti-ononda-howe  to  the  Batten  Kill  as  positive  boundmarks,  the 
former  from  its  hemlock-clad  hills  (onenda),  and  the  latter  from  its  conical 
hills  (onoiida).  The  late  Horatio  Hale  wrote  me:  "Ti-ononda-hoive  is  evi- 
dently a  compound  term  involving  the  word  ononda  (or  ononta),  'hill  or 
mountain.'  Ti-oneenda-howe,  in  like  manner,  includes  the  word  onenda  (or 
onenta),  'hemlock.'  There  may  have  been  certain  notable  hills  or  hemlocks 
which  as  landmarks  gave  names  to  the  streams  or  located  them.  The  final 
syllables  hozve,  are  uncertain."     (See  Di-ononda-howe.) 

'  It  is  of  record  that  "the  borders  of  Hudson's  River  above  Albany,  and 
the  Mohawk  River  at  Schenectady,"  were  known,  in  1710,  as  "the  best  places 
for  pines  of  all  sorts,  both  for  numbers  and  largeness  of  trees."  (Doc.  Hist. 
N.  Y.,  iii,  656.)  Mass.  Kozvas-'htugli,  "pine  tree."  The  name  is  met  in  many 
orthographies. 


7©  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

quechey  (English)  means  "Moist  boggy  ground,"  indicating  that 
Quatackquaohe  is  an  equivalent  of  Petuckquiohke,  Mass.,  "Round- 
land  place,"  i.  e.  elevated  hassocks  of  earth,  roots,  etc.  The  ex- 
planation by  Gov.  Pownal  may  supply  a  key  to  the  translation  of 
other  names  now  interpreted  indefinitely. 

Di-ononda°howe,  a  name  now  assigned  to  the  falls  on  the  Bat- 
ten Kill  below  Galeville,  Washington  County,  is  Iroquoian  and  of 
original  application  to  the  stream  itself  as  written  in  the  Schuyler 
Patent.  It  is  a  compound  descriptive  of  the  locality  of  the  creek, 
the  reference  being  to  the  conical  hills  on  the  south  side  of  the 
stream  near  the  Hudson,  on  one  of  which  was  erected  old  Fort 
Saratoga.  The  sense  is,  "Where  a  hill  interposes,"  between  the 
object  spoken  of  and  the  speaker.  The  late  Superintendent  of  the 
Bureau  of  Ethnology,  Prof.  J.  W.  Powell,  wrote  me :  "From  the 
best  expert  information  in  this  office,  it  may  be  said  that  the  pho- 
netic value  of  the  final  two  syllahles  howe  is  far  from  definite ;  but 
assuming  that  they  are  equivalent  to  huwi  (with  the  European 
vowel  values),  the  word-sentence  Di-ononda-howe  means,  'There 
it  has  interposed  (a)  mountain,'  Written  in  the  Bureau  alphabet, 
the  word-sentence  would  be  spelled  Ty-ononde-huwi.  It  is  de- 
scriptive of  the  situation  of  the  creek,  but  not  of  the  creek  itself, 
and  is  applicable  to  any  mountain  or  high  hill  which  appears  be- 
tween a  speaker  and  some  other  object."     (See  Hoosick.) 

Caniade=rioit  is  given  as  the  name  of  Lake  George,  and  "  The 
tail  of  the  lake"  as  the  definition,  "on  account  of  its  connection 
wlith  Lake  Champlain."  (Spofiford's  Gazetteer.)  Father  Jogues, 
who  gave  to  the  lake  the  name  "Lac  de  Saint  Sacrament"  (Lake 
of  the  Holy  Sacrament),  in  1645,  wrote  the  Mohawk  name,  Andiato- 
rocte  (French  notation),  with  the  definition,  "There  where  the 
lake  shuts  itself  in,"  the  reference  being  to  the  north  end  of  the  lake 
at  the  outlet.  This  definition  is  not  far  from  a  correct  reading  of 
the  suffiix  octe  (okte,  Bruyas),  meaning  "end,"  or,  in  this  connec- 
tion, "Where  the  lake  ends."  Caniade,  a  form  of  Kaniatare,  is  an 
Iroqu<Jian  generic,  meaning  "lake."  The  lake  never  had  a  specific 
name.  Horicon,  which  some  writers  have  endeavored  to  attach  to 
it,  does  not  belong  to  it.       It  is  not  Iroquoian,    does    not    mean 


NAMES    ON   THE   EAST   FROM    MANHATTAN    NORTH,  7 1 

"north,"  nor  does  it  mean  "lake"  or  "silver  water,"  ^  The  pres- 
ent name  was  conferred  by  Sir  William  Johnson,  in  honor  of  King 
George  III,  of  England, 

Ticonderoga,  familiar  as  the  name  of  the  historic  fortress  at 
Lake  George,  was  written  by  Sir  William  Johnson,  in  1756,  Tion- 
derogue  and  Ticonderoro,  and  in  grant  of  lands  in  1760,  "near  the 
fort  at  Ticonderoga."  Gov,  Golden  wrote  Ticontarogen,  and  an 
Iroquoian  sachem  is  credited  with  Decariaderoga.  Interpretations 
are  almost  as  numerous  as  orthographies.  The  most  generally 
quoted  is  from  Spofford's  Gazetteer:  "Ticonderoga,  from  Tsindro- 
sie,  or  Cheonderoga,  signifying  'brawling  water,'  and  the  Frendh 
name,  Carillon,  signifying  'a  chime  of  bells,'  were  both  suggested 
by  the  rapids  upon  the  outlet  of  Lake  George."  The  French  name 
may  have  been  so  suggested,  but  neither  Tsindrosie  or  Cheonderoga 
means  "brawling  water."  The  latter  is  probably  an  orthography 
of  Teonderoga.  Ticonderoga  as  now  written,  is  from  Te  or  Ti, 
"dual,"  two;  Kaniatare,  "lake,"  and  -ogen,  "intervallum,  divis- 
ionem"  (Bruyas),  the  combination  meaning,  literally,  "Between 
two  lakes."  Horatio  Hale  wrote  me  of  one  of  the  forms :  "Dekaria- 
derage,  in  modern  orthography,  T ekaniataroken,  from  which  Ticon- 
deroga, means,  simply,  'Between  two  lakes.'  It  is  derived  from 
Tioken,  'between,'  and  Kaniatara,  'lake.'  Its  composition  illus- 
trates a  peculiar  idiom  of  the  Iroquoian  language,  Tioken  when 
combined  with  a  noun,  is  split  in  two,  so  to  speak,  and  the  noun 
inserted.  Thus  in  combining  Tioken  with  Ononte,  '  mountain,'  we 
have  Ti-ononte-oken,  'Between  two  mountains,'  whicb  was  the 
name  of  one  of  the  Mohawk  castles — ^sometimes  written  Theonon- 
diogo.  In  like  manner,  Kaniatare,  'lake,'  thus  compounded,  yields 
Te-kaniatare-oken,  'Between  two  lakes.'  In  the  Huron  dialect 
Kaniatare  is  contracted  to  Yontare  or  Ontare,  from  which,  with  to 


_  *  Horikans  was  written  by  De  Laet,  in  1624,  as  the  name  of  an  Indian 
tribe  living  at  the  head  waters  of  the  Connecticut.  On  an  ancient  map 
Horicans  is  written  in  Lat.  41,  east  of  the  Narragansetts  on  the  coast  of  New 
England.  In  the  same  latitude  Moricans  is  written  west  of  the  Connecticut, 
and  Horikans  on  the  upper  Connecticut  in  latitude  42.  Morhicans  is  the 
form  on  Carte  Figurative  of  1614-16,  and  Mahicans  by  the  Dutch  on  the 
Hudson.  The  several  forms  indicate  that  the  tribe  was  the  Moricans  or 
Mourigans  of  the  French,  the  Maikans  or  Mahikans  of  the  Dutch  and  the 
Mohegans  of  the  English.  It  is  certain  that  that  tribe  held  the  headwaters 
of  the  Connecticut  as  well  as  of  the  Hudson.  The  novelist,  Cooper,  gave 
life  to  De  Laet's  orthography  in  his  "Last  of  the  Mohegans." 


72  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

or  iyo,  'great,'  we  get  Ontario  (pronounced  Ontareeyo),  'Great 
lake/  whi(ih,  combined  with  Tioken,  becomes  Ti-onteroken,  which 
would  seem  to  be  the  original  of  Colden's  Tieronderoga." 

There  is  rarely  an  expression  of  humor  in  the  use  of  Indian  place- 
names,  but  we  seem  to  have  it  in  connection  with  Dekariaderoga, 
one  of  the  forms  of  Ticonderoga  quoted  above,  which  is  of  record 
as  having  been  applied  to  Joseph  Chew,  Secretary  of  Indian  Affairs, 
at  a  conference  with  chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations.  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y., 
viii,  501.)  Said  the  sachem  who  addressed  Secretary  Ghew,  "We 
call  you  Dekariaderoga,  the  junction  of  two  lakes  of  different  qual- 
ities of  water,"  presumably  expressing  thereby,  in  keeping  with 
the  entertainment  usually  served  on  such  occasions,  that  the  Secre- 
tary was  in  a  condition  between  "water  and  firewater."  Neither 
"junction"  or  "quality  of  water"  are  expressed  in  the  composition, 
however;  but  perhaps  are  related  meanings. 

Caniade=riguarunte  is  given  by  Governor  Pownal  as  the  Iro- 
quoian  name  of  Lake  Champlain,  with  the  legend,  "The  Lake  that 
is  the  gate  of  the  country."  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iii,  1190.)  The 
lake  was  the  route  taken  by  the  Algonquians  of  Canada  in  their 
forays  against  the  Mohawks.  Later,  it  became  a  link  in  the  great 
highway  of  travel  and  commerce  between  New  York  and  Quebeck, 
via.  Hudson's  River,  in  which  comiection  it  was  literally  "The  gate 
of  the  country."  The  legend  is  not  an  interpretation  of  the  Iro- 
quoian  name,  however.  In  the  French  missionary  spelling  the 
generic  word  for  "lake"  is  Kaniatare  of  which  Caniaderi  is  an 
English  notation.  The  suffix  -guarunte,  in  connection  with  Cani- 
aderi, gives  to  the  combination  the  meaning,  "A  lake  that  is  part 
of  another  lake.''  (J.  B.  N.  Hewitt.)  The  suffix  is  readily  confused 
with  Karonta,  or  -garonta  (Mohawk),  meaning  "  tree,"  from  which, 
probably,  Fennimore  Cooper's  "Lake  of  the  Woods."  "Lake  of 
the  Iroquois,"  entered  on  early  maps,  does  not  mean  that  when 
Champlain  visited  it  in  1609  it  was  owned  by  the  Iroquois,  but  that 
it  was  the  route  from  Quebeck  to  the  Iroquoi  country. 


o:t  long  island.  73 


On  Long  Island. 


Matouwackey,  Sewanhackey  and  Pauraanackey,  in  van-ing 
orthographies,  are  names  of  record  for  Long  Island,  derived  from 
Meitauazvack  {Metauhock,  Nar.),  the  name  of  the  shell-fish  from 
which  the  Indians  made  the  shell-money  in  use  among  them,'  called 
by  English  Peag,  from  VVau-paaeekj"  (Moh.),  "wihite,"  and  by  the 
Dutch  Sczvan  or  Zeeivan,^  from  Sezuaun  (Moh.),  Stitrki  (Nar.), 
"black."  This  money  was  both  white  and  black  (so  called),  the 
latter  the  most  rare  and  valuable.  It  was  in  use  by  the  Europeans 
as  a  medium  of  trade  with  the  Indians,  as  well  as  among  themselves, 
by  the  Indians  especially  for  the  manufacture  of  their  historic  peace, 
tribute,  treaty  and  war  belts,  called  Paumaimck  {Pau-pau-me- 
nnmzve,  Mass.),  "an  offering."*  Meitoiiawack,  the  material,  Wau- 
faaeek  and  Sczvaun,  the  colors ;  Paumanack,  the  use,  "an  offering." 
The  suffix  of  either  term  {hock,  hagki,  hackee)  is  generic  for  shell 
• — correctly,  "An  ear-shaped  shell."  (Trumbull.)  Substantially, 
by  the  corruption  of  the  suffix  to  hacki  (Del.),  "land"  or  place, 
the  several  terms,  as  applied  to  the  island,  have  the  meaning,  "  The 
shell  island,"  or  "Place  of  shells."       De  Laet  wrote,  in  1624:  "At 


* "  Meteauhock,  the  Periwinkle  of  which  they  made  their  wampum." 
(WilHams.)  "Perhaps  derived  from  Mehtauog,  'Ear-shaped,'  with  the  gen- 
eric suffix  hock  {hogki,  hackee),  'shell.'"     (Trumbull.) 

'  Wompompeag  is  another  form  quoted  as  Mohegan,  from  which  Wompiim. 
"  Wompom,  which  signifies  white."     (Roger  Williams.) 

^  Seahivhoog,  'they  are  scattered.'  (Eliot.)  From  this  word  the  Dutch 
traders  gave  the  name  of  Scivan,  or  Zeawand,  to  all  shell  money;  just  as  the 
English  called  all  Peag,  or  strung  beads,  by  the  name  of  the  white.  Wam- 
pum."    (Trumbull.) 

*  An  interpretation  of  Paumanack  as  indicating  a  people  especially  under 
tribute,  is  erroneous.  The  belts  which  they  made  were  in  universal  use 
among  the  nations  as  an  offering,  the  white  belts  denoting  good,  as  peace, 
friendship,  etc.,  the  black,  the  reverse.  The  ruling  sachem,  or  peace-chief, 
was  the  keeper  and  interpreter  of  the  belts  of  his  nation,  and  his  place  sorne- 
times  took  its  name  from  that  fact.  That  several  of  the  sachems  did  sign 
their  names,  or  that  their  names  were  signed  by  some  one  for  them,  "  Sachem 
of  Pammananuck,"  proves  nothing  in  regard  to  the  application  of  that  name 
to  the  island. 


74  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

the  entrance  of  this  bay  are  situated  several  islands,  or  broken  land, 
on  which  a  nation  of  savages  have  their  abode,  who  are  called 
Matouwacks ;  they  obtain  a  livelihood  by  fishing  within  the  bay, 
whence  the  most  easterly  point  of  the  land  received  the  name  of 
Fisher's  Hook  and  also  Cape  de  Bay."  Van  der  Donck  entered  on 
his  map,  "t'  Lange  Eyland,  alias,  Matouwacks."  "Situate  on  the 
island  called  by  the  Indians  Sewanhacky."  (Deed  of  1636.)  "Call- 
ed in  ye  Indian  tongue  Suanhackey."  (Deed  of  1639.)  Than  these 
entries  there  is  no  claim  that  the  island  ever  had  a  specific  name, 
and  that  those  quoted  were  from  shells  and  their  uses  is  clear.  Gen- 
erically  the  island  was  probably  known  to  the  Minsi  and  neighboring 
tribes  as  Menatey,  "The  island,"  as  stated  by  Dr.  Trumbull ;  smaller 
islands  being  known  as  Menatan,  from  which  Manathan  and  Man- 
hatan.  The  occupants  of  the  island  were  a  distinct  group  of  Al- 
gonquian  stock,  speaking  on  the  east  a  dialect  more  or  less  of  the 
Massachusetts  type,  and  on  the  west  that  known  as  Monsey-Lenape, 
both  types,  however,  being  largely  controlled  by  the  Dutch  and  the 
English  orthographies  in  which  local  notings  appear.  They  were 
almost  constantly  at  war  with  the  Pequods  and  Narragansetts,  but 
there  is  no  evidence  that  they  were  ever  conquered,  and  mucii  less 
that  they  were  conquered  by  the  Iroquoi,  to  whom  they  paid  tribute 
for  protection  in  later  years,  as  they  had  to  the  Pequods  and  to  the 
English ;  nor  is  there  evidence  that  their  intercourse  with  the  river 
tribes  immediately  around  them  was  other  than  friendly. 

Wompenanit  is  of  record  as  the  name  of  "  the  utmost  end  east- 
ward" of  the  Montauk  Peninsula.  The  description  reads:  "From 
the  utmost  end  of  the  neck  eastward,  called  Wompenanit,  to  our 
utmost  bound  westward,  called  Napeake."  (Deed  of  July  11,  1661.) 
In  other  papers  Wompenonot  and  Wompenomon,  corrupted  orthog- 
raphies. The  meaning  is  "The  utmost  end  eastward,"  i.  e.  from 
the  east  side  of  Napeake  to  the  extreme  end.  The  derivatives 
are  Nar.  Wompan  (from  Wompi,  white,  bright),  "It  is  full  day- 
light, bright  day,"  hence  the  Orient,  the  East,  the  place  of  light, 
and  -anit,  "To  be  more  than,"  extending  beyond  the  ordinary  limit. 
The  same  word  appears  in  Wompandnd,  "The  Eastern  God"  (Wil- 
liams), the  deity  of  light.  From  Wompi,  also  Wapan  in  Wapan- 
achkik,  "Those  of  the  eastern  region,"  now  written  Ahanaqui  and 
Ahnaki,  and  confined  to  the  remnant  of  a  tribe  in  Maine.     (See 


ON    LONG   ISLAND.  75 

.Wahamianesing, )  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote:  "Anit,  the  subjunctive 
participle  of  a  verb  which  signifies  'To  be  more  than/  'to  surpass'  " ; 
with  impersonal  M  prefixed,  Manit,  as  in  Manitou,  a  name  given  by 
the  Indians,  writes  Lahontan,  "To  all  that  passes  their  understand- 
ing"; hence  interpreted  by  Europeans,  "God."  It  has  no  such 
meaning  in  Wompenanit,  but  defined  a  limit  that  was  "  more  than," 
or  the  extreme  limits  of  the  island.  No  doubt,  however,  the  Indians 
saw,  as  do  visitors  of  to-day,  at  the  utmost  end  of  the  Montauk  Pen- 
insula, in  its  breast  of  rock  against  which  the  ocean^waves  dash 
with  fearful  force;  its  glittering  sun-light  and  in  its  general  fea- 
tures, a  Wompandnd,  or  Eastern  God,  that  which  was  "  more  than 
ordinary,  wonderful,  surpassing,"  but  those  features  are  not  re- 
ferred to  in  Wompenanit,  except,  perhaps,  as  represented  by  the 
glittering  sun-light,  the  material  emblem  of  the  mystery  of  light — 
"where  day-light  appears." 

Montauk,  now  so  written — in  early  orthographies  Meantacut, 
'Meantacquit,  etc. — was  not  the  name  of  the  peninsula  to  which  it 
is  now  applied,  tut  was  extended  to  it  by  modern  Europeans  from 
a  specific  place.  The  extreme  end  was  called  by  the  Indians  Wom- 
penanit, and  the  point,  Naiag,  "  Corner,  point  or  angle,"  from 
which  Adriaen  Block  wrote,  in  1614,  Nahicans,  "  People  around  the 
point,"  a  later  Dutch  navigator  adding  (War  Dep.  Map)  the  topo- 
graphical description,  Nartong,  "A  barren,  ghastly  tongue."  The 
name  has  had  several  interpretations  by  Algonquian  students,  but 
without  entire  satisfaction  even  to  themselves.  Indeed,  it  may  be 
said  with  truth,  "It  has  been  too  much  translated"  to  invite  further 
study  with  the  hope  of  a  better  result.  The  orthography  usually 
quoted  for  interpretation  appears  first  in  South  Hampton  Records  in 
an  Indian  deed  of  1640,  "Manatacut,  his  X  mark,"  the  grantor  be- 
ing given  the  name  of  the  place  which  he  represented,  as  appears 
from  the  same  records  (1662),  "Wyandanch,  Meantacut  sadhem," 
or  sachem  of  Meantac.  The  Indian  deed  reads :  "The  neck  of 
land  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  Meantacquit,"  *  *  "  Un- 
to the  east  side  of  Napeak,  next  unto  Meantacut  high  lands."  In 
other  words  the  high  lands  bounded  the  place  called  Meantacqu, 
the  suffix  -it  or  -ut  meaning  "at"  that  place.  The  precise  place 
referred  to  was  then  and  is  now  a  marsh  on  which  is  a  growrth  of 
shrub  pines,  and  cedars.     Obviously,  therefore,  Meantac  or  Mean- 


76  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

tacqu,  is  an  equivalent  of  Mass.  Manantac,  "Spruce  swamp,"  and 
of  Del.  Mendntac,  "Spruce,  cedar  or  pine  swamp."  (Zeisb.)  The 
Abn.  word  Mamia"dakod,  "cedar"  (Mass.  -u^tugh;  Nar.  dwtuck), 
seems  to  establish  conclusively  that  -dntak  was  the  general  generic 
suffix  for  all  kinds  of  coniferous  trees,  and  with  the  prefix  Men, 
Man,  Me,  etc.,  described  small  or  dwarf  coniferous  trees  usually 
found  growing  in  swamps,  and  from  w'hich  swamps  took  the  name.* 
There  is  nothing  in  the  name  or  in  its  corruptions  that  means 
"point,"  "high  lands,"  "place  of  observation,"  "fort,"  "fence,"  or 
"confluence" ;  it  simply  describes  dwarf  coniferous  trees  and  the 
place  which  they  marked.  The  swamp  still  exists,  and  the  dwarf 
trees  also  at  the  specific  east  bound  of  the  lands  conveyed.  (See 
Napeak. ) 

Napeak,  East  Hampton  deed  of  1648,  generally  written  Napeaka 
Neppeage  and  Napeague,  and  applied  by  Mather  (Geological  Sur- 
vey) to  a  beach  and  a  marsh,  and  in  local  records  to  the  neck  con- 
necting Montauk  Point  wi'th  the  main  island,  means  "Water  land," 
or  "Land  overflowed  by  water."  The  beach  extends  some  five 
miles  on  the  southeast  coast  of  Long  Island.  The  marsh  spreads 
inland  from  the  beach  nearly  across  the  neck  where  it  meets  Napeak 
Harbor  on  the  north  coast.  It  is  supposed  to  have  been,  in  prehis- 
toric times,  a  water-course  which  separated  the  island  from  the 
point.  Near  the  eastern  limit  are  patches  of  stunted  pines  and 
cedars,  and  on  its  east  side  at  the  end  of  what  are  called  the  "  Nom- 
inick  hills,"  where  was  obviously  located  the  boundmark  of  the 
East  Hampton  deed,  "Stunted  pines  and  cedars  are  a  feature," 
wrote    Dr.  Tooker  in  answer  to  inquiry.     (See  Montauk.) 


'  The  Indians  had  specific  names  for  diflferent  kinds  of  trees.  The  generic 
general  word  was  Me'hittuk  or  M'hittugk,  Del.,  M'tugh,  Mass.,  which,  as  a 
suffix,  was  reduced  to  -ittuk,  -utugh,  -tagh,  -tack,  -tacque,  etc.,  frequently  ak, 
which  is  the  radical.  Howden  writes  in  Cree:  "Atik  is  the  termination  for 
the  names  of  trees,  articles  made  of  wood,"  etc.  Mash-antack-uk,  Moh., 
was  translated  by  Dr.  Trumbull  from  Mish-untugh-et,  Mass.,  "  Place  of  much 
wood."  Manna"dak5o  is  quoted  as  the  Abn.  word  for  "cedar;"  Mishqu- 
azvtuck,  Nar.,  "Red  cedar."  Mendntachk,  "Swamp"  (Len.  Eng.  Die),  is 
explained  by  Rev.  Anthony,  "with  trees  meeting  above."  Menantac,  "Spruce, 
cedar  or  pine  swamp"  (Zeisb.),  from  the  kind  of  trees  growing  in  the  swamp, 
but  obviously  antac  never  described  a  swamp,  or  trees  growing  in  swamps, 
without  the  prefix  Men,  Man,  Me,  etc.  Keht-antak  means  a  particularly 
large  tree  which  probably  served  as  a  boundmark.  It  may  be  a  question  if 
the  initial  a  in  antak  was  not  nasal,  as  in  Abn.,  but  there  can  be  none  in  re- 
gard to  the  meaning  of  the  suffix. 


ON    LONG    ISLAND.  '  77 

Quawnotiwock,  is  quoted  in  French's  Gazetteer  as  the  name  of 
Great  Pond;  authority  not  cited.  Prime  (Hist.  L.  I.)  wrote:  "The 
Indian  name  of  the  pond  is  tmknown."  The  pond  is  two  miles  long. 
It  is  situate  where  the  Montauk  Peninsula  attains  its  greatest  width, 
and  is  the  largest  body  of  fresh  water  on  the  island.  It  would  be 
correctly  described  b}^  Qitinne  or  Quazvnopaug,  "  Long  pond,"  but 
certainly  not  by  Quawnotiwock,  the  animate  plural  suffix  -week, 
showing  that  it  belonged  to  the  people — "  People  living  on  the  Long 
River."  ^     (See  Quantuck  and  Connecticut.) 

Assup,  given  as  the  name  of  a  neck  of  land — "  A  tree  marked  X 
'hard  by  the  northward  side  of  a  cove  of  meadow" — means  "A 
cove."  It  is  an  equivalent  of  Aucup  (Williams),  "A  little  cove 
or  creek."  "Aspatuck  river"  is  also  of  record  here,  and  probably 
takes  that  name  from  a  hill  or  height  in  proximity.  "Aspatuck 
hill,"  New  Millford,  Conn. 

Shinnecock,  now  preserved  as  the  name  of  an  Indian  village 
in  the  town  of  Southampton,  on  the  east  side  of  Shinnec'ock  Bay, 
for  many  years  in  occupation  by  a  remnant  of  the  so  called  Shin- 
nec'ock Indians  who  had  taken  on  the  habits  and  customs  of  Euro- 
pean life,  appears  in  its  present  form  in  Plymouth  Records  in  1637, 
in  treaty  association  with  the  Massachusetts  government.  They 
claimed  to  be  the  "true  owners  of  the  eastern  end  of  Long  Island," 
but  acknowledged  the  primacy  of  Wyandanch,  sachem  of  the  Mon- 
tauks,  who  had  been  elected  by  other  sachems  as  chief  sachem  or 
the  "sachem  of  sachem"  of  the  many  clans.  The  name  is  probably 
from  the  root  Shin,  or  Schind,  "Spruce-pine"  (Zeisb.)  ;  Schindikeu, 
"Spruce-pine  forest" ;  Shinak-ing,  "At  the  land  of  spruce-pines."" 
(Brinton)  ;  Schindak-ock,  "Land  or  place  of  spruce-pines."  There 
was  an  extended  spruce-pine  forest  on  that  part  of  the  island,  a  con- 
siderable portion  of  which  remains  in  the  district  south  of  Peconic 


*The  suffix  -og,  -ock,  -uck,  is,  in  the  dialect  here,  a  plural  sign.  Williams 
wrote  -oock,  -uock,  -zvock,  and  Zeisberger  wrote  -ak,  -ivak.  Quinneh-tuk- 
wock,  "  People  living  on  the  Long  River " — "  a  particular  name  amongst 
themselves."  Kutch-innu-wock,  "Middle-aged  men;"  Miss-innu-Tvock,  "The 
many."  Lenno,  "Man";  Lenno-zvak,  "Men."  (Zeisberger.)  Kuwc,  "Pine"; 
Cuweuch-ak,  "  pine  wood,  pine  logs."  Strictly,  an  animate  plural.  In  the 
Chippewav  dialect,  Schoolcraft  gives  eight  forms  of  the  animate  and  eight 
forms  of  'the  inanimate  plural.  The  Indians  regarded  many  things  as  ani- 
mates that  Europeans  do  not. 


78  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL   NAMES. 

River  in  the  town  of  Southampton.  The  present  form  of  the  name 
is  pronounced  Shinnec'ock. 

Mochgonnekonck  is  written,  in  1643,  ^.s  the  name  of  a  place 
unlocated  except  in  a  general  way.  The  record  reads :  "Whiteney- 
men,  sachem  of  Mochgonnekonck,  situate  on  Long  Island."  (Col. 
Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv,  60.)  Whiteneyimen,  whose  name  is  written  May- 
awetinnemin  in  treaty  of  1645,  ^.nd  "Meantinnemen,  alias  Tapou- 
sagh,  chief  of  Marsepinck  and  Rediawyck,"  in  1660  (Col.  Hist.  N. 
Y.,  xiii,  58),  was  son  of  Mechowodt,  sachem  of  Marsepingh,  and 
probably  succeeded  his  father  as  sachem  of  that  clan.  (Col.  Hist. 
N.  Y.,  xiv,  540.)  His  last  possession  was  Cow  Neck,  in  the  present 
town  of  North  Hampton,  which  was  given  to  him  by  his  father; 
it  may  have  been  the  Mochgonnekonk  of  1643,  De  Vries  met 
him  in  conference  in  1645,  and  notes  him  as  a  speaker  of  force,  and 
as  having  only  one  eye.  Brodhead  wrote  of  him :  "Kieft,  there- 
fore, by  the  advice  of  his  council  determined  to  engage  some  of  the 
friendly  Indians  in  the  interest  of  the  Dutc'h,  and  Whiteneymen,  the 
sachem  of  Mochgonnecocks,  on  Long  Island,  was  dispatched,  with 
several  of  his  warriors,  'to  beat  and  destroy  the  hostile  tribes.'  The 
sachem's  diplomacy,  however,  was  better  than  his  violence.  In  a 
few  days  he  returned  to  Fort  Amsterdam  bearing  friendly  messages 
from  the  sachems  along  the  Sound  and  Near  Rockaway,"  and  a 
formal  treaty  of  peace  soon  followed.  He  was  elected  "sachem  of 
sachems  "  by  the  sachems  of  the  western  clans  on  the  island,  about 
the  time  the  jurisdiction  of  the  island  was  divided  between  the 
English  at  New  Haven  and  the  Dutch  at  Manhattan,  the  former 
taking  the  eastern  clans  under  Wyandanch,  and  as  such  appears  in 
the  treaties  with  the  Dutch  in  1645,  '5^-  His  record  name  is  vari- 
ously written — Tapousagh,  Tackapousha,  etc.  It  is  frequently  met 
in  Long  Island  Records.  Mochgonneck-onck  the  name  of  his  sa- 
chemdom in  1643,  has  not  been  identified  further  than  that  be  was 
the  owner  of  Cow  Neck,  now  called  Manhasset  (Manhas'et), 
Queens  County,  the  largest  neck  or  point  of  land  on  the  coast. 

Quaunontowunk,  Quannotowonk,  Konkhonganik  and  Kongh- 

onganoc,  are  forms  of  two  distinct  names  applied  respectively  to 
the  north  and  south  ends  of  Fort  Pond,  as  per  deed  for  the  tract 
known  as  "the  Hither  Woods  purchase,"  which  reads:  "The  name 
of  the  pond  is  Quaunontowunk  on  the  nortlh  and  Konkhonganik  on 


ON   LONG  ISLAND.  79 

the  south."  Dr.  Tooker  translated  the  former  from  Quaneunteow- 
unk,  (EHot),  "Where  the  fence  is,"  the  reference  being  to  a  cer- 
tain fence  of  lopped  trees  which  existed  on  the  north  end  of  the 
pond/  and  the  latter  from  Kuhkunhungatmsh  (Eliot),  "bounds," 
"  At  the  boundary  place."  The  present  name  of  the  pond  is  from 
two  Indian  forts,  one  known  as  the  Old  Fort,  on  the  west,  and  one 
known  as  the  New  Fort,  on  the  east,  the  latter  remaining  in  1661, 
the  former  destroyed,  the  deed  reading,  "Where  the  Old  Fort 
stood."  Wyandanc^h,^  "the  sachem  of  Manatacut," — ^later  called 
"The  great  sachem  of  Montauk" — had  his  residence  in  the  Old 
Fort.  He  was  the  first  ruler  of  the  Montauks  known  to  the  Dutch, 
his  name  appearing  in  1637.     (See  Montauk.) 

Mastic,  preserved  as  the  name  of  a  river  and  also  as  that  of  a 
village  in  Brookhaven,  is  of  uncertain  meaning.  Wampmissic,  the 
name  of  another  village,  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  name  of  a 
swamp — Mass.  Wompaskit,  "At  or  in  the  swamp,  or  marsh." 

Poosepatuck,  a  place  so  called  and  now  known  as  the  Indian 
Reservation,  back  of  Forge  River  at  Mastick,  probably  means  "On 
the  other  side,"  or  "Beyond  the  river,"  from  Azvossi,  "Over,  over 
there,  on  the  other  side,  beyond,"  and  -tuck,  "Tidal  river." 

Speonk,  the  name  of  a  village  in  Southampton  near  East  Bay, 
on  an  inlet  of  the  ocean,  to  which  flows  through  the  village  a  small 
brook,  has  lost  some  of  its  letters.  Masse pc-onk  would  describe  a 
place  on  a  broad  tidal  river  or  estuary.  In  the  same  vicinity  Setuck 
is  of  record  as  the  name  of  a  place.  It  may  also  be  from  Mas-sepe- 
tuck.  (See  Southampton  Records.)  While  the  English  settlers 
on  eastern  Long  Island  were  careful  to  preserve  Indian  names,  they 
were  very  careless  in  orthographies. 

Poquatuck  is  quoted  by  Thompson  (Hist.  L.  I.)  as  the  name 
of  Oyster  Pond  in  the  town  of  Southold.  It  is  now  claimed  as  the 
name  of  Orient,  a  village,  peninsula  or  neck  of  land  and  harbor  on 
the  east  side  of  the  pond.     Probably  from  Pohqn'unantak,  "Cleared 

^  The  deed  reads :  "The  north  fence  from  the  pond  to  the  sea,  shall  be 
kept  by  the  town ;  the  south  fence,  to  the  sea,  by  the  Indians."  Presumably 
the  fences  were  there  when  the  land  was  sold. 

^  Wyandach,  or  Wyandance,  is  said  to  have  been  the  brother  of  Paggata- 
cut,  sachem  of  Manhas'set  or  Shelter  Island,  the  chief  sachem  of  fifteen 
sachemdoms.  On  the  death  of  the  latter,  in  1651,  Wyandanch  became,  by 
election,  the  successor  of  his  brother  and  held  the  office  until  his  death  by 
poison  in  1659. 


8o  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

of  trees,"  a  marshy  neck  which  had  been  cleared  or  was  naturally- 
open.     The  same  name  is  met  in  Brookhaveii. 

Cataconoche,  given  as  the  name  of  the  Great  Neck  bounding 
Smithtown  on  the  east,  has  been  translated  by  Dr.  Tooker  from 
Kehte-komuk,  "Greatest  field,"  later  known  as  the  Old  Man's  Field, 
or  Old  Field. 

Yaphank,  Yamphank,  etc.,  a  village  in  Brookhaven,  is  from 
Niantic  dialect  in  which  Y  is  used  for  an  initial  letter  where  other 
dialects  employ  L,  N  or  R.  Putting  the  lost  vowel  e  back  in  the 
word,  we  have  Yapclicinck,  in  Lenape  Rapchdnek,  "Where  the 
stream  ebbs  and  flows."  The  name  is  written  Yampkanke  in  In- 
dian deed.  (Gerard.)  The  name  is  now  applied  to  a  small  trib- 
utary of  the  Connecticut,  but  no  doubt  belongs  to  a  place  on  the 
Connecticut  where  the  current  is  affected  by  the  tide.  (See  Con- 
necticut.) 

Monowautuck  is  quoted  as  the  Indian  name  of  Mount  Sinai,  a 
village  in  the  town  of  Brookhaven,  a  rough  and  stony  district  on 
what  is  known  as  Old  Man's  Bay,  a  small  estuary  surrounded  by  a 
■salt-marsh  meadow.  The  name  seems  to  be  an  equivalent  of 
Nunnawaugiick,  "At  the  dry  land."  Old  Man's  Bay  takes  that 
name  from  the  Great  Neck  called  Cataconche,  otherwise  known  as 
the  Old  Man's  Meadow,  and  as  the  Old  Field.  "The  two  neckes 
or  hoeces  (hooks)  of  meadow  that  lieth  next  beyond  the  Old  Man's 
Meadow" — "with  all  ye  privileges  and  appurtenances  whatsoever, 
unto  the  Old  Field."  Presumably  Man's  was  originally  Manse 
(English),  pronounced  Mans,  "the  dwelling  of  a  landholder  with 
the  land  attached,"  and  called  Old  because  it  was  the  first  land  or 
field  purchased.     (See  Cataconche.) 

Connecticut,  now  so  written  and  of  record  Connetquoit,  etc, 
is  not  the  name  of  the  stream  to  which  it  is  applied,  but  of  the  land 
on  both  sides  of  it.  It  is  an  equivalent  of  Quinnituckquet,  "Long- 
river  land,"  as  in  Connecticut.  (Trumbull.)  Quinnitiik,  "Long 
river" ;  with  locative  -ct  or  -it,  "Land  or  place  on  the  long-river." 
The  stream  is  the  outlet  of  Ronkonkoma  Lake,  and  flows  south  to 
Fire-place  Bay,  where  the  name  is  of  primary  record.  There  were 
two  streams  to  which  it  was  applied ;  one  is  a  small  stream  in  Islip, 
and  the  other,  the  largest  stream  on  the  island,  as  described  above. 
In  old  deeds  it  is  called  East  Connecticutt.     Fire-place  is  now  re- 


ON    LONG   ISLAND.  8l 

lained  as  the  nanie  of  a  village  on  Bellport  Bay,  and  its  ancient  loca- 
tive on  the  Connecticut  is  now  called  South  Haven/ 

Minasseroke,  quoted  as  the  name  of  Little  Neck,  town  of  Brook- 
haven,  probably  means  "Small-stone  land"  or  place — Min-assin- 
ohke,  r  and  n  exchanged. 

Patchogue,  Pochough,  Pachough,  the  name  of  a  village  in  the 
town  of  Brookhaven,  Suffolk  County,  on  Patchough  Bay,  is  probably 
met  in  Pochaug,  Conn.,  which  Dr.  Trumbull  read  from  Pohshdog, 
where  two  streams  form  one  river,  signifying,  "Where  they  divide 
in  two."  The  name  was  early  extended  to  a  clan  known  as  the 
Pochoughs,  later  Patchoogues,  who  seem  to  have  been  a  family  of 
the  Onchechaugs,  a  name  probably  the  equivalent  of  Ongkone 
(Moh.),  "beyond,"  with  -ogite  (ohke),  "land  beyond,"  i.  e.  beyond 
the  bay.-     (See  Moriches.) 

Cumsequogue  is  given  in  will  of  William  Tangier  Smith  as  the 
name  of  what  is  now  known  as  Carman's  River,  flowing  to  Bell- 
port  Bay.  It  is  probably  a  pronunciation  of  Accomh-suck-ohke , 
"Land  or  place  at  the  outlet  beyond."  The  record  name  of  Bellport 
is  Occombomeck,  Accobamuck,  etc.,  meaning,  "Fishing-place  be- 
yond," which,  as  the  deeds  show,  was  a  fishing-place  at  a  fresh- 
water pond,  now  dried  up.  The  name  is  readily  confused  with 
Aquebogue. 

Moriches,  a  neck  of  land  "lying  at  Unquetague,  on  the  south 
side  of  Long  Island,  being  two  necks  called  by  ye  names  of  Mariges 
and  Namanock"  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  45),  is  now  in  the  town 
of  Brookhaven.  Namanock  seems,  from  the  locative,  to  be  a  cor- 
ruption of  Nam'c-ohke,  "Fish-place" — Namanock  or  Namecock. 
(Trumbull.)^       Moriches,  or  Mariges,  is   a  corruption  of  Dutch 

^  There  were  two  places  bearing  the  name  of  Fire-place,  one  on  the 
north  side  of  the  island  on  Gardiner's  Bay,  and  one  on  the  south  side.  The 
latter  is   referred  to  here. 

'  Otherwise  written  Unquetauge — "land  lying  at  Unquetauge,  on  the  south 
side  of  Long  Island,  in  the  county  of  Suffolk."  Literally,  "Land  beyond;" 
"on  the  further  side  of;  in  the  same  direction  as,  and  further  on  or  awayt 
than."  Onckeway,  a  place  beyond  Stamford,  on  Connecticut  river.  (Col. 
Hist.   N.   Y.)     "Ongkoue,  beyond   Pequannuc   river."     (Trumbull.) 

'Namaus,  generic,  "a  fish" — Naniohs,  Eliot;  Names,  Abn.,  Namaes, 
Heck. ;  Namees,  Zeisb. ;  with  suffix  -aki,  -ohke,  etc.,  "  fish-land,"  place  or 
country.  Amcessak,  Zeisb.;  Anmesooak,  Abn.,  Aumsiiog,  Mass.,  "small 
fishes."     As  a  generic  suffix,  -ama'ug,  Mass.,  -ama'uk,  Del,  "fishing-place." 


82  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Maritches  (Morichi,  Mariche),  from  Moriche  Palniita  (Latin), 
meaning,  in  popular  use,  any  plant  thougfht  to  resemble  a  palm. 
Maiiritia  a  species  of  Mauriticae,  or  South-American  palm,  so  called 
in  honor  of  Prince  Maurice  of  Nassau.     (See  Palmagat.) 

Kitchaminchoke,  given  as  the  name  of  a  boundmark,  said  to 
be  Moriches  Island,  is  interpreted  by  Dr.  Tooker,  "The  beginning 
place."  The  description  (1630)  reads,  "Beginning  at"  a  place 
called,  i.  e.  an  object  or  feature  which  would  definitely  locate  a 
boundmark — apparently  an  equivalent  of  Schiechi-kiminschi-aki, 
Lenape,  "Place  of  a  soft-maple  tree."  The  territory  conveyed  ex- 
tended to  Eimughquamuck,  which  Dr.  Tooker  rendered  correctly, 
"As  far  as  the  fishing-place." 

Niamug  and  Niamuck  are  forms  of  the  name  of  what  is  now 
known  as  Canoe  Place,  on  the  south  side  of  Long  Island,  near 
Southampton.  "Niamug,  the  place  where  the  Indians  haul  over 
their  canoes  out  of  the  North  Bay  to  the  South  Bay."  (Deed  of 
1640.)  Dr.  Trumbull  translated  from  Nde-amuck,  "Between  the 
fishing  places."  Local  tradition  affirms  that  centuries  ago  the  In- 
dians made  a  canal  here  for  the  purpose  of  passing  their  canoes  from 
Mecox  Bay  to  Paconic  Bay.  Mongotucksee,  the  hero  of  the  story, 
was  a  chieftain  who  reigned  over  the  Montauks  in  the  days  of  their 
pride  and  power.  The  tradition  has  no  other  merit  than  the  fact 
that  Niamug  was  a  place  at  which  canoes  were  hauled  across  the 
island. 

Sicktew=hacky  (deed  of  1638)  ;  Sicketewackey  (Van  der  Donck, 
1656)  :  "All  the  lands  from  Rockaway  eastward  to  Sicktew-hackey,. 
or  Fire  Island  Bay";  "On  the  south  coast  of  Long  Island,  at  a 
place  called  Sicktewacky,  or  Secontague,  near  Fire  Island  Inlet" 
(Brodhead)  ;  Seaquetauke,  1659;  Setauck  Neck,  the  south  bound 
of  St.  George's  Manor,  now  Manorville ;  of  record  as  the  name  of 
an  Indian  clan  and  village  near  Fire  Island  Inlet,  with  the  Mar- 
sapinks  and  Nyacks  for  neighbors ;  now  preserved  in  several  forms 
of  which  Setauket  probably  locates  a  place  near  Secontague.  Sick- 
eteuhacky,  writes  Mr.  Gerard,  "  is  the  Lenape  equivalent  of  Secch 

"  Ama'ug  is  only  used  at  the  end  of  a  compound  name,  where  it  is  equiva- 
lent to  Nameaug,  at  the  beginning."  (Trumbull.)  The  final  syllable,  -ug, 
■-■uk,  etc.,  is  an  animate  plural.  On  Long  Island,  -Ama'ug  is  frequently  met 
in  -amuck;  in  other  places,  -amwack,  -amwook,  -ameock,  etc. 


ON    LONG   ISLAND.  83 

togue,  meaning  'Burned-over  land.'  Whether  the  mainland  or  Fire 
Island  was  the  'Burned-over  land,'  history  does  not  tell  us."  Lands 
were  burned  over  by  the  Indians  to  destroy  the  bushes  and  coarse 
grasses,  and  probably  some  field  of  this  character  was  referred  to 
by  the  Indian  grantors,  from  which  the  name  was  extended  to  the 
Neck  and  to  Fire  Island,  although  it  is  said  that  fires  were  kindled 
on  the  island  for  the  guidance  of  fishermen. 

Saghtekoos — "called  by  the  native  Indians  Saghtekoos ;  by  the 
Christians  Appletree  Neck" — the  name  of  the  Thompson  estate  in 
Islip — ^probably  means,  "Where  the  stream  branches  or  divides," 
or  "At  the  branch,"  referring  to  Thompson's  brook.  The  suffix  -oos 
evidently  stands  for  "small."  (See  Sohaghticoke.)  "Apple-tree 
Neck  "  is  not  in  the  composition,  but  may  indicate  that  the  Indian 
owners  had  planted  apple  trees  there. 

Amagansett,  the  Indian  name  of  what  is  now  East  Hampton, 
was  translated  by  Dr.  Trumbull,  "At  or  near  the  fishing  place"  y 
root  Am,  "to  take  by  tihe  mouth" ;  Amau,  "he  fishes" ;  Abn., 
Ama"'ga",  "ou  peche  Id."  "he  fishes  there,"  (Rasles)  ;  s,  diminutive 
or  derogatory ;  ett,  "Near  or  a'bout,"  that  is,  the  tract  was  near  a 
small  or  inferior  fishing-place,  which  is  precisely  what  the  compo- 
sition describes. 

,  Peconic,  now  so  written  and  applied  to  Pecoriic  Bay  and  Peconic 
River,  but  primarily  to  a  place  "at  the  head  of  the  river,"  or  as 
otherwise  described,  "Land  from  ye  head  of  ye  bay  or  Peaconnack, 
was  Shinnecock  Indians'  Land"  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv,  600),  is  not 
the  equivalent  of  Peqan'nuc,  "a  name  common  to  all  cleared  land," 
as  translated  by  Dr.  Trumbull,  but  the  name  given  as  that  of  a  small 
creek  tributary  to  Peconic  River,  in  which  connection  it  is  of  record 
Pehick-komik,  which,  writes  Mr.  Gerard,  "plainly  stands  for  K'pe- 
hickonuk,  or  more  properly  Kepehikanik,  'At  the  barrier,'  or  weir. 
Kepehikan  from  Kepehike,  'he  closes  up,'  or  obstructs,  i.  e.  'dams.' " 
The  bounds  of  the  Shinnec'ock  Indians  extended  east  to  this  stream ; 
or,  as  the  record  reads,  "To  a  river  where  they  did  use  to  catch  the 
fish  commonly  called  alewives,  the  name  of  which  creek  was  Pehick- 
konuk,  or  Peconic."     (Town  Records.) 

Agwam,  Agawam,  is  quoted  by  French  as  the  name  of  South- 
ampton, L.  I,  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote:  "Acawan,  Agawan  or  Auqu- 
an,  a  name  given  to  several  localities  in  New  England  Where  there 


^4  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

are  low  meadows — a  low  meadow  or  marsh."     Presumably  from 

Agivu,  "Underneath,  below."  Another  authority  writes :  "Aga- 
wam  from  Magawannik,  "A  great  fishing  place."  (See  Mach- 
awameck.) 

Sunquams  is  given  by  French  as  the  Indian  name  of  Mellville 
in  Southampton,  L.  I.,  with  the  interpretation,  "Sweet  Hollow." 
The  interpretation  is  mere  guess-work. 

Massaback,  a  hill  so  called  in  Huntington,  Suffolk  County — in 
English  "Half  hill,"  and  in  survey  (1703)  "Half-hollow  hill" — 
probably  does  not  belong  to  the  hill  which  the  English  described 
as  "half-hollow,"  but  to  a  stream  in  proximity  to  it — Massaheset, 
"At  a  (relatively)  great  brook."     (Trumbull.) 

Mattituck,  the  name  of  a  village  in  Southold,  near  the  west  end 
of  the  town,  was  primarily  written  as  that  of  a  tract  of  land  includ- 
ing the  present  town  of  Riverhead,  from  which  it  was  extended  to 
a  large  pond  between  Peconic  Bay  and  the  Sound.  Presumably  the 
same  name  is  met  in  Mattatuck,  Gt.,  written  Matetacoke,  1637, 
Matitacoocke,  1673,  which  was  translated  by  Dr.  Trumbull  from 
Eliot's  Mat-uh'tugh-auke,  "A  place  without  wood,"  or  badly  wood- 
ed.    (See  Titicus.) 

Cutchogue,  Plymouth  Records,  1637 ;  "  Curchaug,  or  Fort 
Neck;"  Corch'aki,  deed  of  1648;  now  Cutchogue,  a  village  in  South- 
old,  in  the  vicinity  of  which  was  an  Indian  fort,  the  remains  of 
which  and  of  an  Indian  burial  ground  are  objects  of  interest,  is 
probably  a  corruption  of  Maskutchoung,  which  see.  Dr.  Tooker 
translated  from  KcJiti-aiike,  "The  principal  place,"  the  appositeness 
of  which  is  not  strikingly  apparent.  The  clan  bearing  the  name 
was  party  to  the  treaty  with  the  Massachusetts  people  in  1637,  and 
to  the  sale  of  the  East  Hampton  lands.  Their  earliest  sachem  was 
Momoweta,  who  acknowledged  the  primacy  of  Wyandanch. 

Tuckahoe,  a  level  tract  of  land  near  Southampton  village,  takes 
that  name  from  one  or  the  other  of  the  larger  "round"  roots  (Mass. 
P'tuckzveoo),  possibly  the  Golden  Club,  or  Floating  Artmi,  a  root 
described  "as  much  of  the  bigness  and  taste  of  potatoes."  (Trum- 
bull.) *     The  same  name  is  met  in  Westchester  County. 

'  Dr.  Brinton  writes :  "  They  also  roasted  and  ate  the  acrid  cormus  of 
the  Indian  turnip,  in  Delaware  taw-ho,  taw-hin  or  tuck-ah,  and  collected  the 
seeds  of  the  Golden  Club,  common  in  the  pools  along  the  creeks  and  rivers. 


ON    LONG   ISLAND.  85 

Sagabonock  has  left  only  the  remnant  of  its  name  to  Sag"-pond 
-and  Sag-harbor.  It  is  from  Sagahonak,  "Ground  nuts,  or  Indian 
potatoes."  (Trumbull.)  The  name  is  of  record  as  that  of  a 
boundmark  "two  miles  from  the  east  side  of  a  Great  Pond,"  and 
is  described  as  a  "pond  or  swamp"  to  which  the  name  of  the  tuber 
was  extended  from  its  product. 

Ketchepunak,  quoted  as  the  name  of  Westhampton,  describes 
"The  greatest  ground-nut  place,"  or  "The  greatest  ground-nuts." 
(See  Kestaubniuk.) 

Wequaganuck  is  given  as  the  name  of  that  part  of  Sag-harbor 
within  the  town  of  East  Hampton.  It  is  an  equivalent  of  Wequai- 
adn-anke,  "Place  at  the  end  of  the  hill/'  or  "extending  to  the  hill." 
(Trumbull.)  The  hill  is  now  known  as  Turkey  Hill,  on  the  north 
side  of  wihich  the  settlement  of  Sag-harbor  was  commenced. 

Namke,  from  Namaa,  "fish,"  and  ke,  "place" — fish-place — ^was 
the  name  of  a  place  on  the  creek  near  Riverhead.  (O'Gallaghan.) 
More  exactly,  Nameauke,  probably. 

Hoppogues,  in  Smithtown,  Suffolk  County,  is  pretty  certainly 
from  Wingau-hoppagne,  meaning,  literally,  "Standing  water  of 
good  and  pleasant  taste."  The  name  was  that  of  a  spring  and 
pond.  In  a  deed  of  1703,  the  explanation  is,  "Or  ye  pleasant 
springs."  Supposed  to  have  been  the  springs  which  make  the  head- 
waters of  Nissequogue  river  at  the  locality  now  bearing  the  name 
of  Hauppauge,  a  hamlet. 

Massapeage — Massapeag,  1636;  Massapeague,  Rassapeage — 
a  place-name  from  which  extended  to  an  Indian  clan  whose  prin- 
cipal seat  is  said  to  have  been  on  Fort  Neck,  in  the  town  of  Oyster 
Bay,  was  translated  by  Dr.  Trumbull  from  Massa,  "great" ;  pe,  the 
radical  of  water,  and  auke,  "land,"  or  "Land  on  the  great  cove." 
Thompson  (Hist.  L.  I.)  assigns  the  name  to  "a  swamp  on  the  south 
side  of  Oyster  Bay,"  now  South  Oyster  Bay,  and  it  is  so  applied  in 
Indian  deeds.     There  were  two  Indian  forts  or  palisaded  towns  on 


Its  native  name  was  taw-kee."  ("The  Lenape  and  their  Legends.")  The 
name  of  another  place  on  Long  Island,  written  Hogonock,  is  probably  an 
equivalent  of  Delaware  Hobbenac  (Zeisb.),  "Potatoes,"  or  "Ground-nuts"; 
Hobbenis,  "Turnips."     (See  Passapenoc.) 


86  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

the  Neck.  Of  one  the  name  is  not  given ;  it  was  the  smallest  of 
the  two;  its  site  is  said  to  be  now  submerged  by  water.  The  sec- 
ond, or  largest,  is  called  in  Dutch  records  Matsepe,  "  Great  river." 
It  is  described  as  having  been  situated  on  the  most  southerly  point 
of  land  adjoining  the  salt  meadows.  Both  forts  were  attacked  by 
Dutch  forces  under  Capt.  Pieter  Cock  and  Capt.  John  Underbill^ 
in  the  summer  of  1644  (a  local  record  says  August)  and  totally 
destroyed  with  heavy  loss  to  the  Indians.  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iv, 
15,  16.)  In  Prime's  and  other  local  histories  the  date  is  given  as 
1653,  on  the  authority  of  "  Hubbard's  Indian  Wars,"  and  Capt. 
Underbill  is  assigned  to  the  command  in  the  attack  on  the  largest 
fort.  The  official  Dutch  record,  however,  assigns  that  honor  to 
Capt.  Pieter  Cock.  The  year  was  surely  1644,  (Brodhead's  Hist. 
N.  Y.,  i,  91.)  The  prefix  Mass,  appears  in  many  forms — Massa, 
Marsa,  Marsha,  Rassa,  Mesa,  Missi,  Mas,  Mes,  etc.,  and  also  Mat, 
an  equivalent  of  Mas. 

Massepe,  quoted  in  Dutch  records  as  the  name  of  the  Indian 
fort  on  Fort  Neck,  where  it  seems  to  have  been  the  name  of  Stony 
Brook,  is  also  met  in  Jamaica  Records  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv,  505) 
as  the  name  of  a  creek  forming  a  mowing  boundary  or  division  line 
extending  from  a  certain  place  "  Eastward  to  ye  great  creek  called 
Massepe."  The  name  is  fully  explained  by  the  description,  "  Great 
creek."  Massepe-auke  means  "  Great  creek  (or  river)  land,"  or 
place ;  Mas-sepe-ink,  "  At  or  on  the  great  creek."  The  Indian  resi- 
dents came  to  be  known  as  the  Marsepincks. 

Maskutchoung,  a  neck  of  land  so  called  forming  one  of  the 
boundaries  of  Hempstead  Patent  as  entered  in  confirmatory  deed 
of  "Takapousha,  sachem  of  Marsapeage,"  and  "Wantagh,  the 
Montauke  sachem,"  July  4th,  1657:  "Beginning  at  a  marked  tree 
standing  at  the  east  side  of  the  Great  Plain,  and  from  thence  run- 
ning on  a  due  south  line,  and  at  the  South  Sea  by  a  marked  tree  in 
a  neck  called  Maskutchoimg,  and  thence  upon  the  same  line  to  the 
South  Sea."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv,  38,  416.)  "By  a  marked 
tree  in  a  neck  called  Maskachoung."  (Thompson's  Hist.  L.  I., 
9,  15,  47.)  It  is  probably  an  equivalent  of  Mask-ek-ong,  "A  grassy 
swamp  or  marsh."  A  local  interpretation  reads:  "Grass-drowned 
brook,"  a  small  stream  flowing  through  the  long  marsh-grass,  to 
which  the  name  was  extended. 


ON    LONG   ISLAND.  8f 

Maskahnong,  so  written  by  Dr.  O'Callaghan  in  his  translation 
of  the  treaty  between  the  Western  Long  Island  clans,  in  1656,  is 
noted  in  "North  and  South  Hempstead  Records,"  p.  60,  "A  neck 
of  land  called  Maskahnong."  It  disappears  after  1656,  but  prob- 
ably reappears  as  Maskachoung  in  1658,  and  later  as  Maskutchoung, 
which  see. 

Merick,  the  nanie  of  a  village  in  Hempstead,  Queens  County, 
is  said  to  have  been  the  site  of  an  Indian  village  called  Merick-oke. 
It  has  been  interpreted  as  an  apheresis  of  a  form  of  Nanmnock, 
written  Namerick,  "Fish  place."  (See  Moriches.)  Curiously 
enough,  Merrick  was  a  proper  name  for  man  among  the  ancient 
Brittons,  and  the  corruption  would  seem  to  have  been  introduced 
here  by  the  early  English  settlers  from  resemblance  to  the  Indian 
name  in  sound.  The  place  is  on  the  south  side  of  the  island.  The 
Indian  clan  was  known  as  the  Merickokes. 

Quantuck,  a  bay  so  called  in  Southampton,  is  of  record,  in  1659, 
Qiiaqnanantiick ,  and  applied  to  a  meadow  or  neck  of  land.  "The 
m-eadow  called  Quaquunantuck" — "the  neck  of  land  called  Qua- 
quanantuck" — "all  the  meadows  lying  west  of  the  river,  commonly 
called  or  known  by  the  name  of  Quantuck."  One  of  the  bound- 
marks  is  described  as  "a  stumpy  marsh,"  indicating  that  it  had  been 
a  marsh  from  which  the  trees  had  been  removed.  The  name  seems 
to  correspond  with  this.  It  is  probably  from  Pohqu'un-anfack, 
"cleared  or  open  marsh"  or  meadow.     (See  Montauk.) 

Quogue,  the  name  of  a  village  near  Quantuck  Bay,  and  located, 
in  Hist.  Suffolk  County,  as  "the  first  point  east  of  Rockaway  where 
access  can  be  had  to  the  ocean  without  crossing  the  bay,"  has  been 
read  as  a  contraction  of  Quaquaunantuck,  but  seems  to  be  from 
Poque-ogue,  "Clear,  open  space,"  an  equivalent  of  Poque-auke, 
Mass. 

Rechqua=akie,  De  Vries;  Reckkouwhacky,  deed  of  1639;  now 
applied  to  a  neck  on  the  south  side  of  Long  Island  and  preserved 
in  Rockaway,  was  interpreted  by  the  late  Dr.  E.  B.  O'Callaghan: 
"Reck  'sand';  qua,  'flat';  akie,  'land' — the  long,  narrow  sand-bar 
now  known  as  Rockaway  Beach,"  but  is  more  correctly  rendered 
with  dialectic  exchange  of  R  and  L,  Lekau.  (Rekau),  "sand  or 
gravel,"  hacki,  "land"  or  place.     (Zeisb.)     "Flats"  is  inferred. 


^8  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

A  considerable  division  of  the  Long  Island  Indians  was  located  in 
the  vicinity,  or,  as  described  by  De  Vries,  who  visited  them  in  1643, 
"near  the  sea-shore."  He  found  thirty  wigwams  and  three  hundred 
Indians,  who  were  known  in  the  treaty  of  1645,  as  Marechkawicks, 
and  in  tlie  treaty  of  1656  as  Rockaways.^ 

Jamaica,  now  applied  to  a  town,  a  village  and  a  bay,  was  pri- 
marily given  to  the  latter  by  the  English  colonists.  "Near  unto 
ye  beaver  pond  called  Jamaica,"  and  "the  beaver  path,"  are  of  rec- 
ord, the  latter  presumably  correct.  The  name  is  a  pronunciation  of 
Tomaque,  or  K'tamaque,  Del.,  Amique,  Moh.,  "beaver."  "Amique, 
when  aspirated,  is  written  Jamaique,  hence  Yameco,  Jamico,  and 
modern  Jamaica."  (O'Callaghan.)  The  bay  has  no  claim  to  the 
name  as  a  beaver  resort,  but  beavers  were  abundant  in  the  stream 
flowing  into  it. 

Kestateuw,  "the  westernmost,"  Castuteeuw,  "the  middlemost," 
and  Casteteuzv,  "the  eastermost,"  names  of  "three  flats  on  the 
island  Sewanhackey,  between  the  bay  of  North  river  and  the  East 
river."  The  tracts  came  to  be  known  as  Flatlands ;  "the  eastern- 
most," as  "the  Bay,"  or  Amesfort. 

Sacut,  now  known  as  Success  Pond,  lying  on  a  high  ridge  in 
Flushing,  is  a  corruption  of  Sakiiwit  (Sdqiiik),  "Mouth  of  a  river" 
(Zeisb.),  or  "where  the  water  flows  out."  The  pond  has  an  out- 
let, but  it  rarely  overflows.  It  is  a  very  deep  and  a  very  clear  body 
of  water. 

Canarsie,  now  so  written  and  applied  to  a  hamlet  in  the  town  of 
Flatlands,  Kings  County,  is  of  record  Canari  See,  Canarisse,  Cana- 
rise,  Canorise  (treaty  of  1655),  Kanarisingh  (Dutch),  and  in  other 
forms,  as  the  name  of  a  place  or  feature  from  which  it  was  extended 
to  an  Indian  sub-tribe  or  family  occupying  the  southwest  coast  of 
Long  Island,  and  to  their  village,  primarily  called  Keshaechquereren 
(1636).     On  the  Lower  Potomac  and  Chesapeake  Bay  the  name  is 

^  The  names  in  the  treaty  of  1645,  as  written  by  Dr.  O'Callaghan,  are 
"  Marechkawicks,  Nayecks,  and  their  neighbors" ;  in  the  treaty  of  1656, 
"  Rockaway  and  Canorise."  The  latter  name  appears  to  have  been  intro- 
duced after  1645  in  exchange  for  Marechkawick.  (See  Canarise.)  Rechqua 
is  met  on  the  Hudson  in  Reckgawaw-onck,  the  Haverstraw  flats.  It  is  not 
an  apheresis  of  Marechkawick,  nor  from  the  same  root. 


ON    LONG   ISLAND.  89 

written  Canais,  Conoys,  Ganawese,  etc.  (Heck,  xlii),  arid  applied  to 
a  sub-tribe  of  Nariticokes  residing  there  who  were  known  as  "The 
tide-water  people,"  or  "Sea-shore  settlers."  On  Dela^vare  Bay  it 
is  written  Canaresse  (1651,  not  1656  as  stated  by  Dr.  Tooker),  and 
applied  to  a  specific  place,  described  in  exact  terms :  "To  the  mouth 
of  the  bay  or  river  called  Bomptjes  Hoeck,  in  the  Indian  language 
Canaresse."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.  xii,  166.)  "Bomptjes  Hoeck"  is 
Dutch  and  in  that  language  describes  a  low  island,  neck  or  point  of 
land  covered  with  small  trees,  lying  at  the  mouth  of  a  bay  or  stream, 
and  is  met  in  several  connections.  The  point  or  place  described  on 
the  Delaware  (now  Bombay  Hook)  was  the  end  of  the  island,  knowm 
on  old  maps  as  "Deep  Point,"  and  the  "Hook"  was  the  bend  in  the 
currents  around  it  forming  the  marshy  inlet-bay  on  the  southwest 
connecting  with  a  marshy  channel  or  stream,  and  the  latter  on  the 
north  with  a  small  stream  by  which  the  island  was  constituted.  Con- 
sidered from  the  standpoint  of  an  Algonquian  generic  term,  the  rule 
is  undisputed  that  the  name  must  have  described  a  feature  which 
existed  in  common  at  the  time  of  its  application,  on  the  Delaware 
and  on  Long  Island,  and  it  only  remains  to  determine  what  that 
feature  was.  Obviously  the  name  itself  solves  the  problem.  In 
whatever  form  it  is  met  it  is  the  East  Indian  Canarese  (English 
Ca7i'a-rese)  pure  and  simple,  and  obviously  employed  as  a  substi- 
tute for  the  Algonquian  term  written  Ganaivese,  etc.,  of  the  same 
meaning.  In  the  "History  of  New  Sweden"  (Proc.  N.  Y.  Hist. 
Soc,  2d  Ser.  v.  i.),  the  locative  on  the  Delaware  is  described:  "From 
Christina  Creek  to  Canarose  or  Bambo  Hook."  In  "Century  Dic- 
tionary" Bambo  is  explained :  "From  the  native  East  Indian  name, 
Malay  and  Java  bambii,  Canarese  banhii  or  bonwu."  Dr.  Brinton 
translated  Ganawese  from  Guneu  (Del.),  "Long,"  but  did  not  add 
that  the  sufifix — zvese,  or  as  Roger  Williams  wrote  it,  qucse,  means 
"Little,  small,"  the  combination  describing  Bambo  grasses,  i.  e. 
"long,  small"  grasses,  which,  in  some  cases  reach  the  growth  of 
trees,  but  on  Long  Island  and  on  the  Delaware  only  from  long  marsh 
grasses  to  reeds,  as  primarily  in  and  around  Jamaica  Bay  and 
Gouwanus  Bay,  on  Reed  Island,  etc.  True,  Ganawese  would  de- 
scribe anything  that  was  "  long,  small,"  but  obviously  here  the  ob- 
jective product.     Canarese,  Canarose,  Kanarische,  Ganawese,  repre- 


^O  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

sent  the  same  sound — "in  (East)  Indian,  Canaresse,"  as  represented 
in  the  first  Long  Island  form,  Canari  See,  now  Jamaica  Bay. 

Keschaechquereren,  (1636),  Keschaechquerem  (1637),  the 
name  of  the  settlement  that  preceded  Canarese,  disappears  of  record 
with  the  advent  of  the  English  on  Barren  Island  and  at  Gravesend 
soon  after  1637-8.  It  seems  ^o  describe  a  "Great  bush-net  fishing- 
place,"  from  K'sch-achquonican,  "Great  bush-net."  (Zeisb.),  the  last 
word  from  Achewen,  "Thicket";  from  which  also  f  Vlact  Bosch 
(Dutch),  modern  Flatbush.  The  Indian  village  was  between  th»e 
Stroome  (tidewater)  Kil  and  the  Vresch  Kil,  near  Jamaica. 

Narrioch  was  given  by  the  chief  who  confirmed  the  title  to  it  in 
1643,  as  the  name  of  what  is  now  known  as  Coney  Island,  and  Man- 
nahaning  as  that  of  Gravesend  Neck.  (Thompson's  Hist.  L.  I.,  ii, 
175.)  The  Dutch  called  the  former  Conynen,  and  the  latter 
Conyne  Hoeck — "f  Conijen  Conine."  Jasper  Dankers  wrote  in 
1679:  "On  the  south  (of  Staten  Island)  is  the  great  bay,  which 
is  enclosed  by  Najaq,  t'  Conijen  Island,  Neversink,"  etc.  Conijen 
(modern  Dutch,  Konijn),  signifies  "Rabbit" — Cony,  Coney — in- 
ferentially  "Small" — Hterally,  "Rabbit,  or  Coney  Island,"  in  Dutch. 
The  Indian  names  have  been  transposed,  apparently.  Mannahaning 
means  "At  the  island,"  and  Narrioch  is  the  equivalent  of  Nayaug, 
"A  point  or  comer,"  as  in  Nyack.  The  latter  was  the  Dutch 
"Conyne  Hoeck."  Judge  Benson  claimed  Conyn  as  "A  Dutch  sur- 
name, from  which  came  the  name  of  Coney,  or  Conyn's  Island,"  but 
if  so,  the  surname  was  from  "Rabbit"  surely. 

Gowanus — Goivanus,  1639 ;  Gozvanes,  1641 ;  Gouwanes,  1672 — 
the  name  of  one  of  the  boundmarks  of  a  tract  of  land  in  Brooklyn, 
is  probably  from  Koua  (Kozvaw,  Williams;  Curve,  Zeisb.),  "Pine"; 
Kowawese  (Williams),  "A  young  pine,"  or  small  pine.  It  was 
that  of  a  place  on  a  small  stream,  the  description  in  the  Indian  deed 
of  1639,  reading:  "Stretching  southward  to  a  certain  kil  or  little 
low  bushes."  The  land  conveyed  is  described  as  being  "over- 
flowed at  every  tide,  and  covered  with  salt-meadow  grass."  The 
latter  gave  to  it  its  value.  The  claim  that  the  name  was  that  of  an 
Indian  owner  is  not  well  sustained.  The  evidence  of  the  Dutch 
description  of  the  bay  as  Boompje  Hoek,  meaning,  literally,  "Small 


ON    LONG  ISLAND.  9 1 

tree  cape,  corner  or  angle,"  and  the  fact  that  small  pines  did  abound 
there,  seems  to  establish  Koua  as  the  derivative  of  the  name. 

Marechkawick,  treaty  of  1645 — Mereckawack,  Breeden  Raddt, 
1649 ;  Mareckawick  and  Marechkawieck,  Rapelie  deed,  1630 ; 
Marechkotirick,  O'Callaghan;  Marechkawick,  Brodlhead — forms  of 
the  name  primarily  given  as  that  of  Wallabout  Bay,^  "The  bought 
or  bend  of  Marechkawick" — "in  the  bend  of  Maredhkawick,"  1630 
— has  been  translated  by  Dr.  Tooker  from  Men'achk  (Moenachk, 
Zeisb.),  "fence,  fort,"  and  -wik,  "house"  (Zeisb.),  the  reference 
being  to  a  fenced  or  palisaded  cabin  presumably  occupied  by  a 
sachem  and  his  family  of  the  clan  known  in  Dutch  history  as  the 
Mareckawicks.  The  existence  of  a  palisaded  cabin  in  the  vicinity 
of  "the  bought  or  bend"  is  possible,  but  the  name  has  the  appear- 
ance of  an  orthography  (Dutdh)  of  Mereca,  the  South- American 
name  of  a  teal,  (Mereca  'Americani)  the  Widgeon,  and  -wick 
{Wijk,  M.  L.  G.),  "Bay,  cove,  inlet,  retreat,"  etc.,  literally  "Widg- 
eon Bay."  "Situate  on  the  bay  of  Merechkawick,"  is  entered  on 
map  of  1646  in  Stiles'  "History  of  Brooklyn."  Merica  was  the 
Mayan  name  of  the  American  Continent.  It  is  spread  all  over 
South  America  and  was  applied  to  many  objects  as  in  the  Latinized 
Mereca  Americani.  The  early  Dutch  navigators  were  no  doubt 
familiar  with  it  in  application  to  the  Widgeon,  a  species  of  wild 
duck,  and  employed  it  in  connection  wi'th  the  word  -wijk.  Until 
between  1645  ^^^  1656,  the  Indians  residing  on  the  west  end  of 
Long  Island  were  known  as  Marechkawicks ;  after  1656  they  were 
called  Canorise.  (See  Canar'sie.)  Brooklyn  is  from  Dutch 
Breukelen,  the  name  of  a  village  about  eighteen  miles  from  Am- 
sterdam. It  means  "Broken  land."  (Breuk.)  On  Van  der 
Donck's  map  the  name  is  written  correctly.  A  record  description 
reads:  "There  is  much  broken  land  here." 

Manette,  so  written  of  record — "near  Mannato  hill,"  about 
thirty  miles  from  Brooklyn  and  midway  between  the  north  and 
south  sides  of  the  island — has  been  interpreted  from  its  equivalent, 

'Wallabout  Bay  takes  its  first  name  from  Dutch  Waal,  "gulf,  abyss/' 
etc.,  and  Bochf,  "bend,"  It  was  spoken  of  colloquially  by  the  early  Dutch 
as  "The  bay  of  the  foreigners,"'  referring  to  the  Walloons  who  had  settled 
on  the  north  side  of  the  bay  in  1625.  The  first  white  child,  Sarah  Rapelie, 
born  in  New  Netherland,  now  the  State  of  New  York,  was  born  here  June 
17th,  1625. 


92  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Maniton,  "Hill  of  the  Great  Spirit,"  but  means  strictly,  "That  which 
surpasses,,  or  is  more  than  ordinary."  (Trumbull.)  It  was  a 
word  in  common  use  by  the  Indians  in  rpplication  to  everything 
that  was  more  than  ordinary  or  t<hat  they  could  not  understand. 
In  this  instance  it  seems  to  'have  been  applied  to  the  water  of  a 
spring  or  well  on  the  rising  ground  whidi  they  regarded  as  of  sur- 
passing excellence ;  from  the  spring  transferred  to  the  hill.  The 
tradition  is  that  some  ages  ago  the  Indians  residing  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  hill  were  sufifering  for  water.  They  prayed  to  the  Great 
Spirit  for  relief,  and  were  directed  to  shoot  an  arrow  in  the  air 
and  where  it  fell  to  dig  and  they  would  find  water.  They  did  so 
and  dug  the  well  now  on  the  rising  ground,  the  water  of  which 
was  of  surpassing  excellence,  or  Manitou.  The  story  was  probably 
invented  to  account  for  the  name.     It  is  harmless  fiction. 

Rennaquakonck,  Rinnegahonck,  a  landmark  so  called  in  the 
boundaries  of  a  tract  on  Wallabout  Bay,  described  in  deed  as  "A 
certain  swamp  where  the  water  runs  over  tlie  stones,"  and,  in  a 
subsequent  deed,  "At  the  sweet  marsh"  (Hist,  of  Brooklyn),  is 
an  ortihography  of  Winnegackonck,  meaning  "At  the  sweet  place," 
so  called  from  some  plant  which  was  found  there,  or  to  distinguish 
the  marsh  as  fresh  or  sweet,  not  a  salt  marsh.  The  exchange  of 
R  and  W  may  be  again  noted. 

Comae,  the  name  of  a  village  in  Suffolk  County,  is  an  apheresis 
of  Winne-comac,  as  appears  of  record.  The  combination  expresses, 
"Good  enclosed  place,"  from  Winne,  "Good,  fine,  sweet,  beautiful, 
pleasant,"  etc.,  and  -komuck,  "Place  enclosed,"  or  having  definite 
boundaries,  limited  in  size. 

Nyack,  the  name  of  the  site  of  Fort  Hamilton,  is  a  generic  verbal 
from  A^ait,  "A  point  or  corner."  (Nd'iag,  Mass.,  Neiak,  Len.)  Tlie 
orthographies  vary — Naywayack,  Narrack,  Nanak,  Narrag,  Najack, 
Niuck,  Narrioch,  etc.  Witli  the  suffix  -ak,  the  name  means  "Land 
or  place  at  the  point."  (See  Nyack-on-the-Hudson.)  Bankers 
and  Sluyter  wrote  in  their  Journal  (1679-80)  :  "We  went  part  of 
the  way  through  the  wtoods  and  fine,  new-made  land,  and  so  along 
the  shore  to  the  west  end  of  the  island  called  Najack.  *  *  Con- 
tinuing onward  from'  there,  we  came  to  the  plantation  of  the  Najack 
Indians,  which  was  planted  with  maize,  or  Turkish'  Wheat."     The 


ON    LONG   ISLAND.  93 

Nayacks  removed  to  Staten  Island  after  the  sale  of  their  lands  at 
New  Utrecht.      (See  Narrioch.) 

Nissequague,  now  so  written,  the  name  of  a  hamlet  in  Smith- 
town,  and  of  record  as  t)he  name  of  a  river  and  of  a  neck  of  land 
still  so  known,  is  of  primary  record  Nisinckqueg-hackey  (Dutch  no- 
tation), as  the  name  of  a  place  to  which  the  Matinnecock  clan  re- 
moved after  the  war  of  1643.  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv,  60.)  The 
Eng'lish  scribes  wrote  Nesequake  (1650),  Nesaqiiake  (1665),  Nes- 
sequack  (1686),  Wissiquack  (1704),  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers), 
and  other  forms.  The  Indian  deed  of  1650  (SmiChtown  Records) 
recites  the  sale  by  "Nasseoonseke,  sachem  of  Nesequake,"  of  a  tract 
"Beginning  at  a  river  called  and  commonly  known  by  the  name  of 
Nesaquake  River,  and  from  that  river  eastward  to  a  river  called 
Memanusack."  "Nesaquauke  River"  is  the  entry  in  patent  to 
Richard  Smith,  1665.  Tllie  stream  has  its  source  in  a  number  of 
spring's  in  the  southern  part  of  Smithtown,  the  flow  of  w'hidi  forms 
a  considerable  river.  (Thompson.)  The  tlheory  tliat  "The  tribe 
and  river  derived  their  name  from  Nesequake,  an  Indian  sagamore, 
the  father  of  Nassaconseit  (Hist.  Suf.  Co.),  is  not  well  sustained. 
The  suffix  -set,  cannot  be  applied  to  an  animate  object ;  it  is  a  loca- 
tive meaning  "Les's  tlhan  at."  In  addition  to  this  objection,  Nas- 
saconset  is  otiherwise  written  Ne:ssaquauke^acoompt-set,  showing 
that  the  name  belonged  to  a  place  tihat  was  "On  the  other  side"  of 
Nessaquauke."  Neesaquauke  stands  for  Neese-saqii-aiike,  from 
Nisse,  "two,"  Sank,  "Outlet,"  and  -auke,  "Land"  or  place,  and  de- 
scribes a  place  at  "the  second  outlet,"  or  as  the  text  reads,  "At  a  river 
called  and  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  Nesaquake  River." 
The  sagamore  may  have  been  given  the  name  from  the  place,  but 
the  place  could  not  have  taken  the  namie  from  the  sag-amore.  The 
es'tuary,  now  known  as  Nissequage  Harbor  intO'  w^hich  the  stream 
flows,  extends  far  inland  and  forms  the  west  boundary  of  Nisse- 
quage Neck. 

Marsepinck,  a  stream  so  called  in  Queens  County,  from  which 
extended  to  the  land  which  was  sold,  in  1639,  by  "Mechowout,  chief 
saohem  of  Marossepinck,  Sint-Sink  and  dependencies,"  and  also 
extended  to  an  Inid'iam  dan  known  as  Marsepings,  is  no  doubt  an 
orthography  of  Masse pe  and  -ing,  locative.     It  means  "At,  to  or  on 


94  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

■tihe  great  river."  Mas  is  an  abbreviation  of  Massa,  Missi,  etc.^ 
"great,"  and  Sepc,  mean's  "river."  It  was  probably  used  compara- 
.tively — the  largest  compared  with  some  other  stream.  (See  Mass- 
€pe.) 

Unsheamuck,  otherwise  written  Unthemiamuk,  given  as  the  name 
of  Fresh  Pond,  on  tihe  boundary  line  between  Huritington  and 
Smithtown,  means  "Eel-fislhing  place."      (Tooker.) 

Suggamuck,  the  name  of  what  is  now  known  as  Birch  Creek, 
in  Southampton,  means  "Bass  fishing-place."     (Tooker.) 

Rapahamuck,  a  neck  or  point  of  land  so  called,  is  from  Appe- 
amuck,  "Trap  fishing-place."  (Tooker.)  The  name  is  assigned  to 
the  mouth  of  BirCh  Creek.     (See  Suggamuck.) 

Memanusack  and  Memannsuk,  given  as  the  name  of  Stony 
Brook,  probably  has  its  locative  "At  the  head  of  the  middle  branch 
of  Stony  Brook,"  Which  formed  tihe  boundmark  noted  in  the  Indian 
deed.  The  same  name  is  probably  met  in  Mayomansuk,  from  Mawe, 
meaning  "To  bring  together,"  "To  meet"  ;  and  -suck,  "Outlet,"  i.  e. 
of  a  pond,  marsh  or  river.  The  brook  was  "stony"  no  doubt,  but 
that  description  is  English. 

Cussqunsuck  is  noted  as  the  name  of  Stony  Brook  referred  to 
in  Memanusack.  The  stream  is  probably  the  outlet  of  the  waters 
of  a  swamp.  In  'his  will  Richard  Smith  wrote :  "I  give  to  my 
daug*hter  Sarah,  130  acres  of  land  at  the  tivo  swamps  called  Cutts- 
cunsuck."  The  first  word  seems  to  stand  for  Ksiicqon,  "Heavy" 
(Zeisb.),  by  metonymie,  "Stone,"  -es,  "Small,"  and  -uck,  locative, 
"Place  of  small  stone."  Ksiicqon  may  be  employed  as  an  adjectival^ 
prefix.     Eliot  wrote,  "Qussukquemin,  Stone   fruit,"  tihe  cherry. 

Mespaechtes,  deed  to  Governor  Keift,  1638,  from  which  Mes- 
path  (Brodhead),  Mespat  (Riker),  Mashpeth  and  Mashpett  (CoL 
Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv,  602),  now  Maspeth,  a  village  in  Newtown,  Queens] 
County,  and  met  in  application  to  Newtown  Creek  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,1 
xiii,  25),  has  been  translated  by  Dr.  Tooker,  "From  Mech-pe-is-it,\ 
Bad-water  place,"  and  by  Wm.  R.  Gerard,  "From  Massapichtit, 
verbal  describing  scattered  settlements,  as  though  the  Indianis  whoj 
sold  the  lands  had  said,  'We  include  the  lands  of  those  living  here! 


ON    LONG   ISLAND.  95 

and  there.'  "^  Flint,  in  his  "Early  History  of  Long  Island,"  wrote: 
"Mespat  Kills,  now  Maspe'th,  from  the  Indian  Matsepe,  written  by 
the  Dutch,  MaespautcJies  Kiletje" — long  known  as  "Dutdh  Kills." 
In  patent  of  1642,  for  lands  described  as  lying  "on  the  east  side  of 
Mespatcihes  Kil,"  the  boundary  is  stated :  "Beginning  at  'the  kil  and 
the  tree  standing  upon  the  point  towards  the  small  kil."  Obviously 
there  were  two  streams  here,  the  largest  called  Mespatdhes,  which 
seems  to  be,  as  Flint  states,  a  Dutch  rendering  of  Matsepe-es,  from 
Mas  (Del.  Mech),  a  comparative  term — "great,"  as  distinguished 
from  "small,"  the  largest  of  two,  and  Sepees  {Sepoiis,  Septals), 
"a  brook."  Sepe,  Sipo,  Sipti,  etc.,  is  generally  applied  to  a  long 
stream.  The  west  branch  of  Mespatt  Kill  has  the  record  name  of 
Quandoequareus.  Flint  wrote:  "The  Canapauke,  or  Dutch  Kills, 
sluggishly  winding  its  way  through  the  meadows  of  bronzed 
grass'es."  Canapauke  stands  for  Quaiia-pe-auke,  "Long  water- 
land,"  or  "Land  on  the  long  water."  The  stream  is  a  tidal  current 
receiving  several  small  streams.  (See  Massepe.)  Mespatches 
seem's  to  belong  to  the  stream  noted  in  patent  of  1642. 

Sint=Sink,  of  record  as  tjhe  name  of  Schout's  Bay, ''also,  "Form- 
erly called  Cow  Neck,  and  by  the  Indians  Sint-Sink,"  was  the  name 
of  a  place  n'ow  known  as  Manhasset.  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.)  It  means 
"Place  of  small  stones,"  as  in  Sint-Sink,  modern  Sing-Sing,  on  the 
Hudson. 

Manhasset,  correctly  Manhanset,  means,  "Near  the  Island,"  or 
something  less  than  at  the  island.  The  locative  was  long  known 
as  "Head  of  Cow  Neck." 

Matinnecock  is  noted  in  a  survey  for  Lewis  Morris,  in  1685 : 
"A  tract  of  land  lying  upon  the  north  side  of  Long  Island,  within 
the  township  of  Oyster  Bay,  in  Queens  County,  and  known  by  the 
name  of  Matinicock,"  and.  in  another  survey :  "A  certain  small  neck 
of  land  at  a  place  called  Mattinicock."  Extended  also  to  an  island 
and  to  an  Indian  clan.     Cornelius  van  Tienhoven  wrote  in   1650: 

^ "  Missiachpitschik,  those  who  are  or  live  scattered."  (Zeisberger's 
Onond.  Die.) 

*.  Known  also  as  "  Martin  Garretson's  bay."  Garretson  was  Schout 
(Sheriff),  hence  "Schout's  bay."  The  neck  of  land  "called  by  the  Indians 
Sint-Sink,"  was  fenced  for  the  pasturage  of  cows,  and  became  known  as 
"Cow  Neck,"  hence  "Cow  bay"  and  "Cow  harbor,"  now  Manhasset  bay.. 
(See  Matinnec'ock  and  Mochgonneck-onck.) 


96  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

"Martin  Garritson's  Bay,  or  Martinnehouck/  is  mudli  deeper  and 
wider  than  Oyster  Bay ;  it  runs  westward  in  and  divides  into  three 
rivers,  two  of  wliidi  are  navigable.  The  smallest  stream  runs  up  in 
front  of  the  Indian  village  called  Martinnehouck,  where  they  have 
their  plantations.  The  tribe  is  not  strong,  and  consists  of  about 
thirty  families.  In  and  about  t'his  bay  were  formerly  great  numbers 
of  Indian  plantations  which  now  lie  waste.  On  the  rivers  are 
numerous  valleys  of  sweet  and  salt  meadows."  The  name  has, 
wit!h  probable  correctness,  been  interpreted  from  Metanak-ok 
(Lenape,  Mctanak-onk;  Abn.,  Metanak-ook),  meaning,  "Along  the 
edge  of  the  island,"  or,  as  Van  Tienhoven  wrote,  "About  this  bay." 
The  same  name  appears  on  the  Delaware  as  that  of  what  is  now 
known  as  Burlington  Island."  It  is  corrupted  in  New  Jersey  to 
Tinnicum,  and  is  preserved  on  Long  Island  as  the  name  of  a  village 
in  the  town  of  Ovster  Bay. 

Hog's  Island,  so  called  by  the  early  settlers,  now  known  as 
Center  Island,  has  the  record  description:  "A  piece  of  land  on 
Martin  Garretson's  Ba}',  in  the  Indian  tongue  called  Matinnecong, 
alias  Hog's  Neck,  or  Hog''s  Island,  being  an  island  at  high  tide." 
(Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv,  435.)  "Alatinneckock,  a  neck  on  the  Sound 
east  of  Mudhito  Cove."  (See  Muchito.)  The  island  is  connected 
with  the  main  land  by  a  neck  or  beach  which  was  overflowed  at 
high   tide. 

Caumsett  is  recorded  as  the  name  of  "The  neck  of  land  U'hich 
makes  the  west  side  of  Cow  Harbor  and  the  east  side  of  Oyster 
Bay"  (Ind.  Deed  of  1654),  known  later  as  Horse  Neck  and  Loyd's 
Neck.  Apparently  a  corruption  of  Ketumpset,  "Near  the  great 
standing  rock."  The  reference  may  have  been  to  \\\vai  was  known 
as  Bluff  Point. 

Muchito,  the  name  of  w'hat  is  now  Glen  Cove,  near  Hempstead 
Harbor,   is  otherwise   written   Muschedo,   Mosquito  aaid   Muscota. 

'  A   corruption    from   "  Martin." 

'^  Mattinacunk,  Matinneconke,  Matinnekonck — "  having  been  formerly 
known  by  the  name  of  Kipp's  Island,  and  by  ye  Indian  name  of  Koomenak- 
anok-onck."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.)  Koo-menakanok-onck  was  the  largest  of 
two  islands  in  the  Delaware  and  was  particularly  identified  by  the  Indian 
name,  which  means  "  Pine-tree-Islands  place."  The  name  by  which  the 
Island  came  to  be  known  was  transferred  to  it  apparently. 


ON    LONG    ISLAND.  97 

It  was  primarily  written  as  the  name  cf  Muchito  Neck.  It  means 
"Meadow" — Moskehtu  (Eliot),  "grass;"  Miiskuta,  "A  grassy  plain 
or  meadow."     (See  Musoota.) 

Katavvomoke,  "or.  las  called  by  the  Englisli,  Huntington,"  is 
written  in  the  Indian  deed  of  1653,  Kctanoinakc ;  in  deed  of  1646, 
Ketanoinocke,  and  assigned  to  a  neck  of  land  "Bounded  upon  the 
west  side  wi'th  a  river  comimonly  called  by  the  Indians  Nachaque- 
tuck,  and  on  the  east  by  a  river  called  Opcutkontycke,"  the  latter 
now  known  as  Northfield-Harbor  Brook.  The  name  is  preserved 
in  several  orthographies.  In  deed  to  Lion  Gardiner  (1638),  Ar- 
hata-aniiint ;  in  deed  to  Richard  Smith  (1664),  Catawaumick  and 
Catauwnnck,  and  in  another  entry  "Cattawamnuck  land,"  i.  e.  land 
about  Catawamuck ;  in  Huntington  Records,  Kctcivomokc ;  in  Cal. 
N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  p.  60 :  "To  the  eastward  of  the  town  of  Hunt- 
ington and  to  the  westward  of  Nesaquack,  commonly  called  by  the 
Indians  Katazi-aniake  and  in  English  by  the  name  of  Crope  Mea- 
dow ;"  in  another  entry,  "Crab  iMeadow,"  by  which  last  name  the 
particular  tract  was  known  for  many  years.  "Crope"  and  "Crab" 
are  English  equivalents  for  a  species  of  grass  called  "finger-grass 
or  wire-grass,"  and  were  obviously  employed  by  the  English  to 
describe  the  kind  of  grass  that  distinguished  the  meadow — ^cer- 
tainly not  as  an  equivalent  of  the  Indian  name,  which  was  clearly 
that  of  a  place  at  or  near  the  head  of  Huntington  Harbor,  from 
which  it  was  extended  to  the  lands  as  a  general  locative.  The 
several  forms  of  the  name  may  probably  be  correctly  read  from 
KeJiti,  or  its  equivalent.  Kehchi,  "Chief,  principal,  greatest,"  and 
-amaiig,  "Fishing-place"  (-amuck,  L.  I.),  literally  "The  greatest 
fishing-place."  The  orthography  of  1638  is  especially  corrupt,  and 
Ketawamnck,  apparently  the  most  nearly  correct,  the  rule  holding 
good  in  this,  as  in  othe^-  cases,  that  the  very  early  forms  are  especial- 
ly imperfect. 

Nachaquatuck,  the  western  boundary  stream  of  Eaton's  Neck, 
quoted  as  the  name  of  Cold  Spring,  is  translaited  by  Dr.  Tooker 
from  IVa'nashque-tiick,  "The  ending  creek,  because  it  was  the  end 
or  boundary  of  the  tract."  "Called  by  the  Indians  Nackaquatol<, 
and  by  the  English  Cold  Spring."  (Huntington  Patent,  1666.) 
Wanashque,  "The  tip  or  extremity  of  an}^hing." 


98  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Opcutkontycke,  now  assigned  to  a  brook  entering  Northfield 
Harbor,  and  primarily  given  as  t^he  name  of  a  boundary  stream 
(see  Katawamake),  seems  to  be  a  corruption  of  Ogkome  (Acoom-), 
"On  the  other  side,"  and  -tuck,  "A  tidal  stream  or  estuary."  It 
was  a  place  on  the  other  side  of  the  estuary. 

Aupauquack,  the  name  of  a  creek  in  West  Hampton,  is  entered, 
in  1665,  Aupaucock  and  described  as  a  boundary  stream  between 
the  Shinnecock  and  the  Unchechauge  lands,  "Either  nation  may 
cutt  flags  for  their  use  on  either  side  of  the  river  w'ithout  molesta- 
tion." Also  given  as  the  name  of  a  "Lily  Pond"  in  East  Hampton. 
Written  Appauquauk  and  App'oquague,  and  now  Paucuck.  Tlie 
name  describes  a  place  "Wihere  flags  grow,"  and  nothing  else.^ 
(See  Apocjuague.) 

Wading  River,  now  so  called,  was  also  called  "The  Iron  or 
Red  Creek,"  "Red  Creek"  and  "Wading  Place,"  and  by  the  Indians 
Pauquacumsuck  and  Peqitaockeon,  the  latter,  wrote  Dr.  Trumbull, 
"Because  Pequaocks,  a  little  thick  shell-fish  was  found  there,  wfliich 
the  Indians  waded  for ;  hence  the  name  'Wading  River,'  Quahaug 
is  from  this  term,  and  Pequaock,  Oyster  Bay."  "Iron  or  Red 
Creek"  explains  itself.  Wading  River  is  preserved  in  the  name 
of  a  village  in  tihe  town  of  Riverhead. 

Assawanama — "a  tract  of  land  near  the  town  of  Huntington 
called  by  the  natives  Anendesak,  in  English  Eaderneck's  Beach,  and 
so  along  the  Sound  four  miles,  or  thereabouts,  until  [to]  the  fresh 
pond  called  by  the  natives  Assaivanauia,  where  a  creek  runs  into 
the  Sound" — describes  "A  creek  beyond,"  /.  e.  beyond  Anendesak; 
from   Assawa-amhames. 

Aquel?ogue,  Aquebauke— "on  the  north  side  of  Aquebauke  or 
Piaconnock  River "  (C'Ol.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiv,  600) — means,  "Land 
or  place  on  this  side,"  i.  e.  on  the  side  towards  the  speaker,  as  is 
obvious  from  fhe  description,  "On  the  north  side,"  and  from  the 
deed  of  1648,  which  reads :  "The  whole  tract  of  land  called  Ocqueb- 
auck,  together  with  the  lands  and  meadows  lying  on  the  other  side 
of  the  water  as  far  as  the  creek,"  the  latter  called  "The   Iron  or 

*  Rev.  Thomas  James,  in  a  deposition  made  Oct.  18,  1667,  said  that  two 
old  Indian  women  informed  him  they  "gathered  flags  for  mats  within  that 
tract."     (East  Hampton  Town  Records,  156.) 


ON    LONG    ISLAND.  99 

Red  Creek,"  now  "Wading  River."     The  name  is  preserved  in  two 
villages  in  the  town  of  Riverhead,  on  the  orig'inal  tract. 

Wopowag,  more  correctly  IVepowage,  given  as  the  name  of 
Stony  Brook,  town  of  Brookhaven,  'describes  a  place  "At  the  nar- 
rows," t.  e.  of  a  brook  or  cove,  and  usually  "The  crossing  place." 
(Trumbull.) 

So'was'set,  correctly  Cozvas'sctt  (Moh.),  the  name  of  what  is 
now  Port  Jefferson,  signifies,  "Near  a  place  of  small  pine  trees." 
(Trumbull.)  The  name  was  applied  to  what  was  long  known  as 
the  "Drowned  Meadow,"  but  not  the  less  a  "Place  of  small  pine 
trees"  which  was  at  or  near  the  meaJdow. 

Wickaposset,  now  given  as  the  name  of  Fisher's  Island,  ap- 
pears to  be  from  Weqna,  "End  of,"  -paug  (-peauke),  "Water4and," 
and  -et,  locative — near  the  end  of  the  water-land,  marsh  or  pond. 
The  island  is  on  the  north  side  of  the  Sound  opposite  Stonington, 
Ct.,  but  is  included  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Southampton. 

Hashamomuck,  "being  a  neck  of  land."  (Soutihold  Records.) 
Hasihamomock  or  Nashayousuck.  (lb.)  The  adjectivals  Hash 
and  Nash  seem  to  be  from  Nashaitc.  "Between,"  and  -suck,  "The 
mouth  or  outlet  of  a  brook."  The  suffix  -momiick,  in  the  first  form, 
may  stand  for  -komuk,  "Place" — ^a  place  between.  The  orthogra- 
phies are  very  uncertain. 

Minnepaug,  "being  a  little  pond  With  trees  standing  by  it." 
(Southold  Records.)  The  name  is  explained  in  the  description, 
"A  little  pond."  In  Southampton  Records  the  same  pond  is  called 
Monabaugs,   another  orthography   of   Minnepaug. 

Masspootupaug  (1662),  describes  a  boggy  meadow  or  miry 
land.  The  substantival  is  Pootapaug,  Mass.,  "A  bog."  The  adjec- 
tival may  stand  for  Mass,  "Great,"  or  Matt,  derogative. 

Manowtassquott,  or  Manowtatassquott,  is  assigned  to  Blue 
Point,  in  Great  South  Bay,  town  of  Brookhaven.  The  record 
reads :  "Bounded  easterly  by  a  brook  or  river  to  tihe  westward  of 
a  point  called  the  Blue  Point,  known  by  the  Indian  name  of  Manow- 
tatassquott." The  name  belongs  to  a  place  where  Menhaden 
abounded — Manowka-tuck-ut — from   wliich  ecjctended  to  the   point. 


lOO  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Ochabacowesuck,  given  as  the  name  of  what  is  now  called 
Pine  Neck,  stands  for  Acqiicbacoives-uck,  meaning,  "On  this  side 
of  the  small  pines."  Narraganset.  Coivawes-nck,  "At  the  young 
pine  place,"  or  "Smiall-pine  place."  Koozva,  EHo^t ;  -es,  diminutive ; 
-lick,  locative.  The  name  of  the  tree  was  from  its  pointed  leaves ; 
Koiis,  a  thorn  or  briar,  or  "having  a  siharp  point."  (Trumbull.) 
Acqneh,   "This  side." 

Ronkonkoma,  Raconkamuck,  Wonkonkoamaiig,  Wonkongam- 
nck,  Wonkkeconiaug,  Raconkcmnake,  ""A  fres'h  pond,  about  the 
middle  of  Long  Island."  (Smithtown  Records.)  "IVoiikkecomaug 
signifying  crooked  pood."  (Indian  deed  of  1720.)  Obviously 
from  Wonkun,  "Bent,"  and  -komuk,  "Place,  limited  or  enclosed." 
Interpretation  from  Wonkon'ous,  "Fence,"  and  -amaug,  "Fishing- 
plaice"  (Tooker),  "has  no  other  standing  than  fhat  there  was  a  fence 
of  lopped  trees  terminating  at  the  pond.  The  namie,  however,  was 
in  place  before  the  fence  was  made.  The  explanation  in  the  Indian 
deed  of  1720  cannot  be  disputed.  The  pond  divides  the  towns  of 
Islip,  Smithtown,  Se'tauket,  and  Patchoug. 

Potunk,  a  neck  of  land  on  S'hinnecock  Bay,  is  written  Potuncke 
in  Smithtown  Records,  in  1662.  "A  swamp  at  Potunk,"  is  another 
entry.  Dr.  Trumbull  quoted  it  as  a  form  of  Po'dunk,  Conn.,  which 
is  of  primary  record,  "Called  Potaecke,"  and  given  as  the  name  of 
a  "brook  or  river."  In  Brookfield,  Mass.,  a  brook  bearing  the 
name  is  said  to  have  been  so  called  "from  a  tract  of  meadow  ad- 
joining." In  Washington  County,  N.  Y.,  is  recorded  "Podunk 
Brook."  (Cal.  Land  Papers.)  The  meaning  of  the  name  is  un- 
certain, but  from  its  wide  distribution  it  is  obviously  from  a  generic 
— presumably  a  corruption  of  P'tuk-oJikc,  a  neck  or  corner  of  land. 
"The  neck  next  east  of  Onuck  is  known  by  the  Indian  name  of 
Potunk."     (Local   History.) 

Mannhonake,  the  name  of  Gardiner's  Island — "called  by  the 
Indians  Mannhonake,^  and  by  us  the  Isle  of  Wight" — means,  "Is- 
land place  or  country,"  from  Munnohhan,  "Island,"  and  -auke, 
"Land,  ground,  place  (not  limited  or  enclosed),  country,"  etc. 
(Trumbull.)       In  common  with  other  islands  in  Gardiner's  Bay, 

^  Manchonackc  is  the  orthography  in  patent  to  Lion  Gardiner,  1639.  (Doc. 
Hist.  N.  Y.,  i,  685.)     Dr.  Trumbull  quotes  Manchonat,  Narragansett. 


ON    LONG    ISLAND.  lOI 

it  was  recommended,  in  1650,  as  offering  rare  inducements  for 
s;et)tlement,  "Since  therein  lie  the  cockles  whereof  wampum  is 
made."  "The  greatest  part  of  the  wampum  for  which  the  furs  are 
traded  is  made  there.''  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xii,  360.)  The  island 
v/as  claimed  in  the  deed  as  the  property  of  the  Narragansetts.  Dr. 
Dwight's  interpretation  of  the  name,  "A  place  where  a  number  of 
Indians  had  died,"  is  a  pure  invention. 

Manah=ackaquasu=U'anock,  given  as  the  name  of  Shelter 
Island,  is  a  composition  of  two  names,  as  shown  by  the  record  en- 
try, "All  that  their  i.^Iand  of  Aliaquacu-'wainuck,  otherwise  called 
Manhansack."  Ahaqua.zn-zvamnck  is  no  doubt  the  equivalent  of 
Aiihaquassu  (Nar.),  "Sheltered,"  and  -amuck  is  an  equivalent  of 
■■amaug,  "Fishing-place,"  literally,  "Sheltered  fishing-place."  Men- 
hansack  is  Manhansick  in  deed  of  1652,  and  Munhassett  and  Man- 
hasctt  in  prior  deed  of  1640.  (East-Hampton  Records.)  It  is  a 
composition  from  Miinnohan,  "Island ;"  es,  "small,"  and  et,  "at" 
and  describes  a  small  island  as  "at"  or  "near"  some  other  island. 
The  compound  Manah-ahaquazu-zi'anock,  means,  therefore,  simply, 
"S'heltered-fishing-place  island,"  identifying  the  island  by  the  fish- 
ing-place, while  ManJiasctt  identifies  it  in  generic  terms  as  a  small 
island  near  some  other  island  or  place. ^  The  island  now  bears  the 
generic  terms  Manliasctt.  Pogatacutt,  sachem  of  the  island,  is  sup- 
posed to  have  lived  on  what  is  now  known  as  "Sachem's  Neck." 
(See  Montauk.) 

Manises,  or  Mciiasses,  as  written  by  Dr.  Trmiibull,  the  name  of 
Elock  Island,  means,  literally,  "Small  island,"  just  as  an  Englisih- 
man  would  describe  it.  The  Narragansetts  were  its  owners.  Its 
earliest  European  occupant  was  Capt.  Adriaen  Block,  who,  having 
lost  his  vessel  by  burning  at  Manhattan,  constructed  here  another 
which  he  called  the  "Onrust"  or  "Restless,"  in  1614.  It  was  the 
first  vessel  constructed  by  Europeans  in  New  York  waters.  In 
this  vessel  Block  made  extended  surveys  of  Hudson's  River,  the 
Connecticut,  the  Sound,  etc.  Acquiring  from  his  residence  among 
them  a  knowledge  of  the  Connecticut  coast  dialects,  he  wrote  the 
names  of  tribes  on  the  Hudson  in  that  dialect.     Reference  is  made 


'  Perhaps  explained  by  the  entry,  "  Roberts'  Island,  situate  near  Manhan- 
sack.    (Records,  Town  of  East-Hampton.) 


INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 


to  wliat  is  better  known  as  the  "Carte  Figurative  of  1614-16." 
There  is  no  better  evidence  that  this  Figurative  was  from  Block's 
chart  than  its  presumed  date  and  the  orthographies  of  the  names 
written  on  it. 


Hudson's  River  on  the  West. 

Neversink,  now  so  written  as  the  name  of  the  hills  on  the  south 
side  of  the  lower  or  Raritan  Bay,  is  written  Neiiversin  by  Van  der 
Donck,  Neysziiesiuck  by  Van  Tienhoven,  Nezvasons  by  Ogilby,  1671, 
and  more  generally  in  early  records  Naver,  Neuver,  Newe,  and 
Naosbink.  The  original  was  no  doubt  the  Lenape  Newds-ink,  "At 
the  point,  comer,  or  promontory."  The  root  A''^  (English  Nai), 
means,  "To  come  to  a  point,"  "To  form  a  point,"  or,  as  rendered  by 
Dr.  Trumbull,  "A  corner,  angle  or  point,"  Naiag.  Dr.  School- 
craft's translation,  "Between  waters,"  and  Dr.  O'Callaghan's  "A 
stream  between  hills,"  are  incorrect,  as  can  be  abundantly  proved. 
(See  Nyack.) 

Perth  Araboy,  at  the  mouth  of  Raritan  River,  is  in  part,  from 
James,  Earl  of  Perth,  Lord  High  Chancellor  of  Scotland,  who 
found'ed  a  se'ttlement  there,  and  part  from  Amhoy  (English  Ambo), 
meaning  any  rising  or  stage,  a  hill  or  any  elevation.  A  writer  in 
1684  notes :  "Where  the  town  of  Perth  is  now  building  is  on  a 
shelf  of  land  rising  twenty,  thirty  and  forty  feet."  Smith  (Hist. 
of  New  Jersey)  wrote :  "Ambo,  in  Indian,  'A  point ;'  "  but  there 
is  no  such  word  as  Ambo,  meaning  "A  point,"  in  any  Indian  dia- 
lect, Heckewelder's  interpretation :  "Ompoge,  from  which  Aniboy 
IS  derived,  and  also  Emboli,  means  'A  bottle,'  or  a  place  resembling 
a  bottle,"  is  equally  erroneous,  althoug'h  Emboli  may  easily  have 
been  an  Indian  pronunciation  of  xA.mboy.  The  Indian  deed  of  165 1 
reads,  "From  the  Raritan  Point,  called  Ompoge/'  which  may  be 
read  from  Ompae,  Alg.  generic,  "Standing  or  upright,"  of  which 
Amboy,  English,  is  a  fair  interpretation. 

Raritangs  (Van  Tienhoven),  Rariton  (Van  der  Donck),  Rare- 
tans,  Raritanoos,  Nanakans,  etc.,  a  stream  flowing  to  tide-water 
west  of  Staten  Island,  extended  to  the  Indian  sub-tribal  organization 


HUDSON  S   RIVER   ON    THE   WEST.  I03 

which  occupied  the  Raritan  Valley,  is  from  the  radical  Nai,  "A 
point,"  as  in  Naragan,  Naraticon,  Narrangansett,  Nanakan,  Nah- 
ican,  etc.,  fairly  traced  by  Dr.  Trumbull  in  an  analysis  of  Narra- 
gansett,  and  apparently  oonclusively  established  in  Nanakan  and 
Narratschcen  on  the  Hu'dson,  the  Vei'drietig  Hoek,  or  "Tedious 
Point,"  of  Dutch  notation,  wihere,  after  several  forms  it  culminates 
in  Naz'ish.  Lindstrom's  Naratic-on,  on  the  lower  Delaware,  was 
probably  Cape  May,  and  an  equivalent  substantially  of  the  New 
England  Nayantiikq-iit,  "A  point  on  a  tidal  river,"  and  Raritan  was 
the  point  of  the  peninsulla  which  the  clan  occupied  terminating  on 
Raritan  Bay,  where,  probably,  the  name  was  first  met  by  Dutch 
navigators.  The  dialectic  exchange  o'f  N  and  R,  and  of  the  surd 
tmutes  k  and  t  are  clear  in  comparing  Nanakan  on.  the  Hudson, 
Naratic-on  on  the  Delaware,  and  Raritan  on  the  Raritan.  Van 
der  Donck's  map  locates  the  clan  bearing  the  name  in  four  villages 
at  and  above  the  junction  of  a  branch  of  the  stream  at  New  Bruns- 
wick, N.  J.,  where  there  is  a  certain  point  as  well  as  on  Raritan 
Bay.  The  clan  was  conspicuous  in  the  early  days  of  Dutch  New 
Netherland.  Van  Tienhoven  wrote  that  it  had  been  compelled  to 
remove  further  inland  on  account  of  freshets,  but  mainly  from  its 
inability  to  resist  the  raids  of  the  southern  Indians ;  that  the  lands 
whidh  they  left  unoccupied  was  between  "two  high  moimtains  far 
distant  from  one  to  the  other ;"  that  it  was  "the  handsomest  and 
pleasantest  country  that  man  can  bdhold."  The  great  southern 
trunk-line  Indian  path  led  throug'h  this  valley,  and  was  then,  as  it 
is  now,  the  great  route  of  travel  between  the  northern  and  the 
southern  coast.  (See  Nanakan,  Nyack-on-the-Hudson,  and  Orange.) 

Orange,  a  familiar  name  in  eastern  New  Jersey  and  supposed 
to  refer  to  the  two  mountains  that  bound  the  Raritan  Valley,  may 
have  been  from  the  name  of  a  sachem  or  place  or  both.  In  Breeden 
Raedt  it  is  written :  "The  delegates  from  all  the  savage  tribes,  such 
as  the  Raritans,  w'hose  chiefs  called  themselves  Oringkes  from 
Orange."  Oringkes  seems  to  be  a  form  of  Oivinickes,  from  Owini, 
N.  J.  [Inini,  Chip.,  Lenni,  Del.),  meaning  "Original,  pure,"  etc., 
and  -he,  "country" — literally,  "First  or  original  people  of  the  coun- 
try," an  interpretation  which  agrees  with  die  claim  of  the  Indians 
generally  when  speaking  of  themselves.^     Orange  is  Oranje,  Dutch, 

'Dr.  D.  G.  Brinton  wrote  me  "I  believe  you  are  right  in  identifying 
Oringkes   with    Owine — possibly   with  locative    k." 


I°4  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

pure  and  simple,  but  evidently  introduced  to  represent  the  sound 
of  an  Indian  word.  What  that  word  was  may,  probably,  be  traced 
from  the  name  given  as  that  of  the  sachem,  Aiironge  (Treaty  of 
1645),  which  seems  to  be  an  apheresis  of  IV'scha-jd-won-ge,  "On 
the  hill  side,"  or  "On  the  side  of  a  hill."  (Zeisb.)  Awonge,  Aur- 
onge,  Oranje,  Orange,  is  an  intelligible  progression,  and,  in  con- 
nection with  "from  Orange,"  indicates  the  location  of  a  village  or 
the  side  of  a  hill,  which  the  chiefs  represented. 

Succasunna,  Morris  County,  N.  J.,  is  probably  from  Siikcit, 
"Black,"  and  -aclisiln,  "Stone,"  w^ith  substantive  verbal  affix  -ni.  It 
seems  to  describe  a  place  where  there  were  black  stones,  but  whether 
there  are  black  stones  there  or  not  has  not  been  ascertained. 

Aquackanonck,  Aquenonga,  Aquainnuck,  etc..  is  probably  from 
Achquaiii'kan-ong,  "Bushnet  fishing  place."  Zeisberger  wrote 
"Achqnanican,  a  fish  dam."  The  locative  was  a  point  of  land  form- 
ed by  a  bend  in  Pasaeck  River  on  the  east  side,  now  included  in  the 
City  of  Paterson.  Jasper  Bankers  and  Peter  Sluyter  wrote,  in 
1679-80:  "Acquakenon :  on  one  side  is  the  kil,  on  the  other  is  a 
small  s'tream  by  which  it  (the  point)  is  almost  surrounded."  The 
Dutch  wrote  here,  Slooterdam,  i.  c.  a  dam  with  a  gate  or  sluiceway 
in  it,  probably  constructed  of  stone,  the  sluiceway  being  left  open 
to  enable  shad  to  run  up  the  stream,  and  closed  by  bushes  to  pre- 
vent their  return  to  the  sea.     (Nelson.) 

Watchung  (Wacht-unk,  Del.)  is  from  Wachtschu  (Zeisb.), 
"Hill  or  mountain,"  and  -unk,  locative,  "at"  or  "on."  Wachtshunk, 
On  the  mountain"  (Zeisb.)  ;  otherwise  written  Wakhunk.  The 
original  application  was  to  a  hill  some  twelve  miles  west  of  the 
Hudson.  The  first  deed  (1667)  placed  the  boundmark  of  the  tract 
"At  the  foot  of  the  great  mountain,"  and  the  second  deed  (1677) 
extended  the  limit  "To  the  top  of  the  mountain  called  Watchung." 

Achkinckeshacky;  Hackinkcshacky,  1645  ^  Hackinghsa-ckin, 
Hackinkesack  (1660);  Hackensack  (1685);  Ackinsack,  Hockquiri' 
dachque ;  Hackquinsack,  are  early  necord  forms  of  the  name  of 
primary  application  to  the  stream  now  known  as  the  Hackensack, 
from  which  it  was  extended  to  the  adjacent  district,  to  an  Indian 
settlement,  and  to  an  Indian  sachem,  or,  as  Van  Tienhoven  wrote, 
"A  certain  savage  chief,  named  Haickquinsacq."     (Breeden  Raedt.) 


HUDSON  S   RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  I05 

The  most  satisfactory  interpretation  of  the  name  is  that  suggested 
(by  IJhe  late  Dr.  Trumbull :  "From  Hiickquan,  Mass.,  Hocquaan, 
Len.,  'Hook,'  and  sank,  'mout^li  of  a  river' — ^literally,  'Hook-shaped 
mouth,'  descriptive  of  the  course  of  the  stream  around  Bergen 
Poinjt,  by  t^he  Kil  van  Kull,^  to  New  York  Bay."  Campanus  wrote 
Hocki'tng,  "Hook,"  and  Zeisberger,  Hocquaan."^  The  German 
Hackcn,  now  Hackensack,  means  "Hook,"  as  in  German  Riissel 
Hacken,  "Pot-hook,"  a  hook  incurved  at  both  ends,  as  the  letter 
S ;  in  Lenape  Hocquoan  (Zeisb.).      Probably  simply  a  substitution. 

Commoenapa,  written  in  several  forms,  was  the  name  of  the 
most  southern  of  the  six  early  Dutch  settlements  on  the  west  side 
of  Hudson's  River,  known  in  their  order  as  Commoenapa,  Ares- 
seck,  Bergen,  Ahasimus,  Hoboken-Hackingh,  and  Awiehacken. 
Commoenapa  is  now  preserved  as  the  name  of  the  upland  between 
Communipaw  Avenue  and  Walnut  Street,  Jersey  City,  but  was 
primarily  applied  to  the  arm  of  the  main  land  beginning  at  Kon- 
stabel's  Hoek,  and  later  to  the  site  of  the  ancient  Dutch  village  of 
Gamoenapa,  as  written  by  De  Vries  in  1640,  and  by  the  local  scribes, 
Gamcenapaen.^     (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.  xiii,  36,  37.)     Dunlap  (Hist.  N. 

^  Before  entering  New  York  Harbor,  Hudson  anchored  his  ship  below  the 
Narrows  and  sent  out  an  exploring  party  in  a  boat,  who  entered  the  Nar- 
rows and  ascended  as  far  as  Bergen  Point,  where  they  encountered  a  second 
channel  which  they  explored  as  far  as  Newark  Baj^  The  place  where  the 
second  channel  was  met  they  called  "  The  Kils,"  or  channels,  and  so  it  has 
remained — incorrectly  "  Kills."  The  Narrows  they  called  Col,  a  pass  or 
defile,  or  mountain-pass,  hence  Kil  van  Col,  channel  of  the  Narrow  Pass, 
and  hence  Achtcr  Col,  a  place  behind  the  narrow  channel.  "  Those  [In- 
dians] of  Hackingsack,  otherwise  called  Achter  Col."  (Journal  of  New 
Neth.,  1641-47,  Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iv,  9.)  *  *  "Whether  the  Indians  would 
sell  us  the  hook  of  land  behind  the  Kil  van  Col."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii, 
280.)  Achter  Col  became  a  general  name  for  all  that  section  of  New  Jersey. 
Kill  and  Kidl  are  corruptions  of  Col..  Arthur  Kull  is  now  applied  to  New- 
ark Bay. 

'  Heckewelder  wrote  "  Okhncquaii.  Woakhucquoan,  or  short  Hiicqiian 
for  the  modern  Occoqiian.  the  name  of  a  river  in  Virginia,  and  remarked, 
'All  these  names  signify  a  hook.'"  (Trumbull.)  Rev.  Thomas  Campanus 
(Holm),  who  was  chaplain  to  the  Swedish  settlements  on  the  Delaware, 
1642-9,  and  who  collected  a  vocabulary,  wrote  Hdckiing  (ueiig),  "Hook." 
This  sound  of  the  word  may  have  led  the  Dutch  to  adopt  Hackingh  as  an 
orthography — modern  Haking,  "  Hooking,"   incurved  as  a  hook. 

^  Jasper  Dankers  and  Peter  Sluyter  wrote  in  their  Journal :  "Gamaenapaen 
is  an  arm  of  the  main  land  on  the  west  side  of  the  North  River,  beginning 
at  Constable's  Hook,  directly  opposite  to  Staten  Island,  from  which  it  is 
separated  by  the  Kil  van  Kol.  It  is  almost  an  hour  broad,  but  has  large  salt 
meadows  or  marshes  on  the  Kil  van  Kol.  It  is  everywhere  accessible  by 
water  from  the  city." 


lo6  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Y.,  i,  50)  claimed  the  name  as  Dutch  from  Gemeente,  "Commons, 
pubHc  property,"  and  Paen,  "Soft  land,"  or  in  combination,  "Tillable 
land  and  marsh  belonging  to  the  community,"  a  relation  which  the 
lands  certainly  sustained.  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  234.)  The  lands 
were  purchased  by  Midiael  Pauw  in  1630,  and  sold  by  liim  to  the 
Dutch  government  in  1638.  Although  clearly  a  Dutch  name  it  has 
•been  claimed  as  Indian,  from  Lenape  Gamenozvinink  (Zeisb.), 
"England,  on  the  other  side  of  the  sea."  Gamoenapaug,  one  of  the 
forms  of  the  name,  is  quoted  as  the  basis  of  this  claim;  also,  Acom- 
nnipag,  "On  the  other  side  of  the  bay."  The  Dutdh  did  substitute 
paen  for  pang  in  some  cases,  but  it  is  very  doubtful  if  they  did  here. 

Ahasimus — Achasscmus  in  deed  to 'Michael  Pauw,  1630 — now 
preserved  in  Harsimus,  was  a  place  lying  west  of  the  "Little  Island, 
Ares'sick ;"  later  described  as  "The  corn-land  of  the  Indians,"  indi- 
cating that  the  name  was  from  Lenape  Chasqummes  (Zeisb.),. 
"Small  corn."     Ashki'muis,  "Sea  maize."  ^     (See  Arisheck.) 

Bergen,  the  name  of  die  third  settlement,  is  met  in  Scandana- 
vian  and  in  German  dialects.  "Bergen,  the  Flemdsih  for  Mons 
(Latin),  'a  hill,'  a  town  of  Belgium."  (Lippinoott.)  "Bergen, 
op.  Zoom,  18  miles  north  of  Antwerp,  'a  hiil  at  (or  near)  the  bank,' 
or  border."  The  original  settlement  was  on  w'hat  is  now  known 
as  Jersey  City  Heights. 

Arisheck — "The  Little  Island  Aressick"  (See  Ahasimus),  call- 
ed by  the  Dutch  Aresseck  Houck,  Hoeren  Houck,  and  Paulus 
Houck — now  the  eastern  point  of  Jersey  City — was  purdhased  from 
the  Indians  by  Michael  Pauw,  Nov.  22,  1630,  with  "the  land  called 
Ahasimus,"  and,  with  the  "Island  Hobokan-Hackingh,"  purchased 
by  him  in  July  of  the  same  year,  was  included  in  his  plantation 
under  the  general  name  of  Pavonia,  a  Latinized  form  of  his  own 
name,  from  Pavo,  "Peacock"  (Dutch  Pauw),  which  is  retained  in 
the  name  of  the  Erie  R.  R.  Ferry.  Primarily,  Arisseck  was  a  low 
neck  of  land  divided  by  a  marsh,  the  eastern  end  forming  what  was 

'  "The  aforesaid  land  Ahasimus  and  Aressick,  by  us  called  the  Whore's 
Corner,  extending  along  the  river  Maurites  and  the  Island  Manhates  on  the 
east  side,  and  the  Island  Hobokan-Hackingh  on  the  north  side,  surrounded 
by  swamps,  which  are  sufficiently  distinct  for  boundaries."  (Pauw  Deed, 
Nov.  22,  1630;  Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  3.)  Mr.  Winfield  located  Ahasimus  "At 
that  portion  of  Jersey  City  which  lies  east  of  Union  Hill,  excepting  Paulus' 
Hoeck  (Areisheck),     *     *    generally  from  Warren  to  near  Grove  Street." 


Hudson's  river  on  the  west.  107 

called  an  island.  The  West  India  Company  ihad  a  trading  post 
'there  conducted  by  one  Michael  Paulis,  from  wihom  it  was  called 
Paulus'  Hook,  which  it  re'tains,  Pauw  also  estalblished  a  trading 
post  there  which,  as  it  lay  directly  in  the  line  of  the  great  Indian 
'trunk-path  (see  Saponickan),  so  seriously  interfered  with  the  trade 
of  the  Dutch  post  that  the  Company  purchased  the  land  from  him 
in  1638,  and  in  the  same  year  sold  the  island  to  one  Abraham 
Planck.  In  the  deed  to  Planck  the  description  reads :  "A  certain 
parcel  of  land  called  Pauwels  Hoek,  situated  westward  of  the  Isiland 
Manhates  and  eastward  of  Ahasimus,  extending  from  the  North 
River  into  the  valley  which  runs  around  it  there."  (Col.  Hist.  N, 
Y.,  xiii,  3.)  The  Indian  name,  Arisheck  or  Aresseck,  is  so  badly 
corrupted  that  the  original  cannot  be  satisfactorily  detected,  but,  by 
exchanging  n  for  r,  and  adding  the  initial  K,  we  would  have  Kanis- 
keck,  "A  long  grassy  marsh  or  meadow." 

Hoboken,  now  so  written — Hohocan-Hacking,  July,  1630; 
Hobokan-Hacking,  Nov.  1630;  Hohokina,  1635;  Hohocken,  1643; 
Hohoken,  iG/i^y ;  Hohuck  and  Harhoken,  1655-6 — ^appears  of  record 
first  in  the  Indian  deed  to  Michael  Pauw,  July  12,  1630,  negotiated 
by  the  Director-general  and  Council  of  New  Netherland,  and  there- 
in by  them  stated,  "By  us  called  Hobocan-Hacking."  Primarily  it 
was  applied  to  the  low  promontory^  below  Castle  Point,^  bounded, 
recites  the  deed,  on  the  south  by  the  "land  Ahasimus  and  Aressick." 
On  ancient  charts  Aressick  and  Hoboken-Hacking  are  represented 
as  two  long  necks  of  land  or  points  separated  by  a  cove  on  the  river 
front  now  filled  in,  both  points  being  called  hooks.  In  records 
it  was  called  an  island,  and  later  as  "A  neck  of  land 
almost  an  island,  called  Hobuk,"  *  *  *  "extending  on  the 
south  side  to  Ahasimus ;  eastward  to  the  river  MauritU'S, 
and  on  the  west  side  surrounded  by  a  valley  or  morass  through 
which  the  boundary  can  be  seen  with  sufficient  clearness."  (Win- 
field's  Hist.  Hudson  Co. ;  Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  2,  3,  4.)     In  "Free- 

^  An  ancient  view  of  the  shore-line  represents  it  as  a  considerable  eleva- 
tion— a  hill. 

*  Castle  Point  is  just  below  Wehawken  Cove  in  which  Hudson  is  sup- 
posed to  have  anchored  his  ship  in  1609.  In  Juet's  Journal  this  land  is  de- 
scribed as  "beautiful"  and  the  cliff  as  of  "the  color  of  white  green,  as  though 
it  was  either  a  copper  or  silver  mine."  It  has  long  been  a  noted  resort  for 
mineralogists. 


Io8  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

doms  and  Exemptions,"  1635  •  "^"t  every  one  is  notified  that  the 
Company  reserves,  unto  itself  the  Island  Manhates ;  Fort  Orange, 
with  the  lands  and  islands  appertaining  thereto ;  Staten  Island ; 
the  land  of  Achassemes,  Arassick  and  Hobokina."  The  West 
India  Company  purchased  the  latter  lands  from  Michael  Pauw  in 
1638-9,  and  leased  and  sold  >in  three  parcels  as  stated  in  the  Pauw 
deeds.  The  first  settlement  of  the  parcel  called  by  the  Dutch  Hobo- 
can-Hacking  is  located  by  Whitehead  (Hist.  East  N.  J.)  immedi- 
ately north  of  Hobokan  Kill  and  called  Hobuk.  Smith,  in  his 
"History  of  New  Jersey,"  wrote  Hobuck,  and  stated  that  it  was  a 
plantation  "owned  by  a  Dutch  merchant  who  in  the  Indian  wars, 
had  his  wife,  children  and  servants  murdered  by  the  Indians."  In 
a  narrative  of  events  occurring  in  1655,  it  is  written:  "Presently 
we  saw  the  house  on  Harboken  in  flames.  This  done  the  whole 
Pavonia  was  immediately  in  flames."  ^  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xii,  98.) 
The  deed  stateuTent,  "By  us  named,"  is  explicit,  and  obviously 
impHes  that  the  terms  in  the  name  were  Dutch  and  not  Indian, 
and  Dutch  they  surely  were.  Dr.  A.  S.  Gatschet,  of  the  Bureau  of 
Ethnology,  wrote  me:  "Hoboken,  called  after  a  village  on  the  river 
Scheldt,  a  few  miles  below  Antwerp,"  and  after  a  high  elevation 
on  its  north  side.  Ho — ,  holi — ,  is  the  radical  of  'high'  in  aU  Ger- 
man dialects,  and  Buck  is  'elevation'  in  most  of  them.  Buckel 
(Germ.),  Bochel  (Dutch),  means  'hump,'  'hump-back.'  Hump 
(Low  German)  is  'heap,'  'hill.'  Ho-bok-an  locates  a  place  that  is 
distinguished  by  a  hill,  or  by  a  hill  in  some  way  associated  with  it." 
PresuTnabl}'  from  the  ancient  village  of  Hoboken  came  to  ]Man- 
hattan,  about  1655,  one  Harmon  van  Hoboccon,  a  schoohiiaster, 
who  evidently  was  given  his  famidy  name  from  the  village  from 
whence  he  came.  He  certainly  did  not  give  his  family  name  to 
Hoboken  twenty  years  prior  to  his  landing  at  Manhattan. 

'  Teunissed  van  Putten  was  the  first  white  resident  of  Hoboken.  He 
leased  the  land  for  twelve  years  from  Jan.  i,  1641.  The  West  India  Com- 
pany was  to  erect  a  small  house  for  him.  Presumably  this  house  is  referred 
to  in  the  narrative.     It  was  north  of  Hoboken  Kill. 

'  Now  a  commercial  village  of  Belgium.  The  prevailing  dialect  spoken 
there  was  Flemish,  usually  classed  as  Low  German.  The  Low  German  di. 
lects  of  three  centuries  ago  are  imperfectly  represented  in  modern  orthogr:- 
phies.  In  and  around  Manhattan  eighteen  different  European  dialects  were 
spoken,  as  noted  of  record — Dutch,  Flemish,  German,  Scandanavian,  Walloon, 
etc. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER  ON    THE    WEST.  I09 

Hacking  and  Hakcn  are  unquestionabl}-  Dutch  from  the  radical 
Haak,  "hook."  The  first  is  a  participle,  meaning  Hooking,  "in- 
curved as  a  hook,"  by  metonymie,  "a  hook."  It  was  used  in  that 
sense  by  the  early  Dutch  as  a  substitute  for  Lenape  Hocquan, 
"hook,"  in  Hackingsack,  and  Zeisberger  used  it  in  "'Ressel  Hacken, 
pot-hook."  No  doubt  Stuyvesant  used  it  in  the  same  sense  in 
writing  Hohokan-Hacking,  describing  thereby  both  a  hill  and  a 
'hook,  corresponding  with  the  topography,  to  distinguish  it  from 
its  twin-hook  Arisheck.  Had  there  been  an  Indian  name  given 
him  for  it,  he  would  have  written  it  as  surely  as  he  wrote  Arisheck. 
When  he  wrote,  "By  us  called,"  he  meant  just  vvhat  he  said  and 
what  he  understood  the  terms  to  mean.  To  assume  that  he  wrote 
the  terms  as  a  substitute  for  Lenape  Hopodkan-hacki-iig,  "At  (or 
on)  the  smoking-pipe  land."  or  place  where  materials  were  ob- 
tained for  making  smoking-pipes,  has  no  warrant  in  the  record 
narrative.     Hacking  Avas  dropped  from  the  name  in  1635. 

Wehawken  and  Weehawken,  as  now  written,  is  written  Aivie- 
haken  in  deed  by  Director  Stuyvesant,  1658-9.  Other  orthogra- 
phies are  Wiehacken,  Wheliockan,  Weehacken,  Wehauk,  obvious 
corruptions  of  the  original,  but  all  retaining  a  resemblance  in  sound. 
The  name  is  preserved  as  that  of  a  village,  a  ferr}',  and  a  railroad 
station  about  three  miles  north  of  Jersey  City,  and  is  historically 
noted  for  its  association  with  the  ancient  custom  of  dueling,  the 
particular  resort  for  that  purpose  being  a  rough  shelf  of  the  cliff 
about  two  and  one-half  miles  north  of  Hoboken  and  about  opposite 
28th  Street,  Manhattan.  The  locative  of  the  name  is  described  in 
a  grant  by  Director  Stuyvesant,  in  1647,  to  one  Maryn  Adriaensen, 
of  "A  piece  of  land  called  Awiehaken,  situate  on  the  west  side  of 
the  North  River,  bounded  on  the  south  by  Hoboken  Kil,  and  run- 
ning thence  north  to  the  next  kil,  and  towards  the  woods  with  the 
same  breadth,  altogether  fifty  morgens  of  land."  ^  (Col.  Hist.  N. 
Y.,  xiii,  22.)  The  "next  kil"  is  presumed  to  have  been  that  flowing 
to  the  Hudson  in  a  wild  ravine  just  south  of  the  dueling  ground, 
now  called  the  Awiehackan.  A  later  description  (1710)  reads: 
"Between  the  smitherninost  cliffs  of  Tappaen  and  Ahasimus,  at  a 
place  called  Wiehake."     (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  98.)     The  pe- 

^  A  Dutch  "morgen"'  was  about  two  English  acres. 


no  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

■tition  was  by  Samuel  Bayarfd,  wh'o  then  owned  the  land  on  boith 
sides  of  Wiehacken  Creek,  for  a  ferry  charter  covering  the  passage 
"Between  the  southernmost  cliffs  of  Tappaen  and  New  York  Island, 
at  a  place  called  Wiehake,"  the  landing-place  of  which  was  estab- 
lisihed  at  or  near  the  mouth  of  Awiehacken  Creek  just  be'low  what 
is  now  known  as  King's  Point.  Of  the  location  generally  Winfield 
(Hist..  Hudson  Co.,  N.  J.)  wrote:  "Before  the  iconoclastic  hand 
of  enterprise  had  touched  it  the  whole  region  about  was  charming 
beyond  description.  Just  south  of  the  dueling  ground  was  the  wild 
ravine  adown  which  leaped  and  laughed  the  Awiehacken.  Imme- 
diateHy  above  the  dueling  ground  was  King's  Point  looking  boldly 
down  upon  the  Hudson.  From  this  iheight  still  opens  as  fair,  as 
varied,  as  beautiful  a  scene  as  one  dould  wisih  to  see.  The  rocks 
rise  almost  perpindicularly  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  above  the 
river.  Under  these  heights,  about  twenty  feet  above  the  water, 
on  a  shelf  about  six  feet  wide  and  eleven  paces  long,  reached  by  an 
almost  inaccessible  flight  of  steps,  was  the  dueling  ground."  South 
of  King's  Point  were  the  fanied  Elysian  Fields,  at  the  southern 
extremity  of  which,  under  Castle  Point,  was  Sibyl's  Cave,  a  rocky 
cavern  containing  a  fine  spring  of  water. 

The  place  to  which  'the  name  was  applied  in  the  deed  of  1658 
seems  to  have  been  an  open  tract  between  the  streams  named,  pre- 
sumably a  field  lying  along  the  Hudson,  from  the  description,  "run- 
ning back  towards  the  woods,"  suggesting  that  it  was  from  the 
Lenape  radical  Tmava,  as  Vv^ritten  by  Zeisberger  in  Tauzui-echen, 
"Open ;"  as  a  noun,  "Open  or  unobstructed  space,  clear  land,  with- 
out trees."  Dropping  the  initial  we  'have  Auwi,  Awie,  of  the  early 
or'thography ;  dropping  A  we  have  Wie  and  Wee,  and  from  -echen 
we  have  -akan,  -haken,  -hawking,  etc.  As  the  name  stands  now  it 
has  no  meaning  in  itself,  although  a  Hollander  might  read  Wie 
as  Wei,  "A  meadow,"  and  Hacken  as  "Hooking,"  incurved  as  a 
hook,  which  would  fairly  describe  Weehawking  Cove  as  it  was. 

Submitted  to  him  in  one  of  its  modern  forms,  the  late  Dr.  Trum- 
bull wrote  that  Wehaiving  "Seemed"  to  him  as  "most  probably 
from  Wehoak,  Mohegan,  arid  -ing,  Lenape,  locative,  'At  the  end 
(of  the  Palisades)'  "  and  in  his  interpretation  violated  his  own  rules 
of  interpretation  which  require  that  translation  of  Indian  names 
must  be  sought  in  the  dialect  spoken  in  the  district  where  tlie  name 


I 


HUDSON  S   RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  Ill 

appears.  The  word  for  "End,"  in  the  dialect  spoken  here,  was 
Wiqui.  Zeisberger  wrote  Wiquiechiing,  "End,  point,"  which  cer- 
tainly does  not  appear  in  any  form  of  the  name.  The  Dr.'s  trans- 
lation is  simpl}-  worthless,  as  are  several  others  that  have  been  sug- 
gested. It  is  surprising  that  the  Dr.  should  quote  a  Mohegan 
adjectival  and  attach  to  it  a  Lenape  locative  sufifix. 

Espating  {Hcspating,  Staten  Island  deed)  is  claimed  to'  have 
been  the  Indian  name  of  what  is  now  known  as  Union  Hill,  in 
Jersey  City,  where,  it  is  presumed,  there  was  an  Indian  village. 
The  name  is  from  the  root  AsJip  ( Usp,  Mass. ;  Esp,  Lenape ;  Ishp, 
Chip.),  "High,"'  and  -ink,  locative,  "At  or  on  a  high  place."  From 
the  same  root  Is'hpat-ink.  Hespating.  (O'Callaghan.)  See  Ashp- 
etong. 

Siskakes,  now  Secaucus,  is  written  as  the  name  of  a  tract  on 
Hackensack  meadows,  from  which  it  was  extended  to  Snake  Hill. 
It  is  from  Sikkakaskeg,  meaning  "Salt  sedge  marsh."  (Gerard.) 
The  Dutch  found  snakes  on  Snake  Hill  and  called  it  Slangberg, 
literally,  "Snake  Hill." 

Passaic  is  a  modern  orthography  of  Pasaeck  (Unami -Lenape), 
German  notation,  signifying  "Vale  or  valley."  Zeisberger  wrote 
Fachsdjcck  in  the  Minsi  dialect.  The  valley  gave  name  to  the 
stream.  In  Rockland  County  it  has  been  corrupted  to  Paskack, 
Pasqueck,  etc. 

Paquapick  is  entered  on  Pownal's  map  as  the  name  of  Passaic 
Falls.  It  is  from  Poqiii,  "Divided,  broken,"  and  -apuchk,  "Rock." 
Jasper  Dankers  and  Peter  Sluyter,  who  visited  the  falls  in  1679-80, 
wrote  in  their  Journal  that  the  falls  were  "formed  by  a  rock  stretch- 
ing obliquely  across  the  river,  the  top  dry,  with  a  dliasm  in  the 
center  about  ten  feet  wide  into  which  the  water  rushed  and  fell 
about  eighty  feet."  It  is  this  rock  and  chasm  to  which  the  name 
refers — "Divided  rock,"  or  an  open  place  in  a  rock. 

Pequannock,  now  so  written,  is  the  name  of  a  stream  flowing 
across  the  Highlands  from  Hamburgh,  N.  J.  to  Pom'pton,  written 
Pachquak'onck  by  Van  der  Donck  (1656)  ;  Paquan-nock  or  Pasq- 
ueck, in  1694;  Paqunneck,  Indian  deed  of  1709,  and  in  other  forms, 
was  the  name  of  a  certain  field,  from  which  it  was  extended  to  the 


112  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

stream.  Dr.  Trumbull  recognized  it  as  the  equivalent  of  Mass. 
Paquan'noc,  Peqnan'niic,  Pohqu'un-auke,  etc.,  "A  name  common  to 
all  cleared  land,  i.  e.  land  from  which  the  trees  and  bushes  had  been 
.remove'd  to  fit  it  for  cultivation."  Zeisberger  wrote,  Pachqu 
(Paghqii),  as  in  Pachqu-echen,  "Meadow;"  Pachquak'onck,  "At 
(or  on)   the  open  land." 

Peram=sepus,  Paramp=seapus,  record  forms  of  the  name  of 
Saddle  River,^  Bergen  Coumty,  N.  J.,  and  adopted  in  Paramus  as 
the  name  of  an  early  Dutdh  village,  of  which  one  reads  in  Revolu- 
tionary 'history  as  the  headquarters  of  General  George  Clinton's 
Brigade,  appears  in  deed  for  a  tract  of  land  the  survey  of  which 
reads :  "Beginning  at  a  spring  called  Assinmayk-apaliaka,  being 
the  northeasternmost  head-spring  of  a  river  called  by  the  Indians 
Peram-sepiis,  and  by  the  Christians  .Saddle  River."  Nelson  (Hist. 
Ind.  of  New  Jersey)  quoted  from  a  deed  of  1671 :  "IVarepeake, 
a  run  of  water  so  called  by  the  Indians,  but  the  right  name  is 
Rerakanes,  by  the  English  called  Saddle  River.  Peram-sepus  also 
appears  as  Wieramius,  suggesting  that  Pera,  Para,  Wara,  and  Wiera 
were  written  as  equivalemt  sounds,  from  the  root  IVil  {Willi,  Winne, 
Wirri,  Waure),  meaning,  "Good,  fine,  pleasant,"  etc.  The  suffix 
varies,  Sepiis  meaning  "Brook";  Pcake  (-/^ei^^)," Water-place,"  and 
Anes,  "Small  stieam,"  or,  substantially,  Septis,  which,  by  the  prefix 
Ware,  was  proniounccd  "A  fine  stream,"  or  place  of  water. 

Monsey,  a  village  in  Rockland  County,  takes  that  name  from 
an  Indian  resident  who  was  known  by  his  tribal  name,  Monsey — 
"the    Monseys,    Minsis,    or    Minisinks." 

Mahway,  Mawayway,  Mawawier,  etc.,  a  stream  and  place  now 
Mahway,  N.  J.,  was  primarily  applied  to  a  place  described:  "An 
Indian  field  called  May  way  way,  just  over  the  north  side  of  a  small 
red  hill  cailled  Mainatanung."  The  stream,  on  an  old  survey,  is 
marked  as  flowing  south  to  the  Ramapo  from  a  point  west  of 
Cheesek-ook  Mountain.  The  name  is  probabh-  from  Mawhvi 
(Zeisb.),  "Assembly,"  w'here  streams  or  paths,  or  boundaries,  meet 
or  come  together.     (See  Mahequa.) 


*  Called  "Saddle  River,"  probably,  from  Richard  Saddler,  a  purchaser  of 
lands  from  the  Indians  in  1674.     (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  478.) 


HUDSON  S   RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  II3 

Mainaiianung,  Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  and  MaimUing  in  N.  J. 
Records,  given  as  the  name  of  "A  small  red  hill"  (see  Mahway), 
does  not  describe  a  "Red  hill,"  hut  a  place  "at"  a  small  hill — Min- 
attinney-unk.  The  suffixed  locative,  -uiik,  seems  to  have  been  gen- 
erally used  in  connectioii  with  the  names  of  hills. 

Pompton — Ponton,  East  N.  J.  Records,  1695 ;  Pompeton,  Pump- 
ton,  Pompeto)!,  N.  Y.  Records — now  preserved  in  Pompton  as  the 
name  of  a  village  at  the  junction  of  the  Pequannock,  the  Wynokie, 
and  the  Ramapo,  and  coutinued  as  the  name  of  the  united  stream 
south  of  Pompton  Village  to  its  junction  with  the  Passaic,  and  also 
as  the  name  of  a  town  in  Passaic  County,  N.  J.,  as  well  as  in  Pomp- 
ton  Falls,  Pompton  Plains,  etc.,  and  historically  as  the  name  of  an 
Indian  clan,  appears  primarily  as  the  name  of  the  Ramapo  River 
as  now  known.  It  is  not  met  in  early  New  York  Records,  but  in 
English  Records,  in  1694,  a  tract  of  land  is  described  as  being  "On 
a  river  called  Paquannock,  or  Pasqueck,  near  the  faills  of  Pampe- 
•ton,"  and  in  1695,  in  application  to  lands  described  as  lying  "On 
Pompton  Creek,  about  twenty  miles  above  ye  mouth  of  said  creek 
where  it  falls  into  Paquanneck  River,"  the  particular  place  referred 
to  being  known  as  Ramopuch,  and  now  as  Rainapo.  (See  Ramapo.) 
Rev.  Heckewelder  located  the  name  at  the  mouth  of  the  Pompton 
(as  now  known)  where  it  falls  into  the  Passaic,  and  interpreted 
it  from  Pihni  (root  Pimc),  "Crooked  mouth,"  an  interpretation  now 
rejected  by  Algonquian  students  from  the  fact  that  the  mouth  of 
the  stream  is  nOt  crooked.  A  reasonable  suggestion  is  that  the 
original  was  Pom  of  en,  a  representative  town,  or  a  combination  of 
towns. ^  wihich  would  readily  be  converted  to  Pompton.  In  1710, 
"Memerescum,  'sole  sachem  of  all  the  nations  (towns  or  families) 
of  Indians  on  Remopuck  River,  and  on  the  east  and  west  branches 
thereof,  on  Saddle  River,  Pasqueck  River,  Narranshunk  River  and 
Tappan,'  gave  title  to  all  the  lands  in  upper  or  northwestern  Bergen 
and  Passaic  counties."  (Nelson,  "Indians  of  New  Jersey,"  iii), 
indicating  a  combination  of  dlans.  Fifty  years  later  the  tribal  title 
is  entered  in  the  treaty  of  Easton  (1758)  as  the  "Wappings,  Opings 
or  Pomptons,"  -  as  claimants  of  an  interest  in  lands  in  northern  New 

^  Pomoteneyu,  "There  are  towns."     (Zeisb.)     Pompotowwut-Muhheakan- 
neau,  was  the  name  of  the  capital  town  of  the  Mahicans. 
'  So  recognized  in  the  treaty  of  Easton. 


114  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Jersey/  subordinatively  to  the  "Minsis,  Monseys  or  Minisinks," 
with  whom  the  treaty  was  made.  The  clan  was  then  living  at 
Otsiningfo  as  ward's  of  tlie  Senecas,  and  seems  to  have  been  com- 
posed of  representatives  of  several  historic  northern  New  Jersey 
families.  It  has  been  inferred  that  their  designation  as  "Wap- 
pings"  classed  them  as  immigrants  from  the  clans  on  the  east  side 
of  the  Hudson.  Obviously,  however,  the  term  described  them  as 
of  the  most  eastern  family  of  the  Minsis  or  Minisinks,  which  they 
were. 

Ramapo,  now  so  written  and  applied  to  a  village  and  a  town  in 
Rockland  Coun'ty,  and  also  to  a  valley,  a  stream  of  water  and  ad- 
jacent hills,  is  written  Ramepog  in  N.  Y.  Records,  1695 ;  Ramepogh, 
171 1,  and  Ramapog  in  1775.  In  New  Jersey  Records  the  orthog- 
raphies are  Ramopock,  Romopock  and  Remopuck,  and  on  Smith's 
map  Ramopough.  The  earliest  description  of  the  locative  of  the 
name  appears  in  N.  Y.  Records,  1695  •  "^  certain  tract  of  land  in 
Orange  Coimty  called  Ramepogh,  being  upon  Pompton  Creek,  about 
twenty  miles  above  ye  mouth  of  said  creek  where  it  falls  into  Pe- 
quanneck  River,  being  a  piece  of  low  land  lying  at  ye  forks  on  ye 
west  side  of  ye  creek,  and  going  down  the  said  creek  for  ye  space 
of  six  or  seven  miles  to  a  small  run  running  into  said  creek  out  of 
a  small  lake,  several  pieces  of  land  lying  on  both  sides  of  said  creek, 
^computed  in  all  about  ninety  or  one  hundred  acres,  with  upland  ad- 
joining thereto  to  ye  quantity  of  twelve  hundred  acres."  In  other 
words :  "A  piece  of  low  land  lying  at  the  forks  of  said  river,  about 
twenty  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  stream  where  it  falls  into  the 
Pequannock,  with  upland  adjoining."  The  Pompton,  so  called  then, 
is  now  the  Ramapo,  and  the  place  desciibed  in  the  deed  has  been 
known  as  Remapuck,  Romapuck,  Ramopuck,  Ramapock,  Pemer- 
puck,  and  Ramapo,  since  the  era  of  first  settlement.  The  somewhat 
poetic  interpretation  of  the  name,  "Many  ponds,"  is  without  war- 
rant, nor  does  the  name  belong  to  a  "Round  pond,"  or  to  the  stream, 
now  the  Ramapo  except  by  extension  to  it.     Apparently,  by  dia- 

^  The  territory  in  which  the  Pomptons  claimed  an  interest  included  north- 
ern New  Jersey  as  bounded  on  the  north  by  a  line  drawn  from  Cochecton, 
Sullivan  County,  to  the  mouth  of  Tappan  Creek  on  the  Hudson,  thence  south 
to  Sandy  Hook,  thence  west  to  the  Delaware,  and  thence  north  to  Cochecton, 
lat.  41  deg.  40  min.,  as  appears  by  treaty  deed  in  Smith's  hist,  of  New  Jersey. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  II5 

lectic  exchange  of  initials  L  and  R,  Rcine,  Rama,  or  Romo  becomes 
Lanu)  from  Laiiwivo  (Zeisb.),  "Downward,  slanting,  oblique,"  and 
-pogh,  -puck,  etc.,  is  a  compression  of  -apnghk  {-puchk,  German  no- 
tation), meaning-  "Rock."  Lamozv-d puchk,  by  contraction  and  pro- 
nunciation, Ramcipuck,  meaning  "Slanting  rock,"  an  equivalent  of 
Pimdpuchk,  met  in  the  district  in  Pemerpock,  in  1674,  denoting 
"Place  or  country  of  the  slanting  rock."  ^  Ramapo  River  is  sup- 
posed to  have  its  head  in  Round  Pond,  in  the  northwest  part  of  the 
town  of  Monroe,  Orange  County.  It  also  received  the  overflow 
of  eight  other  ponds.  Ramapo  Pass,  beginning  about  a  mile  below 
Pierson's,  is  fourteen  miles  long.      (See  Pompton.) 

Wynokie,  now  so  written  as  the  name  of  a  stream  flowing  to  the 
Pequannock  at  Pompton,  takes  that  name  from  a  beautiful  valley 
through  which  it  passes,  about  thirteen  miles  northwest  of  Pater- 
son.  The  stream  is  the  outlet  of  Greenwood  Lake  and  is  entered 
on  old  maps  as  the  Ringwood.  The  name  is  in  several  orthogra- 
phies— Wanaque,  Wynogkee,  Wynachkee,  etc.  It  is  from  the  root 
Win,  "Good,  fine,  pleasant,"  and  -aki,  land  or  place.  (See  Wynog- 
kee.) 

Pamerpock,  1674,  now  preserved  in  Pamrepo  as  the  name  of  a 
village  in  the  northwest  part  of  the  city  of  Bayonne,  N.  J.,  is  proba- 
bly another  form  of  Peme-apuchk,  "Slanting  rock."  ^     (See  Ram- 
apo.)    The  niame  seems  to  have  been  widely  distributed. 
The  name  seems  to  have  been  widely  distributed. 

Hohokus,  the  name  of  a  village  and  of  a  railroad  station,  is  prob- 
ably from  Mehbkhdkus  (Zeisb.),  "Red  cedar."  It  was,  presumably, 
primarily  at  least,  a  place  where  red  cedar  abounded.  The  Indian 
name  of  the  stream  here  is  written  Raighkazvack ,  an  orthography  of 

'  Dr.  John  C.  Smock,  late  State  Geologist  of  New  Jersey,  wrote  me  of  the 
location  of  the  name  at  Suffern :  "There  is  the  name  of  the  stream  and  the 
name  of  the  settlement  (in  Rockland  County,  near  the  New  Jersey  line), 
and  the  land  is  low-lying,  and  along  the  creek,  and  above  a  forks,  i.  e.  above 
the  forks  at  Suffern.  On  the  1774  map  in  my  possession,  Romapock  is 
certainly  the  present  Ramapo.  The  term  'Slanting  rock'  is  eminently  ap- 
plicable to  that  vicinity."  The  Ramapock  Patent  of  1704  covered  42,500 
acres,  and,  with  the  name,  followed  the  mountains  as  its  western  boundary. 

2  Feme  is  Pemi  in  the  Massachusetts  dialect.  "It  may  generally  be  trans- 
lated by  'sloping'  or  'aslant.'  In  Abnaki  Pemadene  (Pemi-adene)  denotes  a 
sloping  mountain  side,"  wrote  Dr.  Trumbull.  The  affix,  -dpuchk,  changes 
the  meaning  to  sloping  rock,  or  "slanting  rock,"  as  Zeisberger  wrote. 


n6  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES 

Leclniwwaak,  ""Fork"  (Zeisb.),  which,  by  the  way,  is  also  the  name 
of  a  place. 

Tuxedo,  now  a  familiar  name,  is  a  corruption  of  P'tuck-sepo, 
meaning,  "A  crooked  river  or  creek."  Its  equivalent  is  P'tuck- 
hannc  (Len.  Eng.  Die),  "A  bend  in  the  river" — "Winding  in  the 
creek  or  river" — "A  bend  in  a  river."  The  earliest  form  of  the 
original  appears  in  1754 — ^Tuxcito,  1768;  Tuxetough,  Tugseto, 
Duckcedar,  Ducksider,  etc.,  are  later.  Zeisberger  wrote  Pduk, 
from  which  probably  Duckcedar.  The  name  seems  to  have  been 
that  of  a  bend  in  the  river  at  some  point  in  the  vicinity  of  Tuxedo 
Pond  to  which  it  was  extended  from  a  certain  bend  or  bends  in  the 
stream.  A  modern  interpretation  from  F'.tuksit,  "Round  foot,"  is 
of  no  merit  except  in  its  first  word.  It  was  the  metaphorical  name, 
among  the  Delawares,  of  the  v/olf.  It  would  be  a  misnomer  ap- 
plied to  either  a  river  or  a  pond.  Scpo  is  generic  for  a  long  river. 
(See  Esopus.) 

Mombasha,  Mombashes,  etc.,  the  name  of  a  small  lake  in  South- 
field,  Orange  County,  is  presumed  to  be  a  corruption  of  M'biisses 
(Zeisb.),  "Small  lake  or  pond,"  "Small  water-place."  The  apos- 
trop'he  indicates  a  sound  produced  with  the  lips  closed,  readily  pro- 
nouncing o  (Mom).  Charles  Clinton,  in  his  survey  of  the  Cheesec- 
00k  Patent  in  1735,  wrote  Mount-Basha.  Mombasa  is  an  Arabic 
name  for  a  coral  island  on  the  east  coast  of  Africa.  It  may  have 
been  introduced  here  as  the  sound  of  the  Indian  name. 

Wesegrorap,  Wesegroraep,  Wassagroras,  given  as  the  name 
of  "A  barren  plain,"  in  the  Kakiate  Patent,  is  probably  from  Wis- 
achgan,  "Ijitter,"  sad,  distressing,  pitiable.  Ziesberger  WTote, 
"Wisachgak,  Black  oak,"  the  bark  of  which  is  bitter  and  astringent. 
A  black  oak  tree  on  "the  west-southwest  side"  of  the  plain  may  have 
given  name  to  the  plain. 

Narranshaw,  Nanaschunck,  etc.,  a  place  so  called  in  the  Kakiate 
Patent  boundary,  is  probably  a  corruption  of  Van  der  Donck's 
Narrntschocn,  "A  promontory"  or  high  point.  (See  Nyack-on-the- 
Hudson.) 

Kakiate,  the  name  of  patented  lands  in  Rockland  County,  is  from 
Dutch  Kijknit,  meaning  "Look  out,"  or  "Place  of  observation,  as  a 


HUDSON  S  RIVER  ON    THE   WEST.  Il7 

tower,  hill,"  etc.  The  highest  hill  in  Westchester  County  bears  the 
same  name  in  Kakcotit,  and  Kaykuit  is  the  name  of  a  hill  in  King- 
ston, Ulster  County.  The  tract  to  which  the  name  was  extended  in 
Rocklriud  County  is  described,  "Commonly  called  by  the  Indians 
Kackyachtezveke,  on  a  neck  of  land  which  runs  under  a  great  hill, 
bounded  on  the  north  by  a  creek  called  Sheamaweck  or  Peasqua." 
rlackyackawack  is  another  orthograj,  'v.  The  name  seems  to  be 
from  Schach-achgeu-ackey,  meaning  '  Jiraight  land,"  "Straight 
along,"  (Zeisb.)  ;  /.  c.  direct,  as  "A  neck  of  land" — "A  pass  between 
mountains,"  or,  as  the  description  reads,  "A  neck  of  land  which 
runs  under  a  great  hill."  Compare  Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  48, 
183,  etc. 

Torne,  the  name  of  a  high  hill  which  forms  a  conspicuous  ob- 
ject in  the  Ramapo  \'alley,  is  from  Dutch  Torenherg,  "A  tower  or 
turret,  a  high  pointed  hill,  a  pinnacle."  (Prov.  Eng.)  The  hill  is 
claimed  to  have  been  the  northwest  boundmark  of  the  Plaverstraw 
Patent.  In  recent  times  it  has  been  applied  to  two  elevations,  the 
Little  Torne,  west  of  the  Hudson,  and  the  Great  Torne,  near  the 
Hudson,  south  of  Haverstraw.     (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  46.) 

Cheesek=ook,  Cheesek=okes,  Cheesec=oks,  Cheesquaki,  are 
forms  of  the  name  given  as  that  of  a  tract  of  "Upland  and  meadow," 
so  described  in  Indian  deed,  1702,  and  included  in  the  Cheesek-ook 
Patent,  covering  parts  of  the  present  counties  of  Rockland  and 
Orange.  It  is  now  preserved  as  the  name  of  a  hill,  to  which  it 
was  assigned  at  an  early  date,  and  is  also  quoted  as  the  name  of  ad- 
jacent lands  in  New  Jersey.  The  suffix  -00k,  -okc,  -aki,  etc.,  shows 
that  it  was  the  name  of  land  or  place  ( N.  J.,  -alike;  Len.  -aki).  It 
is  probably  met  in  Chcshek-ohke,  Ct.,  translated  by  Dr.  Trumbull 
from  Kiissukoe,  Moh.,  "High,"  and  -ohke,  "Land  or  place" — literal- 
ly, high  land  or  upland.  The  final  ^  in  some  forms,  is  an  English 
plural :  it  does  not  belong  to  the  root.  (See  Coxackie.)  In  pro- 
nunciation the  accent  should  not  be  thrown  on  the  letter  k ;  that  let-. 
ter  belongs  to  the  first  word.     There  is  no  Kook  about  it. 

Tappans,  Carte  Figurative  of  date  (presumed)  1614-16,  is  en- 
tered thereon  as  the  name  of  an  Indian  village  in  Lat.  41°  15',  claim- 
ed, traditionally,  to  have  been  at  or  near  the  site  of  the  later  Dutch 


Il8  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

village  known  as  Tappan,  in  Rockland  County.  In  the  triangula- 
tion  of  the  locative  on  the  ancient  map  is  inscribed,  "En  effen  veldt" 
(a  fiat  field),  the  general  character  of  which  probably  gave  name 
to  the  Indian  village.  Primarily,  it  was  a  district  of  low,  soft  land, 
abounding  in  marshes  and  long  grasses,  with  little  variation  from 
l<;vel,  extending  along  the  Hudson  from  Tappan  to  Bergen  Point, 
a  distance  of  twenty-seven  miles.  Wassenaer  wrote,  in  1621-25, 
Tapanis ;  DeLaet  wrote,  in  1624,  Tappaans;  in  Breeden  Raedt,  Tap- 
panders;  Tappaen,  De  Vries,  1639;  Tappaen,  Van  der  Horst  deed, 
165 1  :  Tappaens,  ofiicial  Dutch;  ''Savages  of  Tappaen";  Tappa-ans, 
Van  der  Donck,  are  the  early  orthographies  of  the  name  and  es- 
tablish it  as  having  been  written  by  the  Dutch  with  the  long  sound 
of  a  in  the  last  word — paan  (-paen) — which  may  be  read  pan,  as 
a  pan  of  any  kind,  natural  or  artificial — a  stratum  of  earth  lying  be- 
low the  soil — the  pan  of  a  tap  into  which  water  flows — a  mortar  pit.^ 
The  compound  word  Tap-pan  is  not  found  in  modern  Dutch  dic- 
tionaries, but  it  evidently  existed  in  some  of  the  German  dialects,  as 
it  is  certainly  met  in  Tappan-ooli  (uli)  on  the  west  coast  of  Summa- 
tra,  in  application,  to  a  low  district  lying  between  the  mountains  and 
the  sea,  opposite  a  fine  bay,  in  Dutch  possession  as  early  as  16 18, 
and  also  in  Tappan-huacanga,  a  Dutch  possession  in  Brazil  of  con- 
temporary date.  It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  Tappan  was  trans- 
ferred to  those  distant  parts  from  an  Indian  name  on  Hudson's 
River ;  on  the  contrary  its  presence  in  those  parts  forces  the  con- 
clusion that  it  was  conferred  by  the  Dutch  from  their  own,  or  from 
some  dialect  with  which  they  were  familiar,  precisely  as  it  was  on 
Hudson's  River  and  was  descriptive  of  a  district  of  country  the 
features  of  which  supply  the  meaning.  DeLaet  wrote  in  his  "New 
World"  (Leyden  Edition,  1625-6)  of  the  general  locative  of  the 
name  on  the  Hudson:  "Within  the  first  reach,  on  the  west  side  of 
the  river,  where  the  land  is  low,  dwells  a  nation  of  savages  named 
Tappaans^"  presumably  so  named  by  the  Dutch  from  the  place  where 
they  had  jurisdiction,  i.  e.  the  low  lands.  Specifically,  De  \^ries 
wrote  in  1639,  Tappaen  as  the  name  of  a  place  where  he  found  and 
purchased,  "A  beautiful  valley  of  clay  land,  some  three  or  four  feet 

^  Paen,  old  French,  meaning  Pagan,  a  heathen  or  resident  of  a  heath,  from 
Pagus,  Latin,  a  heath,  a  district  of  waste  land. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE   WEST.  II9 

above  the  water,  lying  under  the  mountains,  along  the  river,"  pre- 
sumed to  have  been  in  the  meadows  south  of  Piermont,  into  which 
flows  from  the  mountains  Tappan  Creek,  now  called  Spar  Kill/  as 
well  as  the  overflow  of  Tappan  Zee,  of  which  he  wrote  without 
other  name  than  "bay" :  "There  flows  here  a  strong  flood  and  ebb, 
but  the  ebb  is  not  more  than  four  feet  on  account  of  the  great  quan- 
tity of  water  that  flows  from  above,  overflowing  the  low  lands  in 
the  spring,"  converting  them  into  veritable  soft  lands.  Gamocna- 
paen,  now  a  district  in  Jersey  City,  was  interpreted  by  the  late  Judge 
Benson,  "Tillable  land  and  marsh."  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote :  "Petuck- 
quapangh,  Dumpling  Pond  (round  pond)  gave  name  to  part  of  the 
'township  of  Greenwich,  Ct.  The  Dutch  called  this  tract  Petuck- 
qiiapaen."  The  tract  is  now  known  as  Strickland  Plain,^  and  is  de- 
scribed as  "Plain  and  water-land" — "A  valley  but  little  above  tide- 
water ;  on  the  southwest  an  extended  marsh  now  reclaimed  in  part." 
Tbe  same  general  features  were  met  in  Pctuckquapaen,  now  Grecn- 
ba^h,  opposite  Albany,  N.  Y.  Dr.  Trumbull  also  wrote,  "The  Dutch 
met  on  Long  Island  the  word  Seaunip  as  the  name  of  coin  boiled 
to  a  pap.  The  root  is  Saupde  (Eliot),  'soft,'  i.  e.  'made  soft  by 
water,'  as  Saupde  manoosh,  'mortar,'  literally  'softened  clay.'  Hence 
the  Dutch  word  Sappaen — adopted  by  Webster  Se-pawn."  Other 
examples  could  be  quoted  but  are  not  necessary  to  establish  the 
meaning  of  Dutch  Tappaan,  or  Tappaen.  An  interpretation  by  Rev. 
Heckewelder,  quoted  by  Yates  &  Moulton,  and  adopted  by  Brod- 
head  presumably  without  examination:  "From  Thuhanne  (Del.), 
cold  stream,"  is  worthless.     No  Delaware  Indian  would  have  given 

*  Tappan  Creek  is  now  known  as  the  Spar  Kill,  and  ancient  Tappan  Land- 
ing as  Tappan  Slote.  Slote  is  from  Dutch  Shot.  "Dutch,  trench,  moat." 
"Sloops  could  enter  the  mouth  of  the  creek,  if  lightly  laden,  at  high  tide, 
through  what,  from  its  resemblance  to  a  ditch,  was  called  the  Slote."  (Hist. 
Rockl.  Co.)  The  man  or  men  who  changed  the  name  of  the  creek  to  Spar 
Kill  cannot  be  credited  with  a  very  large  volume  of  appreciation  for  the  his- 
toric. The  cove  and  mouth  of  the  creek  was  no  doubt  the  landing-place  from 
which  the  Indian  village  was  approached,  and  the  latter  was  accepted  for 
many  years  as  the  boundmark  on  the  Hudson  of  the  jurisdiction  of  New 
Jersey. 

'  Strickland  Plain  was  the  site  of  the  terrible  massacre  of  Indians  by  Eng- 
lish and  Dutch  troops  under  Capt.  Underbill,  in  March,  1645.  (Broadhead, 
Hist.  N.  Y.,  i,  390.)  About  eight  hundred  Indians  were  killed  by  fire  and 
sword,  and  a  considerable  number  of  prisoners  taken  and  sold  into  slavery. 
The  Indian  fort  here  was  in  a  retreat  of  difficult  access. 


I20  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

it  as  the  name  of  Tappan  Creek,  and  no  Hollander  would  have  con- 
verted it  into  Tappaan  or  Tappaen. 

The  Palisade  Range,  which  enters  the  State  from  New  Jersey, 
and  borders  the  Hudson  on  the  west,  terminates  abruptly  at  Pier- 
mont.  Classed  by  geologists  as  Trap  Rock,  or  rock  of  volcanic 
origin,  a<lds  interest  to  th?ir  general  appearance  as  calumnar  masses. 
The  aboriginal  owners  were  not  versed  in  geologic  terms.  To  them 
the  Palisades  were  simply  -ompsk,  "Standing  or  upright  rock." 

Mattasink,  Mattaconga  and  Mattaconck,  forms  of  names  given 
to  certain  boundmarks  "of  the  land  or  island  called  JMattasink,  or 
Welch's  Is'land,"  Rockland  County,  describe  two  different  features. 
Mattaconck  was  "a  swampy  or  hassocky  meadow,"  lying  on  the  west 
side  of  Ouaspeck  Pond,  from  whence  the  line  ran  north,  72°  east, 
"to  the  south  side  of  the  rock  on  the  top  of  the  hill,"  called  Mat- 
tasinck.  In  the  surveyor's  notes  the  rock  is  described  as  "a  certain 
rock  in  the  form  of  a  sugar  loaf."  The  name  is  probably  an  equiv- 
alent of  Mat-assin-ink,  "At  (or  to)  a  bad  rock,"  or  a  rock  of  un- 
usual form.  Mattac-onck  seems  to  be  an  orthography  of  Maskek- 
OHck,  "At  a  swamp  or  hassocky  meadow."  Surd  mutes  and  lin- 
guals  are  so  frequently  exchanged  in  this  district  that  locatives 
must  be  relied  upon  to  identify  names.  Matfac  has  no  meaning 
in  itself.     The  sound  is  that  of  Maskek. 

Nyack,  Rockland  County,  does  not  take  that  name  from  Kestaub- 
niiik,  a  place-name  on  the  east  side  of  the  Hudson,  as  stated  by 
Schoolcraft,  nor  was  the  name  imported  from  Long  Island,  as  stated 
by  a  local  historian ;  on  the  contrary,  it  is  a  generic  Algonquian 
term  applicable  to  any  point.  It  was  met  in  place  here  at  the  earli- 
est period  of  settlement  in  application  to  the  south  end  of  Verdrietig 
Hoek  Mountain,  as  noted  in  "The  Cove  or  Nyack  Patent,"  near  or 
on  which  the  present  village  of  Nyack  has  its  habitations.  It  means 
"Land  or  place  at  the  angle,  point  or  corner,"  from  Nciak  (Del.), 
"Where  there  is  a  point."  (See  Nyack,  L.  I.)  The  root  appears 
in  many  forms  in  record  orthographies,  due  largely  to  the  efforts 
of  European  scribes  to  express  the  sound  in  either  the  German  or 
the  English  alphabet.  Adriaen  Block  wrote,  in  1614-16,  Ahihicaiis 
as  the  name  of  the  people  on  Montauk  Point ;  Eliot  wrote  Naiyag 
{-ag  formative)  ;  Roger  Williams  wrote  Nanhigan  and  Narragan; 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  121 

Van  der  Donck  wrote  Narratschoan  on  the  Verdrietig  Hoek  Moun- 
tain on  the  Hudson ;  Narmticon  appears  on  the  lower  Delaware, 
and  Narraoch  and  Njack  (Nyack)  are  met  on  Long  Island.  The 
root  is  the  same  in  all  cases,  Van  der  Donck's  Narratschoan  on  the 
Hudson,  and  Narraticoii  on  the  Delaware,  meaning  "The  point  of 
a  mountain  which  has  the  character  of  a  promontory,"  kindred  to 
Neivas  (Del.),  "A  promontory,"  or  a  high  point.^  The  Indian 
name  of  Verdrietig  Hoek,  or  Tedious  Point,  is  of  record  Nezvas-ink 
in  the  DeHart  Patent,  and  in  several  other  forms  of  record — ^Navish, 
Navoash-ink,  Naurasonk,  Navisonk,  Newasons,  etc.,  and  Neiak 
takes  the  forms  of  Narratsch,  Narrich,  Narrock,  Nyack,  etc.  Ver- 
drietig Hoek,  the  northeastern  promontory  of  Hook  Mountain,  is 
a  rocky  precipitous  bluff  forming  the  angle  of  the  range.  It  rises 
six  hundred  and  sixty-eight  feet  above  the  level  of  the  Hudson 
into  which  it  projects  like  a  buttress.  Its  Dutch-Englisb  name 
"Tedious  Point,"  has  been  spoken  of  in  connection  with  Pocantico, 
which  see. 

Essawatene — "North  by  the  top  of  a  certain  hill  called  Essa- 
watene,"  so  described  in  deed  to  Hermanns  Dow,  in  1677 — means 
"A  hill  beyond,"  or  on  the  other  side  of  the  speaker.  It  is  from 
Azvnssi  (Len.),  "Beyond,"  and  -achteniie,  "Hill,"  or  mountain. 
Oosadcnighe  (Abn.),  "Above,  beyond,  the  mountain,"  or  "Over 
the  mountain."  We  have  the  same  derivative  in  Hoiisaten-uk,  now 
Housatonic. 

Quaspeck,  Quaspeek,  Quaspeach,  "Quaspeach  or  Pond  Pa- 
tent"—  "A  tract  of  land  called  in  the  Indian  language  Quaspeach, 
being  bounded  by  the  brook  Kill-the-Beast,  running  out  of  a  great 
pond."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  53,  56.  70,  82.)  The  land  in- 
cluded in  the  patent  was  described  as  "A.  hassocky  meadow  on  the 
west  side  of  the   lake."     (See  Mattasink.)     The   full   meaning  of 

^  Dr.  Trumbull  wrote:  ''Nai,  'Having  corners';  Naiyan,  'A  corner  or 
angle';  'Naig-an-eag,  'The  people  about  the  point.'"  William  R.  Gerard 
wrote:  "The  Algonquian  root  Ne  (written  bj'  the  English  Nm)  means  'To 
come  to  a  point,'  or  'To  form  a  point.'  From  this  came  Ojibwe  N aid' ski, 
'Point  of  land  in  a  body  of  water.'  The  Lenape  Neivds,  with  the  locative 
affix,  makes  Newds-ing,  'At  the  promontory.'  The  Lenape  had  another  word 
for  'Point  of  land.'  This  was  Neiak  (corrupted  to  Nyack).  Tt  is  the  par- 
ticipial form  of  Nc'ian,  'It  is  a  point.'  The  participle  means,  'Where  there  is 
a  point,'  or  literally,  'There  being  a  point.' " 


122  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

the  name  is  uncertain.  The  substantival  -peek,  or  -peach,  means 
"Lake,  pond  or  body  of  still  water."  ^  As  the  word  stands  its  ad- 
jectival does  not  mean  anything.  The  local  interpretation  "Black,"" 
is  entirely  without  merit.  The  pond  is  now  known  as  Rockland 
Lake.  It  lies  west  of  the  \^erdrietig  Hoek  range,  which  inter\'enes 
between  it  and  the  Hudson.  It  is  sheltered  on  its  northeast  shore 
by  the  range.  The  ridge  intervening  between  it  and  the  Hudson 
rises  640  feet.  It  is  a  beautiful  lake  of  clear  water  reposing  on  a 
sandy  bottom,  160  feet  above  the  level  of  the  Hudson. 

Menisak=cungue,  so  written  in  Indian  deed  to  De  Hart  in  1666, 
and  also  in  deed  from  De  Hart  to  Johannes  Minnie  in  1695,  is  writ- 
ten Amisconge  on  Pownal's  map,  as  the  name  of  a  stream  in  the 
town  of  Haverstraw.  As  De  Hart  was  the  first  purchaser  of  lands  at 
Haverstraw,  the  name  could  not  have  been  from  that  of  a  later  own- 
er, as  locally  supposed.  Pownal's  orthography  suggests  that  the 
original  was  Ommissak-kontu,  Mass.,  "Where  Alewives  or  small 
fishes  are  abundant."  The  locative  was  at  the  mouth  of  the  stream 
at  Grassy  Point.-  Minnie's  Falls,  a  creek  so  known,  no  doubt,  took 
that  name  from  Johannes  IVIinnie.  On  some  maps  it  is  called  Florus'' 
Falls,  from  Florus  Crom,  an  early  settler.  An  unlocated  place  on 
the  stream  was  called  "  The  Devil's  Horse  Race." 

Mahequa  and  Mawewier  are  forms  of  the  name  of  a  small 
stream  which  constitutes  one  of  the  boundaries  of  what  is  known  as 
Welch's  Island.  They  are  from  the  root  Mawe,  "Meeting,"  Mawewi, 
"Assembly"  (Zeisb.),  i.  e.  "Brought  together,"  as  "Where  paths  or 
streams  or  boundaries  come  together."  The  reference  may  have 
been  to  the  place  where  the  stream  unites  with  Demarest's  Kill,  as 
shown  on  a  map  of  survey  in  "History  of  Rockland  County."' 
Welch's  Island  was  so  called  from  its  enclosure  by  streams  and  a 
marsh.     (See  Mattaconga  and  Mahway.) 

*  The  equivalent  Mass.  word  is  paug,  "Where  water  is,"  or  ''Place  of 
water."  (Trumbull.)  Quassa-paug  or  Quas-paug,  is  the  largest  lake  in 
Woodbury,  Ct.  Dr.  Trumbull  failed  to  detect  the  derivative  of  Quas.  but 
suggested.  Kiche,  "Great."  Probably  a  satisfactory  interpretation  will  be 
found  in  Kussiik,  "High."     (See  Quassaick.) 

^  Kontii,  an  abundance  verb,  is  sometimes  written  contce,  easily  corrupted 
to  cungue.  Dutch  Conge  means  "Discharge,"  the  tail-race  of  a  mill,  or  a 
strong,  swift  current.  Minnie's  Conge,  the  tail-race  of  Minnie's  mill. 


HUDSON  S   RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  123 

Skoonnenoghky  is  written  as  the  name  of  a  hill  which  formed 
the  southwest  boundmark  of  a  district  of  country  purchased  from 
the  Indians  by  Governor  Dongan  in  1685,  and  patented  to  Capt. 
John  Evans  by  him  in  1694,  described  in  the  Indian  deed  as  begin- 
ning on  the  Hudson,  "At  about  the  place  called  the  Dancing  Cham- 
ber, thence  south  to  the  north  side  of  the  land  called  Haverstraw, 
thence  northwest  along  the  hill  called  Skoonnenoghky"  to  the  bound 
of  a  previous  purchase  made  by  Dongan  "Called  Meretange  pond." 
(See  Pitkiskaker.)  The  hill  was  specifically  located  in  a  survey  of 
part  of  the  line  of  the  Evans  Patent,  by  Cadwallader  Colden,  in 
1722,  noted  as  "Beginning  at  Stony  Point  and  running  over  a  high 
hill,  part  of  which  makes  the  Stony  Point,  and  is  called  Kunnoghky 
or  Kunnoghkin."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  162.)  The  south  side 
of  Stony  Point  was  then  accepted  as  the  "North  side  of  the  land 
called  Haverstraw."  The  hills  in  immediate  proximity,  at  varying 
points  of  compass,  are  the  Bochberg  (Dutch,  Bochelberg,  "Hump- 
back hill"),  and  the  Donderberg,  neither  of  which,  however,  have 
connection  with  Stony  Point,  leaving  the  conclusion  certain  that 
from  the  fact  that  the  line  had  its  beginning  at  the  extreme  south- 
eastern limit  of  the  Point  on  the  Hudson,  the  hill  referred  to  in  the 
survey  must  have  been  that  on  which  the  Stony  Point  fort  of  the 
Revolution  was  erected,  "Part  of  which  hill"  certainly  "makes  the 
Stony  Point."  Colden's  form  of  the  name,  "Kunnoghky  or  Kun- 
noghkin," is  obviously  an  equivalent  of  Dongan's  Schoonnenoghky. 
Both  forms  are  from  the  generic  root  Gim,  Lenape  (Qiin,  Mass.), 
meaning  "Long" — Giinaquot,  Lenape,  "Long,  tall,  high,  extending 
upwards";  Qunnuhqid  (Mass.),  "Tall,  high,  extending  upwards"; 
Qunnuhqiii-ohke  or  Kunn'oghky,  "Land  extending  upwards,"  high 
land,  gradual  ascent.  The  name  being  generic  was  easily  shifted 
about  and  so  it  was  that  in  adjusting  the  northwest  line  of  the  Evans 
Patent  it  came  to  have  permanent  abode  as  that  of  the  hill  now 
known  as  Schunnemunk  in  the  town  of  Cornwall,  Orange  County, 
to  the  advantage  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Minisink  Patent.^  Refer- 
ence to  the  old  patent  line  will  be  met  in  other  connections. 

'The  patent  to  Capt.  John  Evans  was  granted  by  Gov.  Dongan  in  1694, 
and  vacated  by  act  of  the  Colonial  Assembly  in  1798,  approved  by  the  Queen 
in  1708.  It  included  Gov.  Dongan's  two  purchases  of  1784-85.  It  was  not 
surveyed;  its  southeast,  or  properly  its  northwest  line  was  never  satisfactorily 


124  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Reckgawank,  of  record  in  1645  as  the  name  of  Haverstraw,  ap- 
pears in  several  later  forms.  Dr.  O'Callaghan  (Hist.  New  Neth.) 
noted:  "Sessegehout,  chief  of  Rewechnong  of  Haverstraw."  In 
Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  "Keseshout/  chief  of  Rewechnough,  or  Haver- 
straw," "Curruppin,  brother,  and  representative  of  the  chief  of 
Rumachnanck,  alias  Haverstraw."  In  the  treaty  of  1645  •  "Sese- 
kemick  and  Willem,  chiefs  of  Tappans  and  Reckgawank,"  which 
Brodhead  found  converted  to  "Kumachenack,  or  Haverstraw."^ 
The  original  is  no  doubt  from  Rckau,  "Sand,  gravel,"  with  verb 
substantive  zvi,  and  locative  -ng,  or  -ink ;  written  by  Zeisberger, 
Lckauzvi.  The  same  word  appears  in  Rechqua-akie,  now  Rockaway, 
L.  I.  The  general  meaning,  with  the  locative  -nk  or  -ink,  is  "At  the 
sandy  place,"  and  the  reference  to  the  sandy  flats,  at  Haverstraw, 
where  Sesegehout  presumably  resided.  There  is  no  reason  for 
placing  this  clan  on  Long  Island. 

Nawasink,  Yan  Dakah,  Caquaney  and  Aquamack,  are  entered 
in  the  Indian  deed  to  DeHart  as  names  for  lands  purchased  by  him 
at  Haverstraw  in  1666.  The  deed  reads :  "A  piece  of  land  and 
meadow  lying  upon  Hudson's  River  in  several  parcels,  called  by  the 

Indians   Nawasink,  Yan  Dakah,  Caquaney,  and  AquamaCk,  within 

determined,  bnt  was  supposed  to  run  from  Stony  Point  to  a  certain  pond 
called  Maretanze  in  the  present  town  of  Greenville,  Orange  County.  Follow- 
ing the  vacation  of  the  patent  in  1708.  several  small  patents  were  granted 
which  were  described  in  general  terms  as  a  part  of  the  lands  which  it  covered. 
In  order  to  locate  them  the  Surveyor-General  of  the  Province  in  1722,  pro- 
pounded an  inquiry  as  to  the  bounds  of  the  original  grant;  hence  the  survey 
by  Cadwallader  Golden.  The  line  then  established  was  called  "The  New 
Northwest  Line.''  It  was  substantially  the  old  line  from  Stony  Point  to 
Maretanze  Pond  (now  Binnen water),  in  Greenville,  and  cut  ofif  a  portion 
of  the  territory  which  was  supposed  to  have  been  included  in  the  Wawayanda 
Patent.  Another  line  was  projected  in  1765-6,  by  the  proprietors  of  the  Mini- 
sink  Patent,  running  further  northeast  and  the  boundmark  shifted  to  a  pond 
north  of  Sam's  Point,  the  name  going  with  it.  The  transaction  formed  the 
well-known  Minisink  Angle,  and  netted  the  Minisink  proprietors  56,000  acres 
of  unoccupied  lands.  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iii,  986.)  Compare  Cal.  N.  Y.  Land 
Papers,  164,  168,  171,  172,  and  Map  of  Patents  in  liist.  Orange  Co.,  quarto 
edition. 

^  Scsehoiit  seems  to  have  been  written  to  convey  an  idea  of  the  rank  of 
the  sachem  from  the  Dutch  word  Sellout.  "Sheriff."  K'schi-sakima,  "Chief, 
principal,"  or  "greatest  sachem."  In  Duchess  County  the  latter  is  written 
t'scc-saghamaugh. 

^  Haverstraw  is  from  Dutch  Havcrsiroo.  "  Oat  straw,"  presumably  so  nam- 
ed from  the  wild  oats  which  grew  abundantly  on  the  flats. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE   WEST.  1 25 

the  limits  of  Averstraw,  bounded  on  the  east  and  north  by  Hudson's 
River,  on  the  west  by  a  creek  called  Menisakcungue,  and  on  the 
south  by  the  mountain."  The  mountain  on  the  south  could  have 
been  no  other  than  Verdrietig  Hoek,  and  the  limit  on  the  north  the 
mouth  of  the  creek  in  the  cove  formed  by  Grassy  Point,  which  was 
long  known  as  "The  further  neck."  Further  than  is  revealed  by 
the  names  the  places  cannot  be  certainly  identified.  Taken  in  the 
order  in  the  deed,  A'ai(.'asink  located  a  place  that  was  "At  (or  on)  a 
point  or  promontory."  It  is  a  pure  Lenape  name.  Yan  Dakah  is 
probably  from  Yu  Undach,  "On  this  side,"  i.  e.  on  the  side  towards 
the  speaker.  Caquancy  is  so  badly  corrupted  that  its  derivative  is 
not  recognizable.  Aquamack  seems  to  be  the  same  word  that  we 
have  in  Accomack,  Va.,  meaning,  "On  the  Other  side,"  or  "Other 
side  lands."  In  deed  to  Florus  Crom  is  mentioned  "Another  parcel 
of  upland  and  meadow  known  by  the  name  of  Ahequerenoy,  lying 
north  of  the  brook  called  Florus  Falls  and  extending  to  Stony 
Point,"  the  south  line  of  which  was  the  north  line  of  the  Haver- 
straw  lands  as  later  understood.  The  tract  was  known  for  years  as 
"The  end  place." 

Sankapogh,  Indian  deed  to  Van  Cortlandt,  1683 — Sinkapogh, 
Songepogh,  Tongapogh — is  given  as  the  name  of  a  small  stream 
flowing  to  the  Hudson  south  of  the  stream  called  Assinapink,  local- 
ly now  known  as  Swamp  Kill  and  Snake-hole  Creek.  The  stream 
is  the  outlet  of  a  pool  or  spring  which  forms  a  marsh  at  or  near 
the  foot  of  precipitous  rocks.  Probably  an  equivalent  of  Natick 
Sonkippog,  "Cool  water." 

Poplopen's  Creek,  now  so  written,  the  name  of  the  stream 
flowing  to  the  Hudson  between  the  sites  of  the  Revolutionary  forts 
Clinton  and  Montgomery,  south  of  West  Point,  and  also  the  name 
of  one  of  the  ponds  of  which  the  stream  is  the  outlet,  seems  to  be 
from  English  Pop-looping  (Dutch  Loopen),  and  to  describe  the 
stream  as  flowing  out  quickly — Pop,  "To  issue  forth  with  a  quick, 
sudden  movement" ;  Looping,  "To  run,"  to  flow,  to  stream.  The 
flow  of  the  stream  was  controlled  by  the  rise  and  fall  of  the  waters 
in  the  ponds  on  the  hills,  seven  in  number.  The  outlet  of  Poplopen 
Pond  is  now  dammed  back  to  retain  a  head  of  water  for  milling 


126  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

purposes.     It  is  a  curious  name.     The  possessive  s  does  not  belong 
to  the  original — Pop-looping  Creek. 

Assinapink,  the  name  of  a  small  stream  of  water  flowing  to  the 
Hudson  from  a  lake  bearing  the  same  name — colloquially  Sinsapink 
— known  in  Revolutionary  history  as  Bloody  Pond — is  of  record, 
"A  small  rivulet  of  water  called  Assin-napa-ink"  (Cal.  N,  Y.  Land 
Papers,  99),  from  Assin,  "stone";  Napa,  "lake,  pond,"  or  place  of 
water,  and  -ink,  locative,  literally,  "Place  of  water  at  or  on  the 
stone."  The  current  interpretation,  "Water  from  the  solid  rock," 
is  not  specially  inappropriate,  as  the  lake  is  at  the  foot  of  the  rocks 
of  Bare  Mountain.  At  a  certain  place  in  the  course  of  the  stream 
a  legal  description  reads:  "A  whitewood  tree  standing  near  the 
southerly  side  of  a  ridge  of  rocks,  lying  on  the  south  side  of  a  brook 
there  called  by  the  Indians  Sickbosten  Kill,  and  by  the  Christians 
Stony  Brook."  ^  The  Indians  never  called  the  stream  Sickbosten, 
unless  they  learned  that  word  from  the  Dutch,  for  corrupted  Dutch 
it  is.  The  derivative  is  Boos,  "Wicked,  evil,  angry";  Zich  Boos 
Maken,  "To  grow  angry,"  referring  particularly  to  the  character  of 
the  stream  in  freshets. 

Prince's  Falls,  so  called  in  description  of  survey  of  patent  to 
Samuel  Staats,  1712:  "Beginning  at  ye  mouth  of  a  small  rivulet 
called  by  the  Indians  Assin-napa-ink,  then  up  the  river  (Hudson) 
as  it  runs,  two  hundred  chains,  which  is  about  four  chains  north  of 
Prince's  Falls,  including  a  small  rocky  isle  and  a  small  piece  of 
boggy  meadow  called  John  Cantton  Huck ;  also  a  small  slip  of  land 
on  each  side  of  a  fall  of  water  just  below  ye  meadow  at  ye  said  John 
Oantonhuck."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  99.)  Long  known  as 
Buttermilk  Falls  and  more  recently  as  Highland  Falls.  In  early 
days  the  falls  were  one  of  the  most  noted  features  on  the  lower 
Hudson.  They  were  formed  by  the  discharge  over  a  precipice  of 
the  outlet  waters  of  Bog-meadow  Brook.  They  were  called  Prince's 
Falls  in  honor  of  Prince  Maurice  of  Holland.  The  name  was  ex- 
tended to  the  creek  in  the  Staats  surs'ey — Prince's  Kill. 

Manahawaghin  is  of  record  as  the  name  of  what  is  now  known 
as  lona  Island,  in  connection  with  "A  certain  tract  of  land  on  the 

'Adv.  in  Newburgh  Mirror,  June  18,  T798. 


HUDSON'S  RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  12 J 

west  side  of  Hudson's  River,  beginning  on  the  south  side  of  a  creek 
called  Assinapink,  together  with  a  certain  island  and  parcel  of  mea- 
dow called  ^Nlanahawaghin,  and  by  the  Christians  Salisbury  Island." 
The  island  lies  about  one  mile  south  of  directly  opposite  Anthony's 
Xose.  and  is  divided  from  the  main  land  by  a  narrow  channel  or 
marshy  water-course.  The  tract  of  land  lies  immediately  north  of 
the  Donderberg ;  it  was  the  site  of  the  settlement  known  as  Doodle- 
town  in  Revolutionary  history.  The  name  is  probably  from  Manna- 
hatin,  the  indefinite  or  diminutive  form  of  Mannahata,  "The  Island'* 
— ^literally.  "Small  island."'  The  last  word  of  the  record  form  is 
"badly  mangled.     (See  jManhattan.) 

Manahan,  meaning  "Island" — indefinite  -an — is  a  record  name  of 
what  is  now  known  as  Constitution  Island,  the  latter  title  from  Fort 
Constitution  which  was  erected  thereon  during  the  war  of  the  Revo- 
lution. The  early  Dutch  navigators  called  it  Martelaer's  Rack 
Eiland,  from  Martelaer,  "'Martyr,"  and  Rack,  a  reach  or  sailing 
course — "the  Martyr's  Reach" — from  the  baffling  winds  and  cur- 
rents encountered  in  passing  West  Point.  The  effort  of  Judge 
Benson  to  convert  "Martelaer's"  to  "Murderer's."  and  "'Rack''  to 
^'Rock" — "the  Murderer's  Rock" — was  unfortunate. 

Pollepel  Eiland,  a  small  rocky  island  in  the  Hudson  at  the 
northern  entrance  to  the  Highlands,  was  given  that  name  by  an 
early  Dutch  navigator.  It  means,  literally,  "Pot-ladle  Island,"  so 
called,  presumably,  from  its  fancied  resemblance  to  a  Dutch  pot- 
ladle.  Jasper  Dankers  and  Peter  Sluyter  wrote  the  name  in  their 
Journal  in  1679-80,  indicating  that  the  island  was  then  well  known 
by  that  title.  On  \'an  der  Donck's  map  of  1656  the  island  is  named 
Kaes  Eiland.  Dutch  Kaas  (cheese)  Eiland.  Dankers  and  Sluyter 
also  wrote,  "'Boter-berg  (Butter-hill),  because  it  is  like  the  rolls  of 
butter  which  the  farmers  of  Holland  take  to  market."  Read  in  con- 
nection the  names  are  Butter  Hill  and  Cheese  Island.  The  same 
writers  wrote,  "Hays-berg  (Hay-hill),  because  it  is  like  a  hay-stack 
in  Holland,"  and  "Dondcr-berg  (Thunder-hill),  so  called  from  the 
echoes  of  thunder  peals  which  culminated  there."  The  latter  re- 
tains its  ancient  Dutch  title.  It  is  eminently  the  Echo  Hill  of  the 
Highlands.  The  oldest  record  name  of  any  of  the  hills  is  Klinker- 
bcrg,  which  is  written  on  the  Carte  Figurative  of  1614-16  directly 


128  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

opposite  a  small  island  and  apparently  referred  to  Butter  Hill.  It 
means  literally,  "Stone  Mountain."  The  passage  between  Butter 
Hill  and  Break  Neck,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  was  called  "Wey- 
gat,  or  Wind-gate,  because  the  wind  often  blowed  through  it  with 
great  force,"  wrote  Dr.  Dwight.  The  surviving  name,  however, 
is  IVarragat,  from  Dutch  Warrelgat,  "Wind-gate."  It  was  at  the 
northern  entrance  to  this  troublesome  passage  that  Hudson  anchored 
the  Half-Moon,  September  29th,  1609.  Brodhead  suggested  (Note 
K,  Vol.  i)  that  Pollepel  Island  was  that  known  in  early  Dutch 
history  as  Prince's  Island,  or  Murderer's  Creek  Island,  and  that 
thereon  was  erected  Fort  Wilhelmus,  referred  to  by  Wassenaer  in 
1626.  (Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iii,  35.)  The  evidence  is  quite  clear, 
however,  that  the  island  to  which  Wassenaer  referred  was  in  the 
vicinity  of  Schodac,  where  there  was  also  a  Murderer's  Creek. 

Hudson,  on  his  exploration  of  the  river  which  now  bears  his 
name,  sailed  into  the  bay  immediately  north  of  Butter  Hill,  now 
known  as  Newburgh  Bay,  on  the  morning  of  the  15th  of  Septem- 
ber, 1709.  After  spending  several  days  in  the  northern  part  of  the 
river,  he  reached  Newburgh  Bay  on  his  return  voyage  in  the  after- 
noon of  September  29th,  and  cast  anchor,  or  as  stated  in  Juet's 
Journal,  "Turned  down  to  the  edge  of  the  mountains,  or  the  north- 
ernmost of  the  mountains,  and  anchored,  because  the  high  lands 
hath  many  points,  and  a  narrow  channel,  and  hath  many  eddie  winds. 
So  we  rode  quietly  all  night."  The  hill  or  mountain  long  known 
as  Breakneck,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  may  be  claimed  as  the 
northernmost,  which  would  place  his  anchorage  about  midway  be- 
tween Newburgh  and  Pollepel  Island. 

Quassaick,  now  so  written,  is  of  record,  Qtiasck,  1709 ;  "Near 
to  a  place  called  Qnasaik,"  1709-10;  Qviasseck,  1713;  "Quassaick 
Creek  upon  Hudson's  River,"  1714.  It  was  employed  to  locate  the 
place  of  settlement  of  the  Palatine  immigrants  in  1709 — "The  Parish 
of  Quassaick,"  later,  "The  Parish  of  Newburgh."  It  is  now  pre- 
served as  the  name  of  the  creek  which  bounds  (in  part)  the  city  of 
Newburgh  on  the  south.  "Near  to  a  place  called  Quasek,"  indi- 
cates that  the  place  of  settlement  was  located  by  the  name  of  some 
other  place  whioh  was  near  to  it  and  generally  known  by  the  name. 
The  late  Dr.  E.  B.  O'Callaghan  read  it,  in  1856:  "From  Qussuk, 
'Stone,'  and  -ick,  'Place  where,'  literally,  'A  place  of  stone,'  "  the 


Hudson's  river  on  the  west.  129 

presumed  reference  being  to  the  district  throug-h  which  the  stream 
flows,  which  is  remarkabk  for  its  deposit  of  glacial  bowlders.  The 
correctness  of  this  interpretation  has  been  questioned  on  very  tenable 
girounds.  Qiisiik  is  not  in  t'he  plural  number  and  -iik  does  not 
stand  for  -ick.  Eliot  wrote:  "Qiissiik,  a  rock,"  and  " Qtissiikquan- 
ash,  rocks."  Qnssiik,  as  a  substantive  simply,  would  be  accepted 
as  the  name  of  a  place  called  "A  rock,"  by  metonymie,  "A  s'tone." 
N'o  other  meaning  can  be  drawn  from  it.  It  does  not  belong  to  the 
dialect  of  the  district,  the  local  terms  being  -dpuch,  "Rock,"  and 
-assin,  or  -achsihi,  "Stone."  Dr.  O'Callaghan's  interpretation  may 
safely  be  rejected.  William  R.  Gerard  writes :  "The  worst  cor- 
rupted name  that  I  know  of  is  IVequaskeg  or  Wequaskeek,  meaning, 
*At  the  end  of  the  marsh.'  It  appears  in  innumerable  forms — 
IVeaxashiik,  Wickerschriek,  Weaqtiassic,  etc.  I  think  that  Quas- 
saick,  changed  from  Ouasek  (1709),  is  one  of  these  corruptions. 
The  original  word  probably  referred  to  some  place  at  the  end  of  a 
swamp.  The  word  would  easily  become  Quasekek,  Quasek,  and 
Quassaick.  The  formative  -ek,  in  words  meaning  swamp,  marsh, 
etc.,  was  often  dropped  by  both  Dutch  and  English  scribes."  This 
conjecture  would  seem  to  locate  the  name  as  that  of  the  end  of  Big 
Swamp,  nearly  five  miles  distant  from  the  place  of  settlement.  My 
conjecture  is  that  the  name  is  from  Mob.  Ktissuhkoe,  meaning 
"High ;"  with  substantive  Kussuhkohke,  "High  lands,"  the  place  of 
settlement  being  described  as  "Near  the  Highlands,"  which  became 
the  official  designation  of  "The  Precinct  of  the  Highlands."  Kus- 
suhk  is  pretty  certainly  met  in  Cheesek-ook,  the  name  of  patented 
lands  in  the  Highlands,  described  as  "Uplands  and  meadows ;"  also 
in  Qttasigh-ook,  Columbia  County,  which  is  described  as  "A  high 
place  on  a  high  hill."  The  Palatine  settlers  at  Quasek,  wrote,  in 
1714,  that  their  place  was  "all  uplands,"  a  description  which  will 
not  be  disputed  at  the  present  day.  (See  Cheesekook,  Quissichkook, 
etc.) 

Much=Hattoos,  a  hill  so  called  in  petition  of  William  Qiambers 
and  William  Sutherland,  in  1709,  for  a  tract  of  land  in  what  is  now 
the  town  of  New  Windsor,  and  in  patent  to  them  in  1712,  a  bound- 
mark  described  as  "West  by  the  hill  called  Much-Hattoes,"  is  ap- 
parently from  Match,  "Evil,  bad ;"  -adchu,  "Hill"  or  mountain,  and 
-es,   "Small"— "A  small  hill  bad,"  or  a  small  hill  that  for  som«; 


13°  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

reason  was  not  regarded  with  favor.^  The  eastern  face  of  the  hilt 
is  a  rugged  wall  of  gneiss ;  the  western  face  slopes  gradually  to  a 
swamp  not  far  from  its  base  and  to  a  small  lake,  the  latter  now 
utilized  for  supplying  the  city  of  Newburgh  with  water,  with  a 
primary  outlet  through  a  passage  -under  a  spur  of  the  hill,  which 
the  Indians  may  have  regarded  as  a  mysterious  or  bad  place.  In 
local  nomenclature  the  hill  has  long  been  known  as  Snake  Hill, 
from  the  traditionary  abundance  of  rattle-snakes  on  it,  though  few 
have  been  seen  there  in  later  years. 

Cronomer's  Hill  and  Cronomer's  Valley,  about  three  miles  west 
of  the  city  of  Newburg-h,  take  their  names  from  a  traditionary  In- 
dian called  Cronomer,  the  location  of  whose  wigwam  is  said  to  be 
still  known  as  "The  hut  lot."  The  name  is  probably  a  corruption 
of  the  original,  which  may  have  been  Dutch  Jeronimo. 

Murderer's  Creek,  so  called  in  English  records  for  many  years, 
and  by  the  Dutch  "den  Moordenaars'  Kil,"  is  entered  on  map  of 
1666,  "R.  Tans  Kamer,"  or  River  of  the  Dance  Chamber,  and  the 
point  immediately  south  of  its  mouth,  "de  Bedrieghlyke  Hoek" 
(Dutch,  Bedrieglijk),  meaning  "a  deceitful,  fraudulent  hook,"  or 
corner,  cape,  or  angle.  Presumably  the  Dutch  navigator  was  de- 
ceived by  the  pleasant  appearance  of  the  bay,  sailed  into  it  and 
found  his  vessel  in  the  mouth  of  the  Warrelgat.  Tradition  affirms 
in  explanation  of  the  Dutch  Moordenaars  that  an  early  company 
of  traders  entered  their  vessel  in  the  mouth  of  the  stream ;  that 
they  were  enticed  on  shore  at  Sloop  Hill  and  there  murdered. 
Paulding,  in  his  beautiful  story,  "Naoman,"  related  the  massacre 
of  a  pioneer  family  at  the  same  place.  The  event,  however,  which 
probably  gave  the  name  to  the  stream  occurred  in  August,  1643, 
when  boats  passing  down  the  river  from  Fort  Orange,  laden  with 

^  I  think  your  reading  of  Muchattoos  as  an  orthography  of  original  Mat- 
chatchu's,  is  very  plausible.  I  think  Massachusetts  is  the  same  word,  plus  a 
locative  suffix  and  English  sign  of  the  plural.  It  was  formerly  spelled  in 
many  ways :  Mattachusetts.  Aiassutchet,  Matetusses,  etc.  Dr.  Trumbull  read 
it  as  standing  for  Mass-adchu-sct,  "At  the  big  hills" ;  but  I  learn  from  history 
that  Massachusetts  was  originally  the  name  of  a  hillock  situated  in  the  midst 
of  a  salt  marsh.  It  was  a  locality  selected  by  the  sachem  of  his  tribe  as  one 
of  his  places  of  residence.  He  stood  in  fear  of  his  enemies,  the  Penobscotts, 
and  this  hillock,  from  its  situation  was  a  'bad,'  or  difficult  place  to  reach.  So 
Massachsat  for  Matsadchuset  or  Mat-adchu-sct  plainly  means.  'On  the  bad 
hillock.'"     (Wm.  R.  Gerard.) 


HUDSON  S   RIVER    OX    THE    WEST.  13I 

furs,  were  attacked  by  the  Imlians  "above  the  Highlands"  and 
"nine  Christians,  including  two  women  were  murdered,  and  one 
woman  and  two  children  carried  away  prisoners,"  (Doc.  Hist.  N. 
Y.,  iv,  12),  the  narrative  locating  the  occurence  by  the  name  "den 
Moordenaars'  Kil,"  i.  c.  the  kill  from  which  the  attacking  party  is- 
sued forth  or  on  which  the  murderers  resided.  The  first  appear- 
ance of  the  name  in  English  records  is  in  a  deed  to  Governor  Don- 
gan,  in  1685,  in  which  the  lands  purchased  by  him  included  "the 
lands  of  the  Murderers'  Creek  Indians,"  the  stream  being  then  well 
known  by  the  namic.  The  present  name,  Moodna,  was  converted  to 
that  form,  by  N.  P.  Willis  from  the  Dutch  "Moordenaar,"  by 
dropping  letters,  an  inexcusable  emasculation  from  a  historic  stand- 
point, but  made  poetical  by  his  interpretation,  "Meeting  of  the 
waters." 

Schunnemunk,  now  so  written,  the  name  of  a  detached  hill  in 
the  town  of  Cornwall,  Orange  County,  appears  of  record  in  that 
connection,  first,  in  the  Wilson  and  Aske  Patent  of  1709,  in  which 
the  tract  granted  is  described  as  lying  "Between  the  hills  at  Scoo- 
nemoke."  Skoonnemoghky,  Skonanaky,  Schunnemock,  Schonmack 
Clove,  Schunnemock  Hill,  are  other  forms.  In  1750  Schunnamunk 
appears,  and  in  1774,  on  Sauthier's  map  (1776)  Schunnamank  is 
applied  to  the  range  of  hills  which  have  been  described  as  "The 
High  Hills  to  the  west  of  the  Highlands."  'In  a  legal  brief  in  the 
controversy  to  determine  finally  the  northwest  line  of  the  Evans 
Patent,  the  name  is  written  Skonanake,  and  the  claim  made  that  it 
was  the  hill  named  Skoonnemoghky  in  the  deed  from  the  Indians 
to  Governor  Dongan,  in  1685,  and  therein  given  as  the  southeast 
txjundmark  of  the  lands  of  "The  Murderer's  Creek  Indians,"  and, 
later,  the  hill  along  which  the  northwest  line  of  the  Evans  Patent 
ran,  which  it  certainly  was  not,  although  the  name  is  probably  from 
the  same  generic.  (See  Schoonnenoghky.)  The  hill  forms  the 
west  shoulder  of  Woodbury  Valley.  It  is  a  somewhat  remarkable 
elevation  in  geological  formation  and  bears  on  its  summit  many 
glacial  scratches.  On  its  north  spur  stood  the  castle  of  Maringo- 
man,  one  of  the  grantors  of  the  deed  to  Governor  Dongan,  and 
\Vho  later  removed  to  the  north  side  of  the  Otter  Kill  w^here  his 


132  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES, 

wigwam  became  a  boundmark  in  two  patents.^  The  traditionary 
word  "castle,"  in  early  days  of  Indian  history,  was  employed  as  the 
equivalent  of  town,  whether  palisaded  or  not.  In  this  case  we  may 
read  the  name,  "Alaringoman's  Town,"  which  may  or  may  not  have 
been  palisaded.  It  seems  to  have  been  the  seat  of  the  "Murderer's 
Creek  Indians."  The  burial  ground  of  the  clan  is  marked  on  a  map 
of  the  Wilson  and  Aske  Patent,  and  has  been  located  by  Surveyor 
Fred  J.  McKnight  (1898)  on  the  north  side  of  the  Cornwall  and 
Monroe  line  and  very  near  the  present  road  past  the  Houghton 
farm,  near  which  the  castle  stood.  The  later  "cabin"  of  the  early 
sachem  is  plainly  located. 

Winegtekonck,  1709 — Wenighkonck,  1726;  JVienackonck,  1739 
— is  quoted  as  the  name  of  what  is  now  known  as  Woodcock  Moun- 
tain, in  the  town  of  Blooming-Grove,  It  is  not  so  connected,  how- 
ever, in  the  record  of  1709,  which  reads:  "A  certain  tract  of  land 
by  the  Indians  called  Wineghtek-onck  and  parts  adjacent,  lying  on 
both  sides  of  Murderers'  Kill"  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  91),  in 
which  connection  it  seems  to  be  another  form  of  Mahican  Wanun- 
ketukok,  "At  the  winding  of  the  river" — "A  bend-of-the-river- 
place."  Presumably  the  reference  is  to  a  place  where  the  stream 
bends  in  the  vicinity  of  the  hill.  The  name  appears  in  an  abstract 
of  an  Indian  deed  to  Sir  Henry  Ashurst,  in  1709,  for  a  tract  of  land 
of  about  sixteen  square  miles.  The  purchase  was  not  patented,  the 
place  being  included  in  the  Governor  Dongan  purchase  of  1685, 
and  in  the  Evans  Patent, 

Sugar  Loaf,  the  name  of  a  conical  hill  in  the  town  of  Chester, 

^  Van  Dam  Patent  (1709)  and  Mompesson  Patent  (1709-12).  The  late 
Hon.  George  W.  Tuthill  wrote  me  in  1858 :  "On  the  northwestern  bank  of 
Murderers'  Creek,  about  half  a  mile  below  Washingtonville,  stands  the  dwell- 
ing-house of  Henry  Page  (a  colored  man),  said  to  be  the  site  of  Maringo- 
man's  wigman,  referred  to  in  the  Van  Dam  Patent  of  1709.  The  southwest- 
erly corner  of  that  patent  is  in  a  southwesterly  direction  from  said  Page's 
house." 

In  the  controversy  in  regard  to  the  northwest  line  of  the  Evans  Patent, 
one  of  the  counsel  said:  "It  is  also  remarkable  that  the  Murderers'  Creek 
extends  to  the  hill  Skonanaky,  and  that  the  Indian,  Maringoman,  who  sold 
the  lands,  did  live  on  the  south  side  of  Murderers'  Creek,  opposite  the  house 
where  John  McLean  now  (1756)  dwells,  near  the  said  hill,  and  also  lived  on 
the  north  bank  of  Murderers'  Creek,  where  Colonel  Mathews  lives.  The  first 
station  of  his  boundaries  is  a  stone  set  in  the  ground  at  Maringoman's  cas- 
tle." 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE   WEST.  I33 

Orange  County,  is  not  an  Indian  name  of  course,  but  it  enters  into 
an  enumeration  of  Indian  places,  as  in  its  vicinity  were  found  by 
Charles  Clinton,  in  his  survey  of  the  Cheesec-ock  Patent  in  1738, 
the  unmistakable  evidences  of  the  site  of  an  Indian  village,  then 
probably  not  long  abandoned,  and  Mr.  Eager  (Hist.  Orange  Co.) 
quoted  evidences  showing  that  on  a  farm  then  (1846)  owned  by 
Jonathan  Archer,  was  an  Indian  burying  ground,  the  marks  of 
which  were  still  distinct  prior  to  the  Revolution. 

Runbolt's  Run,  a  spring  and  creek  in  the  town  of  Goshen,  are 
said  to  have  taken  that  name  from  Rombout,  one  of  the  Indian 
grantors  of  the  Wawayanda  tract.  It  is  probable,  h(.)wever,  that 
the  name  is  a  corruption  of  Dutch  Rondbocht,  meaning,  "A  tortuous 
pool,  puddle,  marsh,"  at  or  near  which  the  chief  may  have  resided. 
Rombout  (Dutch)  means  "Bull-fly."  It  could  hardly  have  been  the 
name  of  a  run  of  water. 

Mistucky,  the  name  of  a  small  stream  in  the  town  of  Warwick, 
has  lost  some  of  its  letters.  Mishqudwtucke  (Nar.),  would  read, 
"Place  of  red  cedars." 

Pochuck,  given  as  the  name  of  "A  wild,  rugged  and  romantic 
region"  in  Sussex  County,  N.  J,,  to  a  creek  near  Goshen,  and,  mod- 
ernly,  to  a  place  in  Newburgh  lying  under  the  shadow  of  Muoh- 
hattoes  Hill,  is  no  doubt  from  Piitscheck  (Len.),  "A  corner  or  re- 
press," a  retired  or  "out-of-the-way  place."  Eliot  wrote  Poochag, 
in  the  Natick  dialect,  and  Zeisberger,  in  the  Minsi-Lenape,  Puts- 
cheek,  which  is  certainly  heard  in  Pochuck. 

Chouckhass,  one  of  the  Indian  grantors  of  the  Wawayanda 
tract,  left  his  name  to  what  is  now  called  Chouck's  Hill,  in  the  town 
of  Warwick.  The  land  on  which  he  lived  and  in  which  he  was 
buried  came  into  possession  of  Daniel  Burt,  an  early  settler,  who 
gave  decent  sepulture  to  the  bones  of  the  chief.^ 


^  The  traditional  places  of  residence  of  several  of  the  sachems  who  signed 
the  Wawayanda  deed  is  stated  by  a  writer  in  "Magazine  of  American  His- 
tory," and  may  be  repeated  on  that  authority,  viz:  "Oshaquememus,  chief 
of  a  village,  near  the  point  where  the  Beaver-dam  Brook  empties  into  Mur- 
derers' Creek  near  Campbell  Hall;  Moshopuck,  on  the  flats  now  known  as 
Haverstraw;  Ariwimack,  chief,  on  the  Wallkill,  extending  from  Goshen  to 
Shawongunk;  Guliapaw,  chief  of  a  clan  residing  near  Long  Pond  (Green- 
wood Lake),  within  fifty  rods  of  the  north  end  of  the  pond;  Rapingonick 


1 34  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Jogee  Hill,  in  the  town  of  Minisink,  takes  its  name  from  and 
preserves  the  place  of  residence  of  Keghekapowell,  alias  Jokhem 
(Dutch  Jockem  for  Joachim),  one  of  the  grantors  of  lands  to  Gov- 
ernor Dongan  in  1684.  The  first  word  of  his  Indian  name,  Kes^he, 
stands  for  Kcchc,  "Chief,  principal,  greatest,"  and  defined  his  rank 
as  principal  sachem.  The  canton  which  he  ruled  was  of  consider- 
able number.  He  remained  in  occupation  of  the  hill  long  after 
his  associates  had  departed. 

Wawayanda,  1702 — Wazvayanda  or  Wocraxdn,  1702;  Waivay- 
unda,  1722-23;  IVnvanda,  Wowando,  Index  Col.  Hist.  N.  Y. — the 
first  form,  one  of  the  most  familiar  names  in  Orange  County,  is  pre- 
served as  that  of  a  town,  a  stream  of  water,  and  of  a  large  district 
of  country  known  as  the  Wawayanda  Patent,  in  which  latter  con- 
nection it  appears  of  record,  first,,  in  1702,  in  a  petition  of  Dr. 
Samuel  Staats,  of  Albany,  and  others,  for  license  to  purchase  "A 
tract  of  land  called  Wawayanda,  in  the  county  of  Ulster,  containing 
by  estimation  about  five  thousand  acres,  more  or  less,  lying  about 
thirty  miles  backward  in  the  woods  from  Hudson's  River."  (Land 
Papers,  56.)  In  February  of  the  same  year  the  parties  filed  a  sec- 
ond petition  for  license  to  "purchase  five  thousand  acres  adjoining 
thereto,  as  the  petitioners  had  learned  that  their  first  purchase, 
'called  Wawayanda'  was  'altogether  a  swamp  and  not  worth  any- 
thing.' "  In  November  of  the  same  year,  having  made  the  addi- 
tional purchase,  the  parties  asked  for  a  patent  for  ten  thousand 
acres  "Lying  at  Wawayanda  or  Woerawin."  Meanwhile  Dr.  John 
Bridges  and  Company,  of  New  York,  purchased  under  license  and 
later  received  patent  for  "certain  tracts  and  parcels  of  vacant  lands 
in  the  county  of  Orange,  called  Wawayanda,  and  some  other  small 
tracts  and  parcels  of  lands,"  and  succeeded  in  including  in  their 
patent  the  lands  which  had  previously  been  purchased  by  Dr.  Staats. 
Specifically  the  tract  called  Wawayanda  or  Woerawin  was  never 
located,  nor  were  the  several  "certain  tracts  of  land  called  Waway- 
anda" purchased  by  Dr.  Bridges.     The  former  learned  in  a  short 


died  about  1730  at  the  Delaware  Water-Gap.''  The  names  given  by  the  writer 
do  not  inchide  all  the  signers  of  the  deed.  One  of  the  unnamed  grantors  was 
Clans,  so  called  from  Klaas  (Dutch),  "A  tall  ninny";  an  impertinent,  silly 
fellow ;  a  ninny-jack.  The  name  may  have  accurately  described  the  person- 
ality of  the  Indian. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE   WEST.  135 

time,  however,  that  his  purchase  was  not  "altogether  a  swamp,"  al- 
though it  may  have  included  or  adjoined  one,  and  the  latter  found 
that  his  purchase  included  a  number  of  pieces  of  very  fine  lands  and 
a  number  of  swamps,  and  especially  the  district  known  as  the 
Drowned  Lands,  covering  some  50,000  acres,  in  which  were  several 
elevations  called  islands,  now  mainly  obliterated  by  drainage  and 
traversed  by  turnpikes  and  railroads.  Several  water-courses  were 
there  also,  notably  the  stream  now  known  as  the  Wallkill,  and  that 
known  as  the  Wawayanda  or  Warwick  Creek,  a  stream  remarkable 
for  its  tortuous  course. 

What  and  where  was  Wawayanda?  The  early  settlers  on  the 
patent  seem  to  have  been  able  to  answer.  Mr.  Samuel  Vantz,  who 
then  had  been  on  the  patent  for  fifty-five  years,  gave  testimony  in 
1785,  that  Wawayanda  was  "Within  a  musket-shot  of  where  DeKay 
lived."  The  reference  v\^as  to  the  homestead  house  of  Col.  Thomas 
DeKay,  who  was  then  dead  since  1758.  The  foundation  of  the 
house  remains  and  its  site  is  well  known.  In  adjusting  the  boun- 
dary line  between  New  York  and  New  Jersey  it  was  cut  oflf  from 
Orange  County  and  is  now  in  Vernon.  New  Jersey,  where  it  is  stilt 
known  as  the  "Wawayanda  Homestead."  Within  a  musket-shot 
of  the  site  of  the  ancient  dwelling  flows  Wawayanda  Creek,  and 
with  the  exception  of  the  meadows  through  which  it  flows  in  a 
remarkably  sinuous  course,  is  the  only  object  in  proximity  to  the 
])lace  where  DeKay  lived,  except  the  m.eadow  and  the  valley  in 
which  it  flows.  The  locative  of  the  name  at  that  point  seems  to 
be  established  with  reasonable  certainty  as  well  as  the  object  to 
which  it  w^as  applied — the  creek. 

The  meaning  of  the  name  remains  to  be  considered.  Its  first  two 
syllables  are  surely  from  the  root  PVai  or  PVae ;  iterative  and  fre- 
quentive  Wawai,  or  Waway,  meaning  "Winding  around  many 
times."  It  is  a  generic  combination  met  in  several  forms — IVazvau, 
Lenape;  Wohzvaycu,  Moh.^ ;  Wazvai,  Shawano;  Wawy,  Wazvi, 
Wazvei,  etc.,  on  the  North-central-Hudson,  as  in  JVazveiante-pek- 
00k.  Greene  County,  and  W azvayachtcn-ock ,  Dutchess  County.  Dr. 
Albert  S.  Gatschet,  of  the  Bureau  of  Ethnology,  wrote  me :  "Wa- 

^"Wohivayeu  (Moh.),  where  the  brook  'winds  about,'  turning  to  the  west 
and  then  to  the  east."  (Trumbull.)  Wowcaushin,  "It  winds  about."  (Eliot.) 
lVowee\'onchuan.  "'It  flows  circuitouslv,  winds  about.''     (lb.) 


136  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

wayaiuhi,  as  a  name  formed  by  syllabic  reduplication,  presupposes 
a  simple  form,  Wayanda,  'Winding  around.'  The  reduplication  is 
Wawai,  or  Waway-anda,  'many'  or  'several'  windings,  as  a  complex 
of  river  bends."  As  the  name  stands  it  is  a  participial  or  verbal 
noun.  Waivay,  "Winding  around  many  times";  -anda,  "action, 
motion"  (radical  -an,  "to  move,  to  go"),  and,  inferentially,  the  place 
where  the  action  of  the  verb  is  performed,  as  in  Guttanda,  "Taste 
it,"  the  action  of  the  throat  in  tasting  being  referred  to,  and  in 
Popachdndamen,  "To  beat;  to  strike."  As  the  verb  termination  of 
Waivay,  "Round  about  many  times,"  it  is  entirely  proper.  The  uni- 
formity of  the  orthography  leaves  little  room  for  presuming  that 
any  other  word  was  used  by  the  grantors,  or  that  any  letters  were 
lost  or  dropped  by  the  scribe  in  recording.  It  stands  simply  as  the 
name  of  an  object  without  telling  what  that  object  was,  but  what 
was  it  that  could  have  had  action,  motion — ^that  had  many  windings 
— except  Wawayanda  Creek? 

Mr.  Ralph  Wisner,  of  Florida,  Orange  County,  recently  repro- 
duced in  the  Warwick  Advertiser,  an  affidavit  made  by  Adam  Wis- 
ner, May  19th,  1785,  at  a  hearing  in  Chester,  in  the  contention  to 
determine  the  boundary  line  of  the  Cheesec-ock  Patent,  in  which  he 
stated  that  he  was  86  years  old  on  the  15th  of  April  past;  that  he 
had  lived  on  the  Wawayanda  Patent  since  1715;  that  he  "learned 
the  Indian  language"  when  he  was  a  young  man ;  that  the  Indians 
"had  told  him  that  Wawayanda  signified  'the  egg-shape,'  or  shape 
of  an  egg."  Adam  Wisner  was  an  interpreter  of  the  local  Indian 
dialect;  he  is  met  as  such  in  records.  His  interpretations,  as  were 
those  of  other  interpreters,  were  mainly  based  on  signs,  motions, 
objects.  V/away,  "Winding  about  many  times,"  would  describe 
the  lines  of  an  egg,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  the  suffix,  -anda,  had  the 
meaning  of  "shape." 

The  familiar  reading  of  Wawayanda,  "Away-over-yonder,"  is 
a  word-play,  like  Irving's  "Manhattan,  IMan-with-a-hat-on."  Dr. 
Schoolcraft's  interpretation,  "Our  homes  or  places  of  dwelling," 
quoted  in  "History  of  Orange  County,"  is  pronounced  by  competent 
authority  to  be  "Dialectically  and  grammatically  untenable."  It 
has  poetic  merit,  but  nothing  more.  Schoolcraft  borrowed  it  from 
Gallatin. 


I 


I 


Hudson's  river  on  the  west.  137 

Woerawin,  given  by  Dr.  Staats  as  the  name  of  his  second  pur- 
chase, is  also  a  verbal  noun.  By  dialectic  exchange  of  /  for  r  and 
giving  to  the  Dutch  oe  its  English  equivalent  ii  as  in  bull,  it  is  proba- 
bly from  the  root  Wul,  "Good,  fine,  handsome,"  etc.,  with  the  verbal 
termination  -wi  (Chippeway  -zvin),  indicating  "objective  existence," 
hence  "place,"  a  most  appropriate  description  for  many  places  in 
the  Wawayanda  or  Warwick  Valley. 

Monhagen,  the  name  of  a  stream  in  the  town  of  Wallkill,  is,  if 
Indian  as  claimed,  an  equivalent  of  Monheagan,  from  Maingan,  "A 
wolf,"  the  totem  of  the  Mohegans  of  Connecticut.  The  name,  how- 
ever, has  the  sound  of  Monagan — correctly,  Monaghan,  the  name  of 
a  county  in  Ireland,  and  quite  an  extensive  family  name  in  Orange 
County. 

Long=house,  Wav/ayanda,  and  Pochuck  are  local  names  for 
what  may  be  regarded  as  one  and  the  same  stream.  It  rises  in  the 
Drowned  Lands,  in  New  Jersey,  where  it  is  known  as  Long-house 
Creek ;  flows  north  until  it  receives  the  outlet  of  Wickham's  Pond, 
in  Warwick,  Orange  County,  and  from  thence  the  united  streams 
form  the  Wawayanda  or  Warwick  Creek,  which  flows  southwest- 
erly for  some  miles  into  New  Jersey  and  falls  into  Pochuck  Creek, 
which  approaches  from  the  northwest,  and  from  thence  the  flow 
is  northwest  into  Orange  Coimty  again  to  a  junction  with  the  Wall- 
kill,  which,  rising  in  Pine  Swamp,  Sparta,  N.  J.,  flows  north  and 
forms  the  main  drainage  channel  of  the  Drowned  Lands.  In  ad- 
dition to  its  general  course  Wawayanda  Creek  is  especially  sinuous 
in  the  New  Milford  and  Sandfordville  districts  of  Warwick,  the 
bends  multiplying  at  short  distances,  and  also  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
DeKay  homestead  in  Vernon.  In  Warwick  the  stream  has  been 
known  as  "Wandering  River"  for  many  years.  The  patented  lands 
are  on  this  stream.  Its  name.  Long-house  Creek,  was,  no  doubt, 
from  one  of  the  peculiar  dwellings  constructed  by  the  Indians  known 
as  a  Long  House,^  which  probably  stood  on  or  near  the  stream,  and 

^The  Indian  Long  House  was  from  fifty  to  six  hundred  and  fiftj^  feet  in 
length  by  twenty  feet  in  width,  the  length  depending  upon  the  number  of 
persons  or  families  to  be  accommodated,  each  family  having  its  own  fire. 
They  were  formed  by  saplings  set  in  the  ground,  the  tops  bent  together  and 
the  whole  covered  with  bark.  The  Five  Nations  compared  their  confeder- 
acy to  a  long  house  reaching,  figuratively,  from  Hudson's  River  to  Lake  Erie. 


^3^  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

was  occupied  by  the  clan  Who  sold  the  lands.  Pochuck  is  from  a 
generic  meaning  "A  recess  or  corner."  It  is  met  in  several  places. 
(See  Wawayanda  and  Pochuck.) 

Gentge=kamike,  "A  field  appropriated  for  holding  dances,"  may 
reasonably  have  been  the  Indian  name  of  the  plateau  adjoining 
the  rocky  point,  at  the  head  of  Newburgh  Bay,  whicli,  from  very 
early  times,  has  been  known  as  The  Dans  Kamer  (Dance  Qiam- 
ber),  a  designation  which  appears  of  record  first  in  a  Journal  by 
David  Pietersen  de  Vries  of  a  trip  made  by  him  in  his  sloop  from 
Fort  Amsterdam  to  Fort  Orange,  in  1639,  who  wrote,  under  date 
of  April  15:  "At  nig'ht  came  by  the  Dans  Kamer,  where  there  was 
a  party  of  Indians,  who  were  very  riotous,  seeking  only  mischief ; 
so  we  were  on  our  guard."  Obviously  the  place  was  then  as  well 
known  as  a  landmark  as  was  Esopus  (Kingston),  and  may  safely 
be  claimed  as  having  received  its  Dutch  name  from  the  earliest 
Dutch  navigators,  from  whom  it  has  been  handed  down  not  only 
as  "The  Dans  Kamer,"  but  as  "f  Duivel's  Dans  Kamer,"  the  latter 
presumably  designative  of  the  fearful  orgies  which  were  held  there 
familiarly  known  as  "Devil  worship."  During  the  Esopus  War 
of  1663,  Lieut.  Couwenhoven,  who  was  lying  with  his  sloop  oppo- 
site the  Dans  Kamer,  wrote,  under  date  of  August  14th,  that  "the 
Indians  thereabout  on  the  river  side"  made  "a  great  uproar  every 
night,  firing  guns  and  Kintecaying,  so  that  the  woods  rang  again." 
There  can  be  no  doubt  from  the  records  that  the  plateau  was  an 
established  place  for  holding  the  many  dances  of  the  Indians.  The 
word  Kinte  is  a  form  of  Gentge  (Zeisb.),  meaning  "dance."  Its 
root  is  Kanti,  a  verbal,  meaning  "To  sing."  Gentgeen,  "To  dance" 
(Zeisb.),  Gcnf  Keh'n  (Heck.),  comes  down  in  the  local  Dutch  rec- 
ords Kinticka,  Kinte-Kaye,  Kintecaiv,  Kintekaying  (dancing),  and 
has  found  a  resting  place  in  the  English  word  Canticoy,  "A  social 
dance."  Dancing  was  eminently  a  feature  among  the  Indians. 
They  had  their  war  dances,  their  festival  dances,  their  social  dances, 
etc.  As  a  rule,  their  social  dances  were  pleasant  affairs.  Rev. 
Heckewelder  wrote  that  he  would  prefer  being  present  at  a  social 
Kintecoy  for  a  full  hour,  than  a  few  minutes  only  at  sudh  dances 
as  he  had  witnessed  in  country  taverns  among  white  people.  "Feast 
days,"  wrote  Van  der  Donck  in  1656,  "are  concluded  by  old  and 
middle  aged  men  with  smoking;  by  the  young  with  a  Kintecaw, 


HUDSON  S  RIVER  OX    THE   WEST.  1 39 

singing  and  dancing."  Every  Indian  captive  doomed  to  death, 
Asked  and  was  granted  the  privilege  of  singing  and  dancing  his 
Kinteka}c,  or  death  song.  War  dances  were  riotous ;  the  scenes 
of  actual  battle  were  enacted.  The  religious  dances  and  rites  were 
so  wonderful  that  even  the  missionaries  shrank  from  them,  and  the 
English  government  forbade  their  being  held  within  one  hundred 
miles  of  European  settlements.  The  holding  of  a  war  dance  was 
equivalent  to  opening  a  recruiting  station,  men  only  attending  and 
if  participating  in  the  dance  expressed  thereby  their  readiness  to 
€nter  upon  the  war.  It  was  probably  one  of  these  Kantecoys  that 
Couwenhoven  witnessed  in  1663. 

There  were  two  dancing  fields  here — so  specified  in  deed — 'the 
■"Large  Dans  Kamer"  and  the  "Little  Dans  Kamer,"  the  latter  a 
limited  plateau  on  the  point  and  the  former  the  large  plateau  now 
occupied  in  part  by  the  site  of  the  x^rmstrong  House.  The  Little 
Dans  Kamer  is  now  practically  destroyed  by  the  cut  on  the  West- 
shore  Railroad.  'Sufficient  of  the  Large  Dans  Kamer  remains  to 
evidence  its  natural  adaptation  for  the  purposes  to  which  the  In- 
dians assigned  it.  Paths  lead  to  the  place  from  all  directions. 
Negotiations  for  the  exchange  of  prisoners  held  by  the  Esopus  In- 
dians were  conducted  there,  and  there  the  Esopus  Indians  had 
direct  connection  with  the  castle  of  the  Wappingers  on  the  east 
side  of  the  Hudson.  There  are  few  places  on  the  Hudson  more 
directly  associated  with  Indian  customs  and  history  than  the  Dans 
Kamer. 

Arackook,  Kachawaweek,  and  Oghgotacton  are  record  but 
unlocated  names  of  places  on  the  east  side  of  the  Wallkill,  by  some 
presumed  to  have  been  in  the  vicinity  of  Walden,  Orange  County, 
from  the  description :  "Beginning  at  a  fall  called  Arackook  and 
running  thence  northwesterly  on  the  east  side  of  Paltz  Creek  until 
it  comes  to  Kachawaweek."  The  petitioner  for  the  tract  was  Robert 
Sanders,  a  noted  interpreter,  who  renewed  his  peitition  in  1702, 
calling  the  tract  Oghgotacton,  and  presented  a  claim  to  title  from 
a  chief  called  Corporwin,  as  the  representative  of  his  brother  Pung- 
iianis,  "Who  had  been  ten  years  gone  to  the  Ottowawas."  He 
again  gave  the  description,  "Beginning  at  the  fall  called  Arackook," 
but  there  is  no  trace  of  the  location  of  the  patent  in  the  vicinity  of 
Walden. 


I40  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Hashdisch  was  quoted  by  the  late  John  W.  Hasbrouck,  of 
Kingston,  as  the  name  of  what  has  long  been  known  as  "The  High 
Falls  of  the  Wallkill"  at  Wakien.  Authority  not  stated,  but  pre- 
sumably met  by  Mr.  Hasbrouck  in  local  records.  It  may  be  from 
Asbp.  Hesp,  etc.,  "High,"  and  -ish,  derogative.  The  falls  descend 
in  cascades  and  rapids  about  eighty  feet  at  an  angle  of  forty-five 
degrees.  Though  their  primary  appearance  has  been  marred  by 
dams  and  mills,  they' are  still  impressive  in  freshet  seasons. 

Twischsawkin  is  quoted  as  the  name  of  the  Wallkill  at  some 
place  in  New  Jerse3^  On  Sauthier's  miap  it  stands  wihere  two 
small  ponds  are  represented  and  seems  to  have  reference  to  the 
outlet.  Twisch  may  be  an  equivalent  of  TiscJi,  "Strong,"  and 
Sawkin  may  be  an  equivalent  of  Heckewelder's  Sancon,  "Outle't,"  or 
mouth  of  a  river,  pond,  etc.  Wallkill,  the  name  of  the  stream  as 
now  written,  is  an  anglicism  of  Dutch  Waal,  "Haven,  gulf,  depth,"' 
etc.,  and  Kil,  "Ohannel"  or  water-course.  It  is  the  name  of  an 
arm  of  the  Rhine  in  the  Netherlands,  and  was  transferred  here  by 
the  Huguenots  who  located  in  New  Paltz.     (See  Wawayanda.) 

Shawangunk,  the  name  of  a  town,  a  stream  of  water,  and  a 
range  of  hills  in  Ulster  County,  was  that  of  a  specific  place  from 
which  it  was  extended.  It  is  of  record  in  many  orthographies,, 
the  first  in  1684,  of  a  place  called  Chauwanghungh;^  in  deed  from 
the  Indians  to  Governor  Dongan,  in  the  same  year,  Chawangon,^ 
and  Chauzvangung  in  1686,^  later  forms  running  to  variants  of 
Shawangnnk.  The  locative  is  made  specific  in  a  grant  to  Thomas 
Lloyd  in  1687;*  in  a  grant  to  Severeign  Tenhout  in  1702,^  and  iiij 

^  "Land  lying  about  six  or  seven  miles  beyond  ye  Town  where  ye  Wall- 
oons dwell,  upon  ye  same  creek;  ye  name  of  ye  place  is  Chauwanghungh  and'^ 
Nescotack,  two  small  parcels  of  land  lying  together."     (N.  Y.  Land  Papers, 
29,  30.) 

'  "Comprehending  all  those  lands,  meadows  and  woods  called  Nescotack, 
Chawangon,  Memorasink,  Kakogh,  Getawanuck  and  Ghittatawah."  (Deed' 
to  Gov.  Dongan.) 

'"Beginning  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  (now  Wallkill),  and  at  the  south 
end  of  a  small  island  in  the  river,  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Chauwangung,. 
in  the  County  of  Ulster,  laid  out  for  James  Graham  and  John  Delaval."  (N. 
Y.  Land  Papers,  38.) 

*  "Description  of  a  survey  of  410  acres  of  land,  called  by  the  Indian  name 
Chauwangung,  laid  out  for  Thomas  Lloyd."     (N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  44.) 
'  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  60. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  141 

a  description  in  1709,  "Adjoining  Shawangung,  Nescotack  and  the 
Palze."  ^  In  several  other  patent  descriptions  the  locative  is  further 
identified  by  "near  to"  or  "adjoining,"'  and  finally  (1723)  by  "near 
the  village  of  Showangunck,"  at  which  time  the  "village"  consisted 
of  the  dwellings  of  Thomas  Lloyd,  on  the  north  side  of  Shawan- 
gunk  Kill ;  Severeign  Tenhout  on  the  south  side,  and  Jacobus  Bruyn, 
Benjamin  Smedes,  and  others,  with  a  mill,  at  and  around  what  was 
known  later  as  the  village  of  Tuthiltown.  In  1744,  Jacobus  Bruyn 
was  the  owner  of  the  Lloyd  tract. ^  The  distribution  of  the  name 
over  the  district  as  a  general  locative  is  distinctly  traceable  from 
this  center.  It  was  never  the  name  of  the  mountain,  nor  of  the 
stream,  and  it  should  be  distinctly  understood  that  it  does  not  ap- 
pear in  Kregier's  Journal  of  the  Second  Esopus  War,  nor  in  any 
record  prior  to  1684,  and  could  not  have  been  that  of  any  place 
other  than  that  distinctly  named  in  Governor  Dongan's  deed  and  in 
Lloyd's   Patent. 

Topographically,  the  tract  was  at  and  on  the  side  of  a  hill  run- 
ning north  from  the  fiats  on  the  stream  to  a  point  of  which  Nesco- 
tack was  the  summit,  the  Lloyd  grant  lying  in  part  on  the  hill-side 
and  in  part  on  the  low  lands  on  the  stream.  The  mountain  is  eight 
miles  distant.  Without  knowledge  of  the  precise  location  of  the 
name  several  interpretations  of  it  have  been  made,  generally  from 
Shazvan,  "South" — South  Mountain,  South  Water,  South  Place.' 
The  latter  is  possible,  i.  e.  a  place  lying  south  of  Nescotack,  as  in 
the  sentence :  "Schawangung,  Nescotack,  and  the  Paltz."  From 
the  topography  of  the  locative,  however,  Mr.  William  R.  Gerard 
suggests  that  the  derivatives  are  Scha   (or  Shaw),  "Side,"  -ong, 

^  lb.  169.  Other  early  forms  are  Shawongunk  (1685),  Shawongonck 
1709),   Shawongunge    (1712). 

^  From  Jacobus  Bruyn  came  the  ancient  hamlet  still  known  as  Bruyns- 
wick.  He  erected  a  stone  mansion  on  the  tract,  in  the  front  wall  of  which 
was  cut  on  a  marble  tablet,  "Jacobus  Bruyn.  1724."  The  house  was  destroyed 
by  fire  in  1870  (about),  and  a  frame  dwelling  erected  on  its  old  foundation. 
It  is  about  half-way  between  Bruynswick  and  Tuthilltown;  owned  later  by 
John  V.  McKinstry.  The  location  is  certain  from  the  will  of  Jacobus  Bruyn 
in  1744- 

^  The  most  worthless  interpretation  is  that  in  Spofford's  Gazeteer  and 
copied  by  Mather  in  his  Geological  Survey:  "Shazven,  in  the  Mohegan  lan- 
guage, means  'White,'  also  'Salt.'  and  Gunk,  'A  large  pile  of  rocks,'  hence 
'White  Rocks'  or  mountain."  The  trouble  with  it  is  that  there  is  no  such 
word  as  Shazven,  meaning  "White"  in  any  Algonquian  dialect,  and  no  such 
word  as  Gunk,  meaning  "Rocks." 


142  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

"hill,"  and  -luik,  locative,  the  combination  reading,  "At  (or  on)  the 
hill-side."^     This  reading  is  literally  sustained  by  the  locative. 

The  name  is  of  especial  interest  from  its  association  with  the 
Dutch  and  Indian  War  of  1663,  although  not  mentioned  in  Kregier's 
narrative  of  the  destruction  of  the  Indian  palisaded  village  called 
"New  Fort,"'  and  later  Shawongunk  Fort.  The  narrative  is  very 
complete  in  colonial  records.-  The  village  or  fort  was  not  as  large 
as  that  called  Kahanksan,  which  had  previously  been  destroyed. 
It  was  composed  of  ten  huts,  probably  capable  of  accommodating 
two  or  three  hundred  people.  The  palisade  around  them  formed 
"a  perfect  square,"  on  the  brow  of  a  tract  of  table-land  on  the  bank 
of  Shawongunk  Kill.  Since  first  settlement  the  location  has  bee;i 
known  as  "New  Fort."  It  is  on  the  east  side  of  the  stream  about 
three  miles  west  of  the  village  of  Wallkill.^  In  the  treaty  of  1664 
the  site  and  the  fields  around  it  were  conceded,  with  other  lands, 
to  the  Dutch,  by  the  Indians,  as  having  been  "conquered  by  the 
sword,"  but  were  subsequently  included  (1684)  in  the  purchase 
by  Governor  Dongan.  Later  were  included  in  the  patent  to  Capt. 
John  Evans,  and  was  later  covered  by  one  of  the  smaller  patents 
into  which  the  Evans  Patent  was  divided.  When  the  Dutch  troops 
left  it  i't  was  a  terrible  picture  of  desolation.  The  huts  had  been 
burned,  the  bodies  of  the  Indians  who  had  been  killed  and  thrown 
into  the  corn-pits  had  been  unearthed  by  wolves  and  their  skeletons 
left  to  bleach  on  the  plain,  with  here  and  there  the  half  eaten  body 
of  a  child.  For  years  it  was  a  fable  told  to  children  that  the  place 
was  haunted  by  the  ghosts  of  the  slain,  and  even  now  the  timid 
feel  a  peculiar  sensation,  when  visiting  the  site,  whenever  a  strange 
cry  breaks  on  the  car,  and  the  assurance  that  it  is  real  comes  with 
gratefulness  in  the  shouts  of  the  harvesters  in  the  nearby  fields. 
It  is  a  place  full  of  history,  full  of  poetry,  full  of  the  footprints  of 

^  The  monosyllable  SJiaw  or  ScJiaiv.  radical  Scha,  means  "Side,  edge, 
border,  shore,"  etc.  S chaiizvunnp pcquc ,  "On  the  shore  of  the  lake."  Enda- 
tacht-scIiaK'ungc,  "At  the  narrows  where  the  hill  comes  close  to  the  river." 
(Heck.)  Scliajazvonge,  "Hill-side"  (Zeisb.),  from  which  Schawong-unk, 
"On  the  hill-side,"  or  at  the  side  of  the  hill,  the  precise  bound  of  the  name 
cannot  be  stated. 

■  Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  iv,  71,  yz,  et.  scq.     Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii.  272,  326. 

^  Authorities  quoted  and  paper  b}-  Rev.  Charles  Scott,  D.  D.,  in  "Pro- 
ceedings Ulster  Co.  Hist.  Soc." 


HUDSON  S   RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  1 43 

the  aboriginal  lords,  "Further  down  the  creek,"  says  the  narra- 
tive, '"'several  large  wigwams  stood,  w^hich  we  also  burned,  and 
divers  maize  fields  which  we  also  destroyed."  On  the  sites  of 
same  of  these  wigwams  fine  specimens  of  Indian  pottery  and  stone 
vessels  and  implements  have  been  found,  as  well  as  many_arrow- 
points  of  flint. 

Memorasink,  Kahogh,  Gatawanuk,  and  Ghittatawagh,  names 
handed  down  in  the  Indian  deed  to  Governor  Dongan  in  1684,  have 
no  other  record,  nor  were  they  ever  specifically  located.  The  lands 
conveyed  to  him  extended  from  the  Shawangunk  range  to  the  Hud- 
son, bounded  on  the  north  by  the  line  of  the  Paltz  Patent,  and  south 
by  a  line  drawn  from  about  the  Dans  Kamer.  Ghittatazvagh  is 
probably  from  Kitchi.  "Great,  strong,"  etc.,  and  Towatazvik,  "Wil- 
derness"— the  great  wilderness,  or  uninhabited  district.  Gata- 
wanuk seems  to  be  from  Kitchi,  "Strong,"  -aivan,  impersonal  verb 
termination,  and  -iik,  locative,  and  to  describe  a  place  on  a  strong 
current  or  flowing  stream.  The  same  name  seems  to  appear  in 
Kitchawan,  now  Croton  River.  It  may  have  located  lands  on  the 
Wallkill. 

Nescotack,  a  certain  place  so  called  in  the  Dongan  deed  of  1684, 
is  referred  to  in  connection  with  Shawongunk.  It  was  granted  by 
patent  to  Jacob  Rutsen  and  described  as  "A  tract  of  land  by  the  In- 
dians called  Nescotack  and  by  the  Christians  Guilford."  (N.  Y. 
Land  Papers,  29,  30.)  Guilford  was  known  for  many  years  as 
Guilford  Church,  immediately  west  of  Shawongunk.  The  actual 
location  of  the  name,  however,  is  claimed  for  a  hamlet  now  called 
Libertyville,  further  north,  which  was  long  known  as  Nescotack. 
The  district  is  an  extended  ridge  which  rises  gradually  from  the 
Shawongunk  River-bottoms  on  the  east  and  falls  off  on  the  west 
more  abruptly.  The  name,  probably,  describes  this  ridge  as  "High 
lands,"  an  equivalent  of  Esquatak  and  Eskwatack  on  the  Upper 
Hudson ;  Ashpotag,  Mass.,  and  Westchester  Co.  Esp,  Hesp,  Ishp, 
Hesko,  Nesco,  etc.,  are  record  orthographies.  (See  Schodac  and 
Shawongunk.) 

Wishauv/emis,  a  place-name  in  Shawongunk,  was  translated 
by  Rev.  Dr.  Scott,  "The  place  of  beeches,"  from  Schauwemi,  "Beech 
wood" ;  but  seems  to  be  an  equivalent  of  Moh.   Wesauzvemisk,  a 


144  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

species  of  oak   with   yellow  bark   used   for  dyeing.     IVisaminschi, 
"Yellow- wood   tree."     (Zeisb.) 

Wickquatennhcnck,  a  place  so  called  in  patent  to  Jacobus  Bruyn 
and  Benj.  Smedes,  1709,  is  described  as  "Land  lying  near  a  small 
hill  called,  in  ye  Indian  tongue,  Wickqutenhonck,"  in  another  paper 
Wickquatennhonck,  "Land  lying  near  the  end  of  the  hill."  The 
name  means,  "At  the  end  of  the  hill,"  from  Wequa,  "End  of"  ;  -atcnne 
(-achtenne,  Zeisb.),  "hill,"  and  -unk,  "at."  The  location  was  near 
the  end  of  what  is  still  known  as  the  Hoogte-berg  (Hooge-berg, 
Dutch),  a  range  of  hills,  where  the  proprietors  located  dwellings 
which  remained  many  years. 

Wanaksink,  a  region  of  meadow  and  maize  land  in  the  Sthawon- 
gunk  district,  was  translated  by  Dr.  Scott  from  WinacJik,  "Sassi- 
fras"  (Zeisb.)  ;  but  Wanachk  may  and  probably  does  stand  for 
Wonachk,  "The  tip  or  extremity  of  anything,"  and  -sing  mean 
"Near,"  or  less  than.  A  piece  of  land  that  was  near  the  end  of  a 
certain  place  or  piece  of  land.  It  is  not  the  word  that  is  met  in 
Wynogkee. 

Maschabeneer,  Masseks,  Maskack,  Massekex,  a  certain  tract 
or  tracts  of  land  in  the  present  town  of  Shawongunk,  appear  in  a 
description  of  survey,  Dec.  10,  1701,  of  seven  hundred  and  ten  acres 
"at  a  place  called  Maschabeneer  Shawengonck,  laid  out  for  Mathias 
Mott,  accompanied  by  an  affidavit  by  Jacob  Rutsen  concerning  the 
purchase  of  the  same  from  the  Indians.  At  a  previous  date  (Sept. 
22)  Mott  asked  for  a  patent  for  four  hundred  acres  "at  a  place 
called  S'hawungunk,"  which  was  "given  him  when  a  child  by  the 
Indians."  Whether  the  two  tracts  were  the  same  or  not  does  not 
appear;  but  in  1702,  June  10,  Severeyn  TenTiout  remonstrated 
against  granting  to  Mott  the  land  which  he  had  petitioned  for,  and 
accompanied  his  remonstrance  by  an  extract  from  the  minutes  of 
the  Court  at  Kingston,  in  1693,  granting  the  land  to  himself.  He 
asked  for  a  patent  and  gave  the  name  of  the  tract  "Called  by  the 
Indians  Masseecks,  near  Sliawengonck,"  i.  e.  near  the  certain  tract 
called  Shawongunk  which  liad  been  granted  to  Thomas  Lloyd.  He 
received  a  patent.  In  1709,  Mott  petitioned  "in  relation  to  a  cer- 
tain tract  of  land  upon  Showangonck  River"  which  had  been  grant- 
ed to  Tenhout,  asking  that  the  "same  be  so  divided"  that  he  (Mott) 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE   WEST.  1 45 

should  "have  a  proportion  of  the  good  land  upon  the  said  river" — 
obviously  a  section  of  low  land  or  meadow,  described  by  the  name 
of  a  place  thereon  called  Maskcck  (Zeisb.),  meaning  "Swamp,  bog"  ; 
Maskeht  (Eliot),  "Grass."  The  radical  is  ask,  "green,"  raw,  im- 
mature." The  suffix  -cghs  represents  an  intensive  form  of  the  gut- 
tural formative,  which  the  German  missionaries  softened  to  -ech 
and  -ck,  and  the  English  to  -sli,  and  is  frequently  met  in  X.  Hecke- 
welder  wrote  that  the  original  sound  was  that  of  the  Greek  X, 
hence  Maskex  and  x  in  Ooxsackie.  Maschaheneer,  the  name  given 
■by  Mott,  is  not  satisfactorily  translatable. 

Pitkiskaker  and  Aioskawasting  appear  in  deed  from  the  Esopus 
Indians  to  Governor  Dongan,   in   1684,  as   the  names  of  divisions 
of  what  are  now  known  as  the  Shawongunk  Mountains   south  of 
Mohunk  or  Paltz  Point.     The  deed  description  reads :  "Extending 
from  the  Paltz,"  i.  e.  from  the  southeast  boundmark  of  the  Paltz 
Patent  on  the  Hudson,  now  known  as  Blue  Point   (see  Magaat- 
Ramis),  south  "along  the  river  to  the  lands  of  the  Indians  at  Mur- 
derers'  Kill,  thence  west  to  die  foot  of  the  high  hills  called  Pit- 
kiskaker and  Aioskawasting,  thence  southwesterly  all  along  the  said 
hills  and  the  river  called  Peakadasink  to  a  water-pond  lying  upon 
said  hills  called  Meretange."  ^     Apparently  the  general  boundaries 
were  the  line  of  the  Paltz  Patent  on  the  north,  the  Hudson  on  the 
east,  a  line  from  "about  the  Dancing  Chamber"  on  the  Hudson  to 
Sam's  Point  on  the  Shawongunk  range  on  the  southwest,  and  on 
the  west  by  that   range   and  the   river  Peakadasank.     The   Peaka- 

'  Meretange,  Maretange,  or  Maratanza,  is  from  Old  English  Merc,  "A 
pond  or  pool,"  and  Tanze,  "Sharp"  or  offensive  to  the  taste.  The  name  was 
transferred  to  this  pond  from  the  pond  first  bearing  it  in  the  town  of  Green- 
ville, Orange  County,  in  changing  the  northwest  line  of  the  Evans  Patent. 
(See  Peakadasank.)  The  pond  is  about  a  mile  in  circumference  and  is  lined 
with  cranberry  bushes  and  other  shrubbery,  but  the  water  is  clear  and  sweet. 
It  lies  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  west  of  Sam's  Point.  Long  Pond, 
lying  about  four  miles  north  of  Maratanza,  is  now  called  Awosting  Lake. 
It  is  about  two  miles  long  by  possiblv  one-quarter  of  a  mile  wide  and  lies  in 
a  clove  or  cleft  of  the  hills.  Its  outlet  was  called  by  the  Dutch  Verkerde  Kil, 
now  changed  to  Awosting.  About  one  mile  further  north  lies  "The  Great 
Salt  Pond,"  so  called  in  records  of  the  town  of  Shawongunk.  It  is  now 
called  Lake  Minnewaska,  a  name  introduced  from  the  Chippeway  dialect, 
said  to  mean  "Colored  water,"  which  has  been  changed  to  "Frozen  water." 
The  lake  is  particularly  described  as  being  "Set  into  the  hills  like  a  bowl." 
It  has  an  altitude  of  1,600  feet  and  a  depth  of  seventy  to  ninety  feet  of  water 
of  crystal  clearness  through  which  the  pebbly  bottom  can  be  seen.  The 
fourth  pond  is  that  known  as  Lake  Mohonk. 


146  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

dasank  is  now  known  as  Shawangunk  Kill.  The  pond  "called 
Meretange,"  is  claimed  by  some  authorities,  as  that  now  known  as 
Binnen-water  in  the  town  of  Mount  Hope,  Orange  County.  On 
Sauthier's  map  it  is  located  on  the  southern  division  of  the  range 
noted  as  "Alaskayering  Mts.,"  and  represented  as  the  head  of  Sha- 
wongunk  Kill.  The  same  distinction  is  claimed  for  Meretange  or 
Peakadasank  Swamp  in  the  town  O'f  Greenville,  Orange  County. 
A  third  Maratanza  Pond  is  located  a  short  distance  west  of  Sam's 
Point.  The  name  of  the  hill  has  been  changed  from  Aioskawasting 
to  Azvosting  as  the  name  of  a  lake  and  a  waterfall  about  four  miles 
north  of  Sam's  Point,  and  translated  from  Azu'oss  (Lenape),  "Be- 
yond," "On  the  other  side,"  and  claimed  to  have  been  originally  ap- 
plied to  a  crossing-place  in  the  depression  north  of  Sam's  Point, 
neither  of  which  interpretations  is  tenable.  The  prefix,  Aioska, 
cannot  be  dropped  and  the  name  have  a  meaning,  and  the  adjectival, 
Awoss,  cannot  be  used  as  a  substantive  and  followed  by  the  locative 
-ing,  "at,  on,"  etc.  Awoss  means  "Beyond,"  surely,  but  must  be 
followed  by  a  substantive  telling  what  it  is  that  is  "beyond."  The 
particular  features  of  the  Shawongunk  range  covered  by  the  bound- 
ary line  of  the  deed  are  "The  Traps,"  a  cleft  which  divides  the 
range  a  short  distance  south  of  Mohunk,  and  Sam's  Point,^  about 
nine  miles  south  of  Mohunk.  The  latter  stands  out  very  conspicu- 
ously, its  general  surface  covered  by  perpendicular  rocks  from^  one 
hundred  to  two  hundred  and  fifty  feet  high,  the  point  itself  crowned 
by  a  wall  of  rock  which  rises  2200  feet  above  the  valley  below. 

Peakadasank,  so  written  in  Indian  deed  to  Governor  Dongan 
in  1684 — Pachajmsiuck  in  patent  to  Jacob  Bruyn,  1719;  Peckanas- 
inck,  Pachanassinck,  etc. — is  given  as  the  name  of  a  stream  bound- 
ing a  tract  of  land,  the  Dongan  deed  descriiption  reading :  "Thence 
southwesterly  all  along  said  hills  and  the  river  Peakadasank  to  a 

^  Sam's  Point  is  in  the  town  of  Wawarsing.  about  seven  miles  south  of 
the  village  of  EUenville  and  about  nine  miles  south  of  Mohunk  or  Paltz 
Point.  It  is  the  highest  point  on  the  Shawongunk  range  in  New  York  State. 
Its  name  is  from  Samuel  Gonsaulus,  who  owned  the  tract.  Gertruyd's  Nose, 
the  name  of  another  point,  was  so  called  from  the  fancied  resemblance  of  its 
shadow  to  the  nose  of  Mrs.  Gertrude,  wife  of  Jacobus  Bruyn,  who  owned  the 
tract.  The  pass,  cleft  or  clove  known  as  "The  Traps,"  was  so  called  from 
the  supposed  character  of  the  rock  which  it  divides.  The  rock,  however,  is 
not  Trappean.  The  pass  is  650  feet  wide  and  runs  through  the  entire  range. 
Its  sides  present  the  appearance  of  the  hill  having  slipped  apart. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE   WEST.  I47 

water-pond  lying  on  said  hills  called  Aleretange."  The  name  is 
preserved  in  two  streams  known  as  the  Big  and  the  Little  Pachanas- 
ink,  in  Orange  County,  and  in  Ulster  County  as  the  "Pachanasink 
District,"  covering  the  south  part  of  the  town  of  S'hawongunk.  The 
Big  Pachanasink  is  now  known  as  Shawongunk  Kill.  In  1719, 
Nov.  26,  a  certain  tract  of  land  "called  Pachanasink"  was  granted 
to  Jacobus  Bruyn  and  described  in  survey  as  "on  the  north  side  of 
Shaw^ongunck  Creek,  beginning  where  the  Verkerde  KilP  flows  in- 
to said  river,*'  indicating  locative  of  the  name  a't  the  Verkerde 
Branch.  In  a  brief  submitted  in  the  boundary  contention,  it  is  said 
that  the  line  of  the  Dongan  purchase  ran  "along  the  foot  of  the 
hills  from  a  place  called  Pachanasink,  where  the  Indians  who  sold 
the  land  had  a  large  village  and  place,"  and  from  thence  "to  the 
head  of  the  said  river,  and  no  where  else  the  said  river  is  called 
by  that  name."  The  evidence  is  cumulative  that  the  name  was 
that  of  the  dominant  feature  of  the  district,  from  which  it  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  stream.  It  is  a  district  strewn  w*ith  masses  of  con- 
glomerate rocks  thrown  off  from  the  hills  and  precipitous  cliffs. 
The  two  forms  of  the  name,  Peakadasank  (1684)  and  Pachanass- 
ink  (1717),  were  no  doubt  employed  as  equivalents.  They  differ 
in  meaning,  however.  Wm.  R.  Gerard  writes :  ''Peakadasank,  or 
Pakadassin,  means,  Tt  is  laid  out  through  the  effects  of  a  blow,' 
or  some  other  action.  The  participial  form  is  Pakadasing,  mean- 
ing, 'Where  it  is  laid  out,'  or  'Where  it  lies  fallen.'  The  refer- 
ence in  this  case  would  seem  to  be  to  the  stone  which  had  fallen 
off  or  been  thrown  down  from  the  hills."  Pachanasink  means,  "At 
the  split  rocks"  ;  Pachassin,  "Split  stone."  In  either  form  the  name 
is  from  the  split  rocks. 

^  The  Verkerde  Kill  falls  over  a  precipice  of  about  seventy  feet.  The  ex- 
posed surface  of  the  precipice  is  marked  by  strata  in  the  conglomerate  as 
primarily  laid  down.  The  entire  district  is  a  region  of  split  rocks.  Verkerde 
Kill  takes  that  name  from  Dutch  rerkeerd,  meaning  "Wrong,  bad,  angry, 
turbulent,"  etc.  It  is  the  outlet  of  Meretange  Pond  near  Sam's  Point.  It 
flows  from  the  pond  to  the  falls  and  from  the  falls  at  nearly  a  right  angle 
over  a  series  of  cascades  aggregating  in  all  a  fall  of  two  hundred  and  forty 
feet.  The  falls  are  in  the  town  of  Gardiner,  Ulster  County.  (See  Aioskaw- 
asting.) 

The  lands  granted  to  Bruyn  included  the  "tract  "Known  by  the  Indian 
name  of  Pacanasink,"  now  m  the  town  of  Shawongunk.  and  also  a  tract 
"Known  bv  the  Indian  name  of  Shensechonck,"  now  in  the  tdwn  of  Craw- 
ford, Orange  County.  The  latter  seems  to  have  been  a  parcel  of  level  up- 
land.    It  was  about  one  mile  to  the  southward  of  the  stream. 


148  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

Alaskayering,  entered  on  Sauthier's  map  of  1774,  as  the  name 
of  the  south  part  of  the  S'hawongunk:  range,  was  conferred  by  the 
Enghsh,  possibly  as  a  suhsbitute  for  Aioskawasting.  The  first 
word  is  heard  in  Alaska,  which  is  said,  on  competent  authority,  to 
mean,  "The  high  bald  rocks";  with  locative  -ing,  "At  (or  on)  the 
high  bald  rocks."  This  interpretation  is  a  literal  description  of 
the  hill,  and  Aioskawasting  may  have  the  same  meaning,  although 
those  who  wrote  the  former  may  not  have  had  a  thought  about  the 
latter.^      (See  Pitkiskaker.) 

Achsinink,  quoted  by  the  late  Rev.  Charles  Soott,  D.  D.,  from 
local  records  probably,  as  the  name  of  Shawongunk  Kill,  is  an 
apheresis  apparently  of  Pach-achsiln-ink,  "At  (or  on)  a  place  of 
split  stones."  Many  of  the  split  rocks  thrown  off  from  the  moun- 
tain lie  in  the  bed  of  the  stream,  in  places  utilized  for  crossing. 
"There  are  rocks  in  it,  so  that  it  is  easy  to  get  across."  (Col.  Hist. 
N.  Y.,  viii,  272.)  Achsiln,  as  a  substantive,  cannot  be  used  as  an 
independent  word  with  a  locative.  An  adjectival  prefix  is  neces- 
sary.     (See   Pakadasink.) 

Palmagat,  the  name  of  the  bend  in  the  mountain  north  of  Sam's 
Point,  regarded  by  some  as  Indian,  is  a  Dutch  term  descriptive  of 
the  growth  there  of  palm  or  holly  {Ilex  opaca),  possibly  of  s'hrub 
oaks  the  leaf  of  which  resembles  the  holly.  Gat  is  Dutch  for  open- 
ing, gap,  etc. 

Moggonck,  Maggonck,  Moggonick,  Moggoneck,  Mohonk,  etc., 

are  forms  of  the  name  given  as  that  of  the  "high  hill"  which  forms 
the  southwest  boundmark  of  the  Paltz  Patent,  so  known,  now  gen- 
erally called  locally,  Paltz  Point,  and  widely  known  as  Mohunk.  The 
hill  is  a  point  of  rock  formation  on  the  Shawongunk  range.  It  rises 
about  1,000  feet  above  the  plain  below  and  is  crowned  by  an  apex 
which  rises  as  a  battlement  about  400  feet  above  the  brow  of  the  hill, 
now  called  Sky  Top.  Moggonck  and  Maggonck  are  interchange- 
able orthographies.  The  former  appears  in  the  Indian  deed  from 
Matscyay,  and  other  owners,  to  Louis  DuBois,  and  others,  May  26, 
1677,  and  is  carried  forward  in  the  patent  issued  to  them  in  Septem- 

^  High  Point,  the  highest  elevation  in  the  southern  division  of  the  range, 
is  in  New  Jersey.  It  is  said  to  be  higher  than  Sam's  Point,  and  to  bear  the 
same  general  description. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER   ON    THE    WEST.  149 

ber  of  the  same  year.  Moggoneck  appears  in  Mr.  Berthold  Fer- 
now's  translation  of  the  Indian  deed  in  Colonial  History  of  N.  Y., 
xiii,  506.  Moggonick  was  written  by  Surveyor  Aug.  Graham  on 
his  map  of  survey  in  1709,  and  Mohnnk  is  a  modern  pronunciation. 
The  boundary  description  of  the  tract,  as  translated  by  the  late  Dr. 
E.  B.  O'Callaghan,  from  the  Dutch  deed  (N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  15), 
reads:  "Beginning  at  the  high  hill  called  Moggonck,  then  south- 
east to  Juffrouw's  Hook  in  the  Long  Reach,  on  the  Great  River 
(called  in  Indian  Magaat  Ramis),  thence  north  to  the  island  called 
Raphoos,  lying  in  the  Kromme  Elbow  at  the  commencement  of  the 
Long  Reach,  thence  west  to  the  high  hill  to  a  place  [called]  Wara- 
chaes  and  Tawarataque,  along  the  high  hill  to  Moggonck."  The 
translation  in  Colonial  History  is  substantially  the  same  except  in 
the  forms  of  the  names.  "Beginning  from  the  high  hill,  at  a  place 
called  Moggonck,"  is  a  translation  of  the  deed  by  Rev.  Ame  Vane- 
me,  in  "History  of  New  Paltz."  It  seems  to  be  based  on  a  recogni- 
tion of  the  locative  of  the  name  as  established  by  Surveyor  Graham 
in  1709,  rather  than  on  the  original  manuscript.  In  the  patent  the 
reading  is:  "Beginning  at  the  high  mountain  called  Moggonck," 
and  the  southwest  line  is  described  as  extending  from  Tawarataque 
"To  Moggonck,  formerly  so  called,"  indicating  that  the  patentees 
had  not  located  the  name  as  they  would  like  to  have  it  located ;  cer- 
tainly, that  they  had  discovered  that  a  line  drawn  from  the  apex 
of  the  hill  on  a  southeast  course  to  Jufifrouw's  Hook,  would  divide 
a  certain  fine  piece  of  land,  which  they  called  the  Groot  Stuk  (great 
piece),  lying  between  the  hill  and  the  Wallkill  and  fertilized  by  that 
stream,  which  they  wished  to  have  induded  in  the  grant  as  a  whole. 
So  it  came  about  that  they  hurried  to  Governor  Andros  and  secured 
an  amended  wording  in  the  patent  of  the  deed  description,  and  Sur- 
veyor-General Graham,  when  he  came  upon  the  scene  in  1709,  to  run 
the  patent  lines,  found  the  locatives  "fixed,"  and  wrote  in  his  descrip- 
tion, "Beginning  at  a  certain  point  on  the  hill  called  Moggonick, 
*  *  thence  south,  thirty-six  degrees  easterly,  to  a  certain  small 
creek  called  Moggonck,  at  the  south  end  of  the  great  piece  of  land, 
and  from  thence  south,  fifty-five  degrees  easterly,  to  the  south  side 
of  Uflfroe's  Hook."  Thereafter  "The  south  end  of  the  great  piece," 
and  the  "certain  small  creek,"  became  the  "First  station,"  as  it  was 
called.     Graham  marked  the  place  by  a  stone  which  was  found  stand- 


150  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

ing  by  Cadwallader  Colden  in  a  survey  by  him  in  1729,  and  noted  as 
at  "The  west  end  of  a  small  gully  which  falls  into  Paltz  River,  *  * 
from  the  said  stone  down  the  said  gully  two  chains  and  forty-six 
links  to  the  Paltz  River."  The  "west  end"  of  the  gully  was  the 
east  end  of  the  "Certain  small  creek"  noted  in  Graham's  survey. 
The  precise  point  is  over  three  miles  from  the  hill.  In  the  course 
of  the  years  by  the  action  of  frost  or  flood,  the  stone  was  carried 
away.  In  1892,  from  actual  survey  by  Abram  LeFever,  Surveyor, 
assisted  by  Capt.  W.  H.  D.  Blake,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  the 
facts  stated,  it  was  replaced  by  another  bearing  the  original  inscrip- 
tion. By  deepening  the  gully  the  swamp  of  which  the  stream  is  the 
drainage  channel,  has  been  mainly  reclaimed,  but  the  stream  and  the 
gully  remain,  as  does  also  the  Groot  Stuk.  This  record  narrative  is 
more  fully  explained  by  the  following  certificate  which  is  on  file  in 
the  office  of  the  Clerk  of  Ulster  County : 

"These  are  to  certify,  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  of  New 
Paltz,  being  desirous  that  the  first  station  of  their  patent,  named 
Moggonck,  might  be  kept  in  remembrance,  did  desire  us,  Joseph 
Horsbrouck,  John  Hardenburgh,  and  RoelofT  Elting,  Esqs.,  Justices 
of  the  Peace,  to  accompany  them,  and  there  being  Ancrop,  the  In- 
dian, then  brought  us  to  the  High  Mountain,  which  he  named  Mag- 
geanapogh,  at  or  near  the  foot  of  which  hill  is  a  small  run  of  water 
and  a  swamp,  which  he  called  Maggonck,  and  the  said  Ancrop  af- 
firmed it  to  be  the  right  Indian  names  of  the  said  places,  as  witness 
our  hands  the  nineteenth  day  of  December,  1722." 

Ancrop,  or  Ankerop  as  otherwise  written,  was  a  sachem  of  the 
Esopus  Indians  in  1677,  and  was  still  serving  in  that  office  in  1722. 
He  was  obviously  an  old  man  at  the  latter  date.  He  had,  however, 
no  jurisdiction  over  or  part  in  the  sale  of  the  lands  to  the  New  Paltz 
Company  in  1677.  His  testimony,  given  forty-five  years  after  the 
sale  by  the  Indians,  was  simply  confirmatory  in  general  terms  of  a 
location  which  had  been  made  in  1677,  and  the  interpretation  of 
what  he  said  was  obviously  given  by  the  Justices  in  terms  to  corre- 
spond with  what  his  employers  wished  him  to  say.  In  the  days  of 
the  locations  of  boundmarks  of  patents,  his  testimony  would  have 
been  regarded  with  suspicion.  Locations  of  boundmarks  were  then 
frequently  changed  by  patentees  who  desired  to  increase  their  hold- 
ings, by  "Taking  some  Indians  in  a  public  manner  to  show  such 


HUDSON  S  RIVER  ON    THE   WEST.  151 

places  as  they  might  name  to  them,"  wrote  Sir  WilHam  Johnson, 
for  many  years  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs,  adding  that  it  was 
"Well  known"  that  an  Indian  "  Would  shew  any  place  by  any  name 
you  please  to  give  him,  for  a  small  blanket  or  a  bottle  of  rum."  Pre- 
sumably Ankerop  received  either  "A  small  blanket  or  a  bottle  of 
rum"  for  his  services,  but  it  is  not  to  be  inferred  that  the  location  of 
the  boundmarks  in  1677  was  tainted  by  the  "sharp  practice"  which 
prevailed  later.  It  is  reasonable  to  presume,  however,  that  the  name 
would  never  have  been  removed  from  the  foot  of  the  hill  had  not 
the  Groot  Stuk  been  situated  as  it  was  with  reference  to  a  southeast 
line  drawn  from  its  apex  to  Juffrouw's  Hook. 

Algonquian  students  who  have  been  consulted,  regard  the  name 
as  it  stands  as  without  meaning ;  that  some  part  of  the  original  was 
lost  by  mishearing  or  dropped  in  pronunciation ;  that  in  the  dialect 
which  is  supposed  to  have  been  spoken  here  the  suffix  -onck  is  class- 
ed as  a  locative  and  the  adjectival  Mogg  is  not  complete.  Several 
restorations  of  presumed  lost  letters  have  been  suggested  to  give 
the  name  a  meaning,  none  of  which,  however,  are  satisfactory.  Ap- 
parently the  most  satisfactory  reading  is  from  Magonck,  or  Magunk 
(Mohegan),  "A  great  tree,"  explained  by  Dr.  Trumbull:  "From 
Mogki,  'Great,'  and  -uiik,  'A  tree  while  standing.'  "  It  is  met  as  the 
name  of  a  boundmark  on  the  Connecticut,  and  on  the  east  side  of 
the  Hudson,  within  forty  miles  of  the  locative  here,  Moghongh- 
karnigJi,  "Place  of  a  great  tree,"  is  met  as  the  name  of  a  boundmark. 
Mogkimk  is  also  in  the  Natick  dialect,  and  there  is  no  good  reason 
for  saying  that  it  was  not  in  the  local  dialect  here.  There  may  have 
been  a  certain  great  tree  at  the  foot  of  the  hill,  from  which  the  name 
was  extended  to  the  hill,  and  there  may  have  been  one  on  the  Wall- 
kill,  which  Ankerop  said  "Was  the  right  Indian  name  of  the  place." 
It  will  be  remembered  that  the  deed  boundmark  was  "The  foot  of 
the  hill."  It  is  safe  to  say  that  the  name  never  could  have  described 
"A  small  run  of  water  and  a  swamp,"  nor  did  it  mean  "Sky-Top." 
The  former  features  were  introduced  by  the  Justices  to  identify  the 
place  where  the  boundary-stone  was  located  and  have  no  other 
value ;  the  latter  is  a  fanciful  creation,  "Not  consistent  with  fact  or 
reason,"  but  very  good  as  an  advertisement. 

Maggeanapogh,  the  name  which  Ankerop  gave  as  that  of  the 


152  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

hill  called  Moggonck,  bears  every  evidence  of  correctness.  It  is 
reasonably  pure  Lenape  or  Delaware,  to  which  stock  x\nkerop  prob- 
ably belonged.  The  first  word,  Maggcan,  is  an  orthography  of 
Machen  (Meechin,  Zeisb. ;  Mashkan,  Chippeway),  meaning  "Great," 
big,  large,  strong,  hard,  occupying  chief  position,  etc.,  and  the  sec- 
ond, -apogh,  written  in  other  local  names  -apugh,  -apick,  etc.,  is 
from  -dpughk  {-dpuchk,  Zeisb.),  meaning  ''Rock,"  the  combination 
reading,  literally,  "A  great  rock."  In  the  related  Chippeway  dialect 
the  formative  word  for  rock  is  -bik,  and  the  radical  is  -ic  or  -ick,  of 
which  Dr.  Schoolcraft  wrote,  "Rock,  or  solid  formation  of  rock." 
No  particular  part  of  the  hill  was  referred  to,  the  text  reading, 
"There  being  Ankerop,  the  Indian,  then  brought  us  to  the  High 
Mountain  which  he  named  Maggeanapogh."  The  time  has  passed 
when  the  name  could  have  been  made  permanent.  For  all  coming 
time  the  hill  will  bear  the  familiar  name  of  Mohonk,  the  Moggonck 
of  1677,  the  Paltz  Point  and  the  High  Point  of  local  history,  from 
the  foot  of  which  the  place  of  beginning  of  the  boundary  line  was 
never  removed,  although  the  course  from  it  was  changed. 

Magaat=Ramis,  the  record  name  of  the  southeast  boundmark  of 
the  Paltz  Patent,  is  located  in  the  boundary  description  at  "Juffrou's 
Hook,  in  the  Long  Reach,  on  the  Great  River  (called  in  Indian 
Magaat-Ramis)."  (Cal.  N.  Y.  Land  Papers,  15.)  Juffrouw's 
Hook  is  now  known  as  Blue  Point.  It  is  about  two  miles  north  of 
Milton-on-the-Hudson,  and  takes  its  modern  name  from  the  color  of 
the  rock  which  projects  from  a  blue-stone  promontory  and  runs  for 
some  distance  under  the  water  of  the  river,  deflecting  the  current 
to  the  northwest.  The  primal  appearance  of  the  promontory  has 
been  changed  by  the  cut  for  the  West  Shore  Railroad,  but  the  sub- 
merged point  remains.  The  Dutch  name,  Juffrouzv's  Hook,  wtis 
obviously  employed  by  the  purchasers  to  locate  the  boundmark  by 
terms  which  were  then  generally  understood.  Juffrouw,  the  first 
word,  means  "Maiden,"  one  of  the  meanings  of  which  is  "Haai-rog"  ; 
"rog"  means  "skate,"  or  Angel-fish,  of  special  application  to  a  species 
of  shark,  but  in  English  shad,  or  any  fish  of  the  herring  family, 
especially  the  female.  Hook  means  "Corner,  cape,  angle,  incurved 
as  a  hook" ;  hence  "Maiden  Hook,"  an  angle  or  corner  noted  as  a 
resort   for  shad,  alewives,  etc. :  bv  metonvmic.  "A  noted  or  well- 


I 

I 


HUDSON  S  RIVER  ON    THE   WEST,  153 

known  fishing-place."  The  first  word  of  the  Indian  name,  Magaat, 
stands  for  Maghaak  (Moh.),  Machak  (Zeisb.,  the  hard  surd  mutes 
k  and  t  exchanged),  meaning  "Great,"  large,  extended,  occupying 
chief  position.  The  second  word,  Ramis  is  obscure.  It  has  the  ap- 
pearance of  a  mishearing  of  the  native  word.  What  that  word 
was,  however,  may  be  inferred  from  the  description,  "Juffrou's 
Hook,  in  the  Long  Reach,  on  the  Great  River  (called  in  Indian 
Magaat-Ramis),"  or  as  written  in  the  patent,  "To  a  certain  Point  or 
Hooke  called  the  Jeuffrou's  Hooke,  lying  in  the  Long  Reach,  named 
by  the  Indians  Magaat-Ramis."  That  the  name  was  that  of  the 
river  at  that  place — the  Long  Reach — is  made  clear  by  the  sentence 
which  follows :  "Thence  north  along  the  river  to  the  island  called 
Rappoos,  at  the  commencement  of  the  Long  Reach,"  in  which  con- 
nection Ramis  would  stand  for  Kamis  or  Gamis,  from  Garni,  an 
Algonquian  noun-generic  meaning  "Water,"  frequently  met  in  vary- 
ing forms  in  Abnaki  and  Chippeway — less  frequently  in  the  Dela- 
ware. In  Cree  the  orthography  is  Kume.  The  final  .y  is  the  equiva- 
lent of  k,  locative,  as  in  Abnaki  Gauii-k,  a  particular  place  of  water. 
"On  the  Great  Water,"  is  probably  the  meaning  of  Ramis.  In 
Chippeway  Keeche-gummee,  "The  greatest  water,"  was  the  name 
of  Lake  Superior.  As  the  name  of  the  "Great  Water,"  Magaat- 
Ramis  is  worthy  of  preservation. 

Rappoos,  which  formed  the  northeast  boundmark  of  the  Paltz 
Patent,  is  specifically  located  in  the  Indian  deed  "Thence  north 
[from  Juffrou's  Hook]  along  the  river  to  the  island  called  Rappoos, 
lying  in  the  Kromme  Elbow,  at  the  commencement  of  the  Long 
Reach."  The  island  is  now  known  as  Little  Esopus  Island,  taking 
that  name  from  Little  Esopus  Creek,  which  flows  to  the  Hudson  at 
that  point.  It  lies  near  the  main  land  on  the  east  side  of  the  river, 
and  divides  the  current  in  two  channels,  the  most  narrow  of  which 
is  on  the  east.  Kromme  Elleboog  (Crooked  elbow),  is  the  abrupt 
bend  in  the  river  at  the  island,  and  the  Long  Reach  extends  from  the 
island  south  to  Pollepel's  Island.  The  name  is  of  record  Rappoos, 
Raphoes,  Raphos  and  Whaphoos,  an  equivalent,  apparently,  of 
Wahosc  and  Warpose,  the  latter  met  on  Manhattan  Island.  It  is 
not  the  name  of  the  island,  but  of  the  small  channel  on  the  east  side 
of  it  from  which  it  was  extended  to  the  island.     It  means,  "The 


154  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

narrows,"  in  a  general  sense,  and  specifically,  "The  small  passage," 
or  strait.  The  root  is  JVab,  or  JVap,  meaning,  "A  light  or  open 
place  between  two  shores."     (Brinton.) 

Tawarataque,  now  written  and  pronounced  Tower-a-tauch,  the 
name  of  the  northwestern  boundmark  of  the  Paltz  Patent,  is  de- 
scribed in  the  Indian  deed  already  quoted:  "Thence  [from  Rappoos] 
west  to  the  high  hills  to  a  place  called  Warachoes  and  Tawarataque," 
which  may  refer  to  one  and  the  same  place,  or  two  different  places. 
Surveyor  Graham  held  that  two  different  places  were  referred  to 
and  marked  the  first  on  the  east  side  of  the  Wallkill  at  a  place  not 
now  known,  from  whence  by  a  sharp  angle  he  located  the  second 
"On  the  point  of  a  small  ridge  of  hills,"  where  he  marked  a  flat 
rock,  which,  by  the  way,  is  not  referred  to  in  the  name.  The  pre- 
cise place  was  at  the  south  end  of  a  clove  between  the  hills,  access 
to  which  is  by  a  small  opening  in  the  hills  at  a  place  now  known  as 
Mud  Hook.  Probably  Warachoes  referred  to  this  opening.  By 
dialectic  exchange  of  /  and  r  the  word  is  Walachoes — Walak,  "Hole," 
"A  hollow  or  excavation" ;  -oes,  "Small,"  as  a  small  or  limited  hol- 
low or  open  place.  "Through  this  opening,"  referring  to  the  open- 
ing in  the  side  of  the  hill  at  Mud  Hook,  "A  road  now  runs  leading 
to  the  clove  between  the  ridges  of  the  mountain,"  wrote  Mr.  Ralph 
LeFever,  editor  of  the  "New  Paltz  Independent,"  from  personal 
knowledge.  Tawarataque  was  the  name  of  this  clove.  It  embodies 
the  root  IValak  prefixed  by  the  radical  Tau  or  Tazv,  meaning  "Open," 
as  an  open  space,  a  hollow,  a  clove,  an  open  field,  etc.,  suffixed  by  the 
verb  termination  -aque,  meaning  "Place,"  or  -dke  as  Zeisberger 
wrote  in  Wochitdke,  "Upon  the  house."  The  reading  in  Tawarat- 
aque is,  "Where  there  is  an  open  space" ;  i.  e.,  the  clove.^  The  late 
Hon.  Edward  Elting,  of  New  Paltz,  wrote  me :  "The  flat  rock  which 
Surveyor  Graham  marked  as  the  bound,  lies  on  the  east  side  of  the 
depression  of  the  Shawongunk  Mountain  Range  leading  northwest- 
erly from  Mohunk,  at  the  south  end  of  the  clove  known  as  Mud 
Hook,  near  the  boundary  line  between  New  Paltz  and  Rosendale,  say 

^  The  adjectival  formative  -alagat,  or  -aragat,  enters  into  the  composition 
of  several  words  denoting  "Hole,"  or  "Open  space,"  as  Taw-dlachg-at,  "Open 
space,"  Sag-dlachg-at,  "So  deep  the  hole."  The  verb  substantive  suffix  -aque, 
or  -akc  (git  the  sound  of  A'),  meaning  "Place,"  is  entirely  proper  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  the  verbal  termination  -at. 


k 


\ 


HUDSON'S  RIVER  FROM   BUTTER   HILL  TO  MAGDALEN   ISLAND. 
(From  Map  of  1666  i 


Hudson's  river  on  the  west.  155 

about  half  a  mile  west  of  the  Wallkill  \^alley  R.  R.  station  at  Rosen- 
dale.  I  think,  but  am  not  certain,  that  the  rock  can  be  seen  as  you 
pass  on  the  railroad.  It  is  of  the  character  known  as  Esopus  Mill- 
stone, a  white  or  gray  conglomerate.  I  cannot  say  that  it  bears  the 
Surveyor's  inscription." 

It  is  not  often  that  four  boundmarks  are  met  that  stand  out  with 
the  distinctness  of  those  of  the  Paltz  Patent,  or  that  are  clothed  with 
deeper  interest  as  geological  features,  or  that  preserve  more  dis- 
tinctly the  geographical  landmarks  of  the  aboriginal  people. 

Ossangwak  is  written  on  Povvnal's  map  as  the  name  of  what  is 
known  as  the  Great  Binnenvvater  (Dutch,  "Inland  water")  in  the 
town  of  Lloyd.  The  orthography  disguises  the  original,  which 
may  have  been  a  pronunciation  of  Achsiin  (Minsi),  "Stone,"  as  in 
Oistonzvakiii,  read  by  Reichel,  "A  high  rock,"  or  rocky  hill.  Per- 
haps the  name  referred  to  the  rocky  bluff  which  bounds  the  Hudson 
there,  immediately  west  of  which  die  lake  is  situated. 

Esopus — so  written  on  Carte  Figurative  of  1614-16,  and  also  by 
De  Laet  in  1624-5  ;  Sopns,  contemporaneously ;  Sypoits,  Rev.  Meg- 
apolensis,  1657,  is  from  Sepims  (Natick),  "A  brook";  in  Delaware, 
Sipoes  (Zeisberger).  It  is  from  Sepn,  "River,"  and  -es,  "small." 
On  the  Carte  Figurative  it  is  written  on  the  east  side  of  the  river 
near  a  stream  north  of  Wappingers'  Creek,  as  it  may  have  been 
legitimately,  but  in  1623  it  came  to  be  located  permanently  at  what 
is  now  Rondout  Creek,  from  -which  it  was  extended  to  several 
streams/  to  the  Dutch  settlement  now  Kingston,  to  the  resident 
Indians,  and  to  a  large  district  of  country.  The  chirographer  of 
1614-16  seems  to  have  added  the  initial  E  from  the  uncertain  sound 
of  the  initial  S,  and  later  scribes  further  corrupted  it  to  the  Greek 
and  Latin  7E.     (See  Waronawanka.) 

Waronawanka,  Carte  Figuarative  1614-16 — VVarraivaniian- 
koncks,  Wassenaer,  1621-5 ;  Warranmvankongs,  De  Laet,  1621-5, 
and  Waranazvankcougys,  1633 ;  Waranmvankongs,  Van  der  Donck, 
1656;   Waerinneivongh,  local,    1677 — is   located   on   the  Carte   Fig- 

*  The  streams  entering  the  Hndson  in  proximity  came  to  be  known  as  the 
Kleine  Esopus,  south  of  Rondout ;  the  Groot  Esopus,  now  the  Rondout,  and 
the  Esopus,  now  the  Saugerties.  In  the  valley  west  of  old  Kingston  was  a 
brook,  called  in  records  the  "Mill  Stream." 


156  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

urative  on  the  west  side  of  the  Hudson  a  few  miles  north  of  latitude 
42.  On  Van  der  Donck's  map  it  is  placed  on  the  west  side  between 
Pollepel's  Island  and  the  Dans  Kamer.  De  Laet  wrote  in  his  "New 
World"  (Leyden  edition)  :  "This  reach  [Vischer's,  covering  New- 
burgh  Bay]  extends  to  another  narrow  pass,  where,  on  the  west 
side  of  the  river,  there  is  a  point  of  land  juts  out  covered  with  sand, 
opposite  a  bend  in  the  river  on  which  another  nation  of  savages 
called  the  IVaoranccks,  have  their  abode  at  a  place  called  Esopus. 
A  little  beyond,  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  where  there  is  a  creek, 
and  the  river  becomes  more  shallow,  the  Waranawankongs  reside. 
Here  are  several  small  islands."  In  his  French  and  Latin  edition, 
1633-40,  the  reading  is:  "A  little  beyond  where  projects  a  sandy 
point  and  the  river  becomes  narrower,  there  is  a  place  called  Esopus, 
v/here  the  Waoranekys  have  their  abode.  To  them  succeed,  after 
a  short  interval,  the  IV aranazvancougys ,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river."  Read  together  there  would  seem  to  be  no  doubt  that  the 
Waoranecks  were  seated  on  or  around  the  cove  or  bay  at  Low  Point 
and  the  estuary  of  Wappingers'  Creek,  and  that  the  Waranatvan- 
kongs  were  seated  at  and  around  the  cove  or  bay  at  Kingston  Point, 
"Where  a  creek  comes  in  and  the  river  becomes  more  shallow." 

Of  the  meaning  of  the  name  Dr.  A.  S.  Gatschet,  of  the  Bureau 
of  Ethnology,  wrote  me :  "If  the  Warana-wan-ka  lived  on  a  bay  or 
cove  of  Hudson's  River,  their  name  is  certainly  from  Walina,  which 
means  '  hollowing,  concave  site,'  and  'cove,  bay,'  in  several  eastern 
languages.  A  good  parallel  are  the  Wawenocks  of  S.  W.  Maine, 
now  living  at  St.  Francis,  who  call  themselves  Walinaki,  or  those 
living  on  a  cove — 'cove  dwellers' — in  referring  to  their  old  home  on 
the  Atlantic  coast  near  Portland.  In  the  Micmac  (N.  S.)  dialect 
Walini  is  '  bay,  cove,'  and  even  the  large  Bay  of  Fundy  is  called 
so.  The  meaning  of  k  or  ka  is  not  clear,  but  ong,  in  the  later  forms, 
is  the  locative  'at,  on,  upon.'  " 

It  is  safe  to  say  that  at  either  the  Dans  Kamer,  Low  Point,  or 
Kingston  Point,  the  clan  would  have  been  seated  on  a  bay,  cove^ 
recess  or  indentation  shaped  like  a  bay,  and  it  is  also  safe  to  say 
that  Warona  and  Walinu  may  be  read  as  equivalents,  the  former 
in  the  local  dialect,  and  the  latter  in  the  Eastern,  and  that  its  general 
meaning  is  "Concave,  hollowing  site.''  Zeis-berger  wrote  /  instead 
of  r  in  the  Minsi-Lenape,  hence  IVoalac,  "A  hollow  or  excavation" ; 


HUDSON  S  RIVER  ON    THE   WEST.  157 

JVaJoh,  "A  cove";  Walpecat,  ''Very  deep  water."  The  dialectic  r 
prevails  pretty  generally  on  the  Hudson  and  on  the  Upper  Dela- 
ware. On  the  latter,  near  Port  Jervis,  is  met  of  record  JVarin- 
sags-kanieck,  which  is  surely  the  equivalent  of  IValina-ask-kameck, 
"A  hollowing  or  concave  site,  a  meadow  or  field."  It  was  written 
by  Arent  Schuyler,  the  noted  interpreter,  as  the  name  of  a  field 
which  he  described  as  "A  meadow  or  vly."  Vly  is  a  contraction 
of  Dutch  Vallei,  meaning  "A  hollow  or  depression  in  which  water 
stands  in  the  rainy  season  and  is  dry  at  other  times,"  hence  ''hol- 
lowing." Ask  (generic),  meaning  "Green,  raw,"  is  the  radical  of 
words  meaning  "meadow,"  "marsh,"  etc.,  and  -kameck  stands  for 
an  enclosed  field,  or  place  having  definite  boundaries  as  a  hollow. 
Azvan  {-aicaii.  -zi'aii,  -nan,  etc.),  as  Dr.  Gatschet  probably  read  the 
orthography,  is  an  impersonal  verb  termination  met  on  the  Hudson 
in  Matteawan.  Kitchiwan,  etc.  Mr.  Gerard  writes  that  it  was 
sometimes  followed  by  the  participial  and  subjunctive  k.  It  may 
have  been  so  written  here,  but  it  seems  to  be  a  form  of  the  guttural 
aspirate  gh,  for  which  it  is  exchanged  in  many  cases,  here  and  in 
Kitchiwangh.  In  Connecticut  on  the  Sound  apparently  the  same 
name  is  met  in  IVaranawankek,  indicating  that  wlioever  wrote  it 
on  the  Figurative  of  1614-16  was  familiar  with  the  dialect  of  the 
coast  Indians.  As  it  stands  the  name  is  one  of  the  oldest  and  most 
sonorous  in  the  valley  of  Hudson's  River. 

Ponkhockie  is  the  familiar  form  of  the  name  of  the  point,  co\'e 
or  landing-place  on  the  south  side  of  Kingston  Point.  It  is  from 
Dutch  Punthoekje,  meaning,  "Point  of  a  small  hook,  or  angle." 
The  local  interpretation,  "Canoe  harbor,"  is  not  in  the  name,  ex- 
cept inferentially  from  the  fact  that  the  cove  was  a  favorite  landing 
place  for  canoes.^  After  the  erection  of  a  stockaded  redoubt  there, 
the  Dutch  called  the  place  Rondhout,  meaning.  "Standing  timber," 
and  the  English  followed  with  Redoubt,  and  extended  the  name 
to  the  creek,  as  of  record  in  1670.     The  present  form  is  substantial- 

^  In  earl}'  times  there  were  two  principal  landing  places :  One  at  Punt- 
hoekje and  one  north  of  the  present  steamboat  landing,  or  Columbus  Point 
as  it  is  called.  The  Point  is  a  low  formation  on  the  Hudson  and  was  pri- 
marily divided  from  the  main  land  b_v  a  marsh.  It  was  literally  "a  concave, 
hollowing  site."  The  marsh  was  later  crossed  by  a  corduroyed  turnpike 
connecting  with  the  old  Strand  Road,  now  Union  Avenue.  A  ferry  was  es- 
tablished here  in  1752  and  is  still  operated  under  its  original  charter.  The 
Point  is  now  traversed  by  rail  and  trolley  roads. 


158  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

ly  a  restoration  of  the  early  Dutch  Rondhout,  The  stockade  was 
erected  by  Director  Stuyvesant,  at  the  suggestion  of  the  Ainsterdam 
Chamber  of  the  West  India  Company,  about  1660.  There  were 
Dutch  traders  here  certainly  as  early  as  1622,  and  presumably  as 
early  as  1614,  but  no  permanent  settlement  appears  of  record  prior 
to  1652-3,  nor  is  there  evidence  that  there  was  a  Rondhout  here 
prior  to  1657-8.  Compare  Stuyvesant's  letter  of  September,  1657, 
and  Kregicr's  Journal  of  the  "Second  Esopus  War"  (Col.  Hist 
N.  Y.,  xiii,  73,  314,  also  page  189),  showing  that  the  Rondhout 
was  not  completed  until  the  fall  and  winter  of  1660.  De  Vries 
wrote  in  1639-40,  referring  to  Kingston  Point  probably:  "Some 
Indians  live  here  and  have  some  corn-lands,  but  the  lands  are  poor 
and  stony."  When  Stuyvesant  visited  the  place,  in  1658,  he  an- 
chored his  barge  "opposite  to  the  two  little  houses  of  the  savages 
standing  near  the  bank  of  the  kil."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  82.) 
In  the  vicinity  the  war  of  1658  had  its  initiative  in  an  unwise  at- 
tack by  some  settlers  on  a  party  of  Indians  who  had  been  made 
crazy  drunk  on  brandy  furnished  them  by  Captain  Thomas  Cham- 
bers. Two  houses  were  burned  belonging  to  settlers,  and  hos- 
tilities continued  for  eight  or  nine  days.  "At  the  tennis-court  near 
the  Strand,"  a  company  of  eleven  Dutch  soldiers  "allowed  them- 
selves to  be  taken  prisoners,"  by  the  Indians,  in  1659.  It  does  not 
seem  probable  that  the  Dutch  had  a  Tennis  Court  here  at  that  early 
date,  but  the  record  so  reads.-  The  hook  or  cove,  was  the  most 
desirable  place  for  landing  on  the  south  side  of  the  Point.  It  has 
since  been  the  commercial  centre  of  the  town  and  city.  Punthoekje 
is  certainly  not  without  interesting  history. 

Atkarkarton,  claimed  by  some  local  authorities  as  the  Indian 
name  of  Kingston,  comes  down  to  us  from  Rev.  Megapolensis,  who 
wrote,  in  1657 :  "About  eighteen  miles  [Dutch]  up  the  North  River 
lies  a  place  called  by  the  Dutch  Esopus  or  Sypous,  by  the  Indians 

'  Perhaps  an  Indian  Football  Court,  resembling  a  Tennis  Court.  A  writer 
in  1609  says  of  the  Virginia  natives:  "They  use,  beside,  football  play,  which 
women  and  boys  do  much  play  at.  They  have  their  goals  as  ours,  only 
they  never  fight  and  pull  each  other  down."  There  was  a  famous  Tennis 
Court  (Dutch  Kaatsbaan)  in  the  town  of  Saugertics.  which  seems  to  have 
been  there  long  before  the  Dutch  settlement.  The  Tennis  Court  referred 
to  in  the  text  is  said  to  have  been  near  the  site  of  the  present  City  Hall  in 
Kingston,  but  would  that  place  be  strictly  "near  the  Strand"?  "Strand"^ 
means  "shore,  beach."     It  was  probably  on  the  beach. 


HUDSON  S  RIVER  ON    THE   WEST,  159 

Atkarkarton.  It  is  an  exceedingly  beautiful  land."  (Doc,  Hist. 
N.  Y.,  iii,  103.)  The  Reverend  writer  obviously  quoted  the  name 
as  of  general  appHcation,  although  it  would  seem  to  have  been  that 
of  a  particular  place.  As  stated  in  another  connection,  Esopus, 
Sypous,  and  Sopus  were  at  first  (1623)  applied  to  a  trading-post 
on  the  Hudson,  from  which  it  was  extended  inland  as  a  general 
name  and  later  became  specific  as  that  of  the  first  palisaded  Dutch 
village  named  Wildwijk,  which  was  founded  a  year  after  Megapo- 
lensis  wrote.  At  the  date  of  his  writing  the  territory  called  Sopus 
included  the  river  front,  the  plateau  on  which  Kingston  stands,  and 
the  flats  on  the  Esopus  immediately  west,  particularly  the  flat  known 
as  the  Groot  Plat,  and  later  (1662)  as  the  Nieuw  Dorp  or  New 
Village,^  as  distinguished  from  Sopus  or  Wildwijk,  or  the  Old  Vil- 
lage, the  specific  site  of  which  could  not  have  been  referred  to.  Of 
the  site  of  the  Old  Village,  Director  Stuyvesant  wrote  in  1658: 
"The  spot  marked  out  for  the  settlement  has  a  circuniiference  of 
about  two  hundred  and  ten  rods^  and  is  well  adapted  for  defensive 
purposes.  When  necessity  requires  it,  it  can  be  surrounded  by 
water  on  three  sides,  and  it  may  be  enlarged  according  to  the  con- 
venience and  requirements  of  the  present  and  of  future  inhabitants." 
The  palisaded  enclosure  was  enlarged  by  Stuyvesant,  in  1661,  to 
over  three  times  its  original  size.  The  precise  spot  was  on  the 
northwest  corner  of  the  plateau.  It  was  separated  from  the  low 
lands  of  the  Esopus  Valley  by  a  ridge  of  moderate  heig'ht  extending 
on  the  north,  east,  and  west,  and  had  on  the  south  "a  swampish 
morass"  which  was  required  to  be  drained,  in  1669,  for  the  health 
of  the  town  "and  the  improvement  of  so  much  ground."  The 
Groot  Plat  in  the  Esopus  Valley  was  a  garden  spot  ready  for  the 
plougli  and  was  regarded  as  of  size  sufficient  for  "fifty  bouweries" 


*  The  land  or  place  on  the  Esopus  flat  on  which  the  New  Village  was 
founded,  is  now  known  as  Old  Hurley  Village.  It  is  repeatedly  and  specifi- 
cally designated  as  "The  Groot  Plat" — "The  large  tract  of  land  called  the 
New  Village"— "The  burnt  village  called  the  Groot  Plat."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y., 
xiii,  275,  et.  seq.)  Hurley  was  given  to  it  by  Governor  Lovelace  in  1669, 
from  his  family,  who  were  Barons  Hurley  of  Ireland. 

*A  Dutch  rod  is  twelve  feet,  which  would  give  this  circumference  at  less 
than  an  English  half  mile.  Schoonmaker  writes  in  "History  of  Kingston": 
"The  average  length  of  the  stockade  was  about  thirteen  hundred  feet,  and  the 
width  about  twelve  hundred  feet."  Substantially,  it  enclosed  a  square  of 
about  one-quarter  of  a  mile. 


l6o  INDIAN    GEOGRAPHICAL    NAMES. 

(farms).  P>om  the  description  quoted,  and  present  conditions,  it 
may  be  said  with  certainty  that  the  site  of  the  Old  Village  of  Wild- 
wijk  was  a  knoll  in  an  area  of  prairie  and  marsh.  Neither  of  the 
village  sites  seem  to  have  been  occupied  by  the  Indians  except  by 
temporary  huts  and  corn-lands.  The  Wildwijk  site  was  given  to 
Director  Stuyvesant  by  the  Indians,  in  1658,  "to  grease  his  feet 
with"  after  his  "long  journey"  from  Manhattan.  Of  the  Groot 
Plat  one-half  was  given  by  the  Indians  to  Jacob  Jansen  StoU  in 
compensation  for  damages.  A  commission  appointed  at  that  time 
to  examine  the  tract,  and  to  ascertain  what  part  of  it  the  Indians 
wished  to  retain,  reported  that  the  Indians  had  "some  plantations" 
there,  "but  of  little  value" ;  that  it  was  "only  a  question  of  one  or 
two  pieces  of  cloth,  then  they  would  remove  and  surrender  the 
whole  piece."  (Col.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  xiii,  86,  89.)  Instead  of  paying 
the  Indians  for  the  lands,  however,  the  settlers  commenced  occu- 
pation, with  the  result  that  the  Indians  burned  the  New  Village, 
June  7,  1663,  attacked  the  Old  Village,  killed  eighteen  persons  and 
carried  away  thirty  captives,  women  and  children.  The  war  of 
1663  followed,  the  results  of  which  are  accessible  in  several  publi- 
cations, but  especially  in  Colonial  History  of  New  York,  Vol.  xiii. 
It  is  sufficient  to  say  here  that  the  Indians  lost  the  lands  in  con- 
troversy and  a  much  larger  territory.  Interpretation  of  the  name 
can  only  be  made  conjecturally.  William  R.  Gerard  wrote  me:  "I 
think  Atkarkarton  simply  disguises  Atuk-ak-aten,  meaning  'Deerhill,' 
from  Atnk,  'Deer' ;  ak,  plural,  and  aten,  'hill'  The  rs  in  the  name 
■do  not  mean  anything ;  they  simply  indicate  that  the  a's  wliioh  pre- 
cede them  were  nasal."  The  Delaware  word  for  "deer"  is  Achtuch. 
Dr.  Schoolcraft  wrote  the  tradition  that  the  first  deers  were  the 
hunters  of  men. 

Wildwijk,  Dutch — Wiltzvyck,  modern — the  name  given  by  Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant,  in  1650,  to  the  palisaded  village  which  later  be- 
came Kingston,  and  then  and  later